American Conversations with the Archivist of the United States

Hillary Rodham Clinton and Archivist Allen Weinstein

Transcript of an American Conversation

00:00:01:27 00:00:03:23 [Allen Weinstein] Good evening ladies and gentlemen,
00:00:03:24 00:00:04:26 welcome to the National Archives.
00:00:04:27 00:00:11:19 [applause]
00:00:11:20 00:00:13:01 I want you to know you're not the only thing happening
00:00:13:02 00:00:14:13 in the National Archives today.
00:00:14:14 00:00:17:22 We're delighted tonight to have Senator Clinton with us,
00:00:17:23 00:00:19:16 and just to -- little bit below us
00:00:19:17 00:00:20:07 we have three or four thousand
00:00:20:08 00:00:22:03 people enjoying the charters of freedom,
00:00:22:04 00:00:24:22 the rotunda, and the public vaults exhibit,
00:00:24:23 00:00:26:15 and it's about three or four thousand every day
00:00:26:16 00:00:29:07 from now until the weather starts freezing again,
00:00:29:08 00:00:30:18 but -- so bring your friends.
00:00:30:19 00:00:32:00 We want them to come.
00:00:32:01 00:00:33:27 We're very proud to have our guest tonight,
00:00:33:28 00:00:36:06 because it's part of a series that we've felt very
00:00:36:07 00:00:37:27 strongly about.
00:00:37:28 00:00:39:03 We started -- I won't go through
00:00:39:04 00:00:41:20 all the names and all the folks that have been here,
00:00:41:21 00:00:46:11 but have had Lynne Cheney, we've had Lonnie Bunch,
00:00:46:12 00:00:49:11 we've had Ken Burns, John Hope Franklin,
00:00:49:12 00:00:51:05 we've had many others.
00:00:51:06 00:00:54:01 We have Senator Clinton tonight, I'll introduce her in a second
00:00:54:02 00:00:55:13 and bring her out.
00:00:55:14 00:01:01:21 We have Cokie Roberts and her mother,
00:01:01:22 00:01:03:27 Congresswoman Boggs tomorrow night.
00:01:03:28 00:01:05:21 This is our special Mother's Day week.
00:01:05:22 00:01:07:08 We have two Mother's Day shows, if you will,
00:01:07:09 00:01:09:21 tonight and tomorrow night, and next month we have
00:01:09:22 00:01:11:02 Ken Melman from the RNC.
00:01:11:03 00:01:13:05 We've also invited the chairman of the Democratic Party
00:01:13:06 00:01:15:20 to join us at a later occasion.
00:01:15:21 00:01:18:20 We have -- fourth of July, some of you come
00:01:18:21 00:01:20:01 to the fourth of July, beucase we have a special
00:01:20:02 00:01:22:29 American Conversation -- I have one then with a gentleman
00:01:23:00 00:01:24:13 named Thomas Jefferson, so I'd love to see
00:01:24:14 00:01:25:16 you all there.
00:01:25:17 00:01:28:27 In the meantime, let me go get my guest.
00:01:28:28 00:01:31:15 Oh yes, our learning center is open,
00:01:31:16 00:01:37:12 and on the 23rd of the month, let me be sure of the date.
00:01:37:13 00:01:39:17 23rd of June, thank you Marvin,
00:01:39:18 00:01:41:15 our new exhibit, " Eyewitness" opens
00:01:41:16 00:01:48:02 in the O'brien Gallery upstairs, so do come and take a look.
00:01:48:03 00:01:55:20 [low audio]
00:01:55:21 00:01:56:16 [Hillary Clinton] Hello.
00:01:56:17 00:02:20:13 [applause]
00:02:20:14 00:02:21:16 [Allen Weinstein] Now who is going to disagree with me
00:02:21:17 00:02:22:20 when I say our guest for tonight,
00:02:22:21 00:02:24:25 Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, needs no introduction?
00:02:24:26 00:02:26:13 [laughter]
00:02:26:14 00:02:27:19 I'm going to give her one anyway,
00:02:27:20 00:02:29:28 but she doesn't need it.
00:02:29:29 00:02:35:25 She -- let me start with her birth state,
00:02:35:26 00:02:37:12 Chicago, Illinois.
00:02:37:13 00:02:38:18 She's the daughter of Dorothy Rodham
00:02:38:19 00:02:39:24 and the late D. Rodham.
00:02:39:25 00:02:40:27 Her father was a small businessman,
00:02:40:28 00:02:42:27 her mother a homemaker.
00:02:42:28 00:02:45:15 Speaking as an ex-professor at Smith College,
00:02:45:16 00:02:47:00 I'm disappointed to say that she was a graduate
00:02:47:01 00:02:48:15 of Wellesley, but we forgive her for that.
00:02:48:16 00:02:49:21 [laughter]
00:02:49:22 00:02:50:20 Yale Law School.
00:02:50:21 00:02:52:26 I was a Yalie, so that was okay.
00:02:52:27 00:02:54:03 [laughter]
00:02:54:04 00:02:55:14 And I'm told that she's married
00:02:55:15 00:02:56:23 to former President William Jefferson Clinton.
00:02:56:24 00:02:58:11 [laughter]
00:02:58:12 00:03:00:15 They have one daughter, Chelsea, an extraordinary
00:03:00:16 00:03:03:01 young person, and Senator Clinton
00:03:03:02 00:03:04:15 is the author of a number of best-selling books,
00:03:04:16 00:03:06:27 including most recently, " Living History,"
00:03:06:28 00:03:08:06 but also " It Takes a Village,"
00:03:08:07 00:03:10:18 and a variety of other books.
00:03:10:19 00:03:12:00 I was particularly impressed that in addition
00:03:12:01 00:03:15:09 to the committee that she serves on in the US Senate,
00:03:15:10 00:03:17:17 she's the first New Yorker -- I'm a New Yorker by profession
00:03:17:18 00:03:18:05 as you can tell.
00:03:18:06 00:03:20:20 I'm in exile here, but what are you going to do?
00:03:20:21 00:03:23:20 [laughter]
00:03:23:21 00:03:25:02 She's the first New York --
00:03:25:03 00:03:27:11 [laughter]
00:03:27:12 00:03:28:29 She's the first New Yorker ever to serve on the Senate
00:03:29:00 00:03:31:08 Armed Services Committee, which stunned me when
00:03:31:09 00:03:33:13 I realized that, and in 2004,
00:03:33:14 00:03:35:04 Senator Clinton was asked by the Department of Defense
00:03:35:05 00:03:36:19 to serve as the only Senate member
00:03:36:20 00:03:39:16 of the Transformation Advisory Group to the Joint
00:03:39:17 00:03:41:07 Force's Command.
00:03:41:08 00:03:42:07 I won't go on, because there's lots
00:03:42:08 00:03:44:04 to be said, but can we once again
00:03:44:05 00:03:46:13 welcome our guest for tonight's [unintelligible]
00:03:46:14 00:03:55:06 [applause]
00:03:55:07 00:03:57:03 Now Senator, when Ken Burns was here,
00:03:57:04 00:03:59:03 someone asked him why he was doing this new series
00:03:59:04 00:04:01:25 on the Second World War, nine programs for PBS
00:04:01:26 00:04:04:13 that will start next year, we're going to help him,
00:04:04:14 00:04:06:22 I hope, publicize them.
00:04:06:23 00:04:08:16 He said well -- he was struck when his daughter
00:04:08:17 00:04:10:28 came back from class one day to say that a great many
00:04:10:29 00:04:13:07 of her classmates, and apparently there's been
00:04:13:08 00:04:15:12 some polls taken among the high school kids,
00:04:15:13 00:04:17:15 but a very large percentage thought we fought
00:04:17:16 00:04:20:00 the Second World War on Germany's side.
00:04:20:01 00:04:20:27 [Hillary Clinton] Oh my.
00:04:20:28 00:04:23:00 [Allen Weinstein] One fact, okay.
00:04:23:01 00:04:25:24 Now, we have -- also polls have been taken
00:04:25:25 00:04:27:17 that showed that more young Americans know
00:04:27:18 00:04:29:21 who the three stooges were than know what
00:04:29:22 00:04:31:17 the Bill of Rights contains.
00:04:31:18 00:04:33:17 Those are not happy polls.
00:04:33:18 00:04:35:08 At the National Archives, we have taken on as one
00:04:35:09 00:04:37:26 of our missions the educational mission to try to increase
00:04:37:27 00:04:39:14 civic literacy.
00:04:39:15 00:04:42:04 Do you see the reduced knowledge of our history and government
00:04:42:05 00:04:45:04 on the part of our young people as a major problem,
00:04:45:05 00:04:47:13 and if so, what suggestions do you have
00:04:47:14 00:04:49:07 for combating that?
00:04:49:08 00:04:52:07 [Hillary Clinton] Well, first let me thank you very much professor
00:04:52:08 00:04:55:01 Weinstein for having this series,
00:04:55:02 00:04:57:13 and asking me to be part of it.
00:04:57:14 00:04:59:18 It's wonderful to be back at the Archives,
00:04:59:19 00:05:03:05 which I have just treasured ever since I was a little girl,
00:05:03:06 00:05:06:16 and first came to see some of the real
00:05:06:17 00:05:11:22 founding documents, and other materials that tell
00:05:11:23 00:05:15:10 the story of America, and so for me,
00:05:15:11 00:05:18:25 your question about civic literacy and knowledge
00:05:18:26 00:05:21:10 of American history really strikes home,
00:05:21:11 00:05:24:09 because I've seen some of those same polls.
00:05:24:10 00:05:27:01 Now I don't think there's anything wrong
00:05:27:02 00:05:30:12 in knowing who the three stooges are.
00:05:30:13 00:05:33:21 I myself was a big fan of the three stooges,
00:05:33:22 00:05:37:20 but I think it's also important you know about the founding
00:05:37:21 00:05:38:26 -- you know, fathers, you know
00:05:38:27 00:05:41:20 about the Civil War, you know about the depression,
00:05:41:21 00:05:45:26 you know about World War II, you know about American history,
00:05:45:27 00:05:50:19 because we've all been given this gift of being Americans,
00:05:50:20 00:05:55:04 either by birth or by choice, and I know we have some students
00:05:55:05 00:05:57:13 from one of the charter schools here in Washington,
00:05:57:14 00:05:59:04 and I'm particularly pleased to see them,
00:05:59:05 00:06:02:03 and I hope you get extra credit for coming here tonight,
00:06:02:04 00:06:04:17 because I'm sure there are other things that --
00:06:04:18 00:06:05:15 you know, you could be spending
00:06:05:16 00:06:07:00 your time doing, but --
00:06:07:01 00:06:09:23 [applause]
00:06:09:24 00:06:13:08 But I'm happy you're here, especially at the Archives,
00:06:13:09 00:06:18:25 and I want to address your question from two perspectives.
00:06:18:26 00:06:21:25 I mean, first, it's not only
00:06:21:26 00:06:24:28 our young people, but really all of us
00:06:24:29 00:06:32:00 who need to both know more and understand better
00:06:32:01 00:06:34:13 American history, because we are living it.
00:06:34:14 00:06:35:15 We are making it.
00:06:35:16 00:06:38:28 We are part of it, and it may not be
00:06:38:29 00:06:41:15 that everyone's name will be in the headlines,
00:06:41:16 00:06:45:12 or that you'll write a book, or be mentioned in the archives,
00:06:45:13 00:06:49:27 but one of the unique aspects of the American experience
00:06:49:28 00:06:52:14 is the role that the citizen plays,
00:06:52:15 00:06:56:17 and so if you don't know about American history,
00:06:56:18 00:06:58:26 it's very difficult to be an active,
00:06:58:27 00:07:03:09 involved citizen who does your part to make decisions
00:07:03:10 00:07:07:03 about who to vote for, what issues to advocate for,
00:07:07:04 00:07:11:03 how to really understand this extraordinary American
00:07:11:04 00:07:13:27 democracy we have, and how to protect
00:07:13:28 00:07:16:24 and defend it, so I think it goes
00:07:16:25 00:07:19:15 with being an American citizen.
00:07:19:16 00:07:23:11 But secondly, I think there has been
00:07:23:12 00:07:27:29 somewhat of a lost opportunity, and maybe failure
00:07:28:00 00:07:31:11 of responsibility on the part of us adults,
00:07:31:12 00:07:34:13 beucase our children and our young people learn
00:07:34:14 00:07:35:20 what we teach them.
00:07:35:21 00:07:37:14 They may not always act like they're learning it,
00:07:37:15 00:07:40:10 or care to learn it, but it can be conveyed,
00:07:40:11 00:07:44:01 and so we have to do a better job in our schools,
00:07:44:02 00:07:47:04 in our media, in our homes,
00:07:47:05 00:07:49:09 you know, talking about the lessons
00:07:49:10 00:07:54:00 of history and democracy, because we're in
00:07:54:01 00:07:57:00 a competition now, with respect to our values
00:07:57:01 00:08:00:04 around the world, and we need every single person
00:08:00:05 00:08:02:22 to understand how important this is,
00:08:02:23 00:08:05:22 that American values be given a voice,
00:08:05:23 00:08:10:07 and be protected and nurtured, and if we don't have
00:08:10:08 00:08:12:07 the citizenry doing that, we're not going
00:08:12:08 00:08:13:09 to be successful.
00:08:13:10 00:08:14:00 [Allen Weinstein] That's true.
00:08:14:01 00:08:16:28 Now I have to at least confess that the world is divided
00:08:16:29 00:08:19:06 into two types of people: those who loved
00:08:19:07 00:08:21:09 the three stooges when they were young,
00:08:21:10 00:08:22:12 and those who loved the Marx Brothers
00:08:22:13 00:08:23:15 when they were young.
00:08:23:16 00:08:25:18 [laughter]
00:08:25:19 00:08:26:21 [Hillary Clinton] That's true, that's true.
00:08:26:22 00:08:27:26 [Allen Weinstein] So on that point, I think we have
00:08:27:27 00:08:28:17 a fundamental disagreement.
00:08:28:18 00:08:29:17 [Hillary Clinton] That's right, but you know,
00:08:29:18 00:08:30:12 being a good politician, I like them both.
00:08:30:13 00:08:31:05 [Allen Weinstein] Good.
00:08:31:06 00:08:32:08 [laughter]
00:08:32:09 00:08:35:20 Well let's talk about politics for a second.
00:08:35:21 00:08:40:14 "A political life," a Senator I know often said,
00:08:40:15 00:08:42:08 quoting her, " Is a continuing education
00:08:42:09 00:08:44:19 in human nature, including one's own."
00:08:44:20 00:08:45:19 [Hillary Clinton] Right.
00:08:45:20 00:08:47:11 [Allen Weinstein] What did you mean by that?
00:08:47:12 00:08:49:22 [Hillary Clinton] Well, I've said on many occasions
00:08:49:23 00:08:52:22 that being involved in politics, and this I felt long
00:08:52:23 00:08:57:27 before I was ever running or holding office myself,
00:08:57:28 00:09:02:23 or married to someone who was, but back when I was growing up,
00:09:02:24 00:09:08:11 and became involved in politics, it was a continuing education
00:09:08:12 00:09:13:19 course in human nature; how people made decisions,
00:09:13:20 00:09:17:22 how they advocated for positions they held,
00:09:17:23 00:09:20:25 I grew up in a family that wasn't politically
00:09:20:26 00:09:24:03 active in a formal sense, but they were very
00:09:24:04 00:09:27:09 active citizens, and they followed politics,
00:09:27:10 00:09:31:00 both of my parents did, and so around our dinner table,
00:09:31:01 00:09:34:24 we would have very vigorous conversations about what was
00:09:34:25 00:09:37:29 going on in the news, and my father was,
00:09:38:00 00:09:42:02 as professor Weinstein said, a small businessman,
00:09:42:03 00:09:45:26 so he was very conscious of what was happening in the economy,
00:09:45:27 00:09:49:08 and what the decisions were that might affect his business.
00:09:49:09 00:09:52:14 My mother was a full time mom and homemaker,
00:09:52:15 00:09:54:14 and yet she was -- you know,
00:09:54:15 00:09:59:16 not only very attuned to raising my brothers and me,
00:09:59:17 00:10:02:01 but also the quality of life, and how people treated
00:10:02:02 00:10:03:28 each other, so we had very,
00:10:03:29 00:10:06:16 very lively conversations.
00:10:06:17 00:10:12:21 It was a conservative Republican community that I grew up in,
00:10:12:22 00:10:15:03 and I have said that, you know,
00:10:15:04 00:10:18:09 the gender gap started in families like mine,
00:10:18:10 00:10:21:29 because my father was a very staunch Republican,
00:10:22:00 00:10:27:20 and my mother was a sort of silent Democrat,
00:10:27:21 00:10:30:20 and so I saw the -- you know,
00:10:30:21 00:10:35:11 the discussion and debate around our table,
00:10:35:12 00:10:38:16 at our school, in our community,
00:10:38:17 00:10:41:16 and it really inspired me, because again,
00:10:41:17 00:10:46:10 I didn't know anybody elected to office when I was growing up,
00:10:46:11 00:10:49:19 but I knew people who cared passionately about who was going
00:10:49:20 00:10:51:27 to be elected to office.
00:10:51:28 00:10:55:27 I remember in the 1960 election,
00:10:55:28 00:11:00:17 you know, coming into my seventh grade
00:11:00:18 00:11:03:05 social studies class, and you know,
00:11:03:06 00:11:07:02 having my social studies teacher give us a big lecture about
00:11:07:03 00:11:09:16 voting in Chicago, which you know,
00:11:09:17 00:11:13:22 is something that, in the old days,
00:11:13:23 00:11:16:19 people wanted to die in Chicago so they could come back
00:11:16:20 00:11:17:22 and vote --
00:11:17:23 00:11:18:24 [laughter]
00:11:18:25 00:11:19:18 -- time and time again, right?
00:11:19:19 00:11:22:01 [Allen Weinstein] Several times, right.
00:11:22:02 00:11:24:15 [Hillary Clinton] So this was a part of growing up,
00:11:24:16 00:11:29:00 and in that experience, I became,
00:11:29:01 00:11:31:21 you know, intrigued, entranced
00:11:31:22 00:11:37:02 by how people talked about what they advocated,
00:11:37:03 00:11:39:29 what they cared about, what their causes were,
00:11:40:00 00:11:41:23 why some people took one position,
00:11:41:24 00:11:43:26 and somebody else took another, what came out
00:11:43:27 00:11:46:29 of their experience, or their point of view,
00:11:47:00 00:11:50:04 so I did see this as a continuing education course,
00:11:50:05 00:11:54:04 and as I got older and became involved in politics myself,
00:11:54:05 00:11:56:25 I met people I would have never met under
00:11:56:26 00:11:58:16 any other circumstance.
00:11:58:17 00:11:59:28 You know, it's just you're
00:11:59:29 00:12:02:18 thrown together around an election,
00:12:02:19 00:12:05:23 and you work side-by-side with people who come
00:12:05:24 00:12:07:23 from different parts of the community,
00:12:07:24 00:12:11:26 different backgrounds, and you have an opportunity
00:12:11:27 00:12:14:26 to sort of see all of this unfolding before you,
00:12:14:27 00:12:18:13 so I am a very strong advocate of young people
00:12:18:14 00:12:19:22 at least trying it, you know,
00:12:19:23 00:12:20:13 [Allen Weinstein] Senator --
00:12:20:14 00:12:21:13 [Hillary Clinton] -- working for something.
00:12:21:14 00:12:23:13 [Allen Weinstein] In the Bronx where I came from, you could certainly vote
00:12:23:14 00:12:25:13 after you were deceased, that was fine.
00:12:25:14 00:12:26:07 [Hillary Clinton] You didn't have to move.
00:12:26:08 00:12:27:19 [Allen Weinstein] But the difference was you could vote anywhere
00:12:27:20 00:12:28:21 in the state that you wanted.
00:12:28:22 00:12:30:10 You'd be sent where you wanted to go.
00:12:30:11 00:12:31:10 [Hillary Clinton] That's good, I like that,
00:12:31:11 00:12:32:06 transported.
00:12:32:07 00:12:33:24 [Allen Weinstein] You've had -- let's flash forward
00:12:33:25 00:12:41:15 from 1980 to 1992, ' 96, and 2000.
00:12:41:16 00:12:43:18 You've watched at extremely close quarters three
00:12:43:19 00:12:47:20 presidential elections, two of them as first lady.
00:12:47:21 00:12:49:02 What advice would you have for candidates,
00:12:49:03 00:12:51:23 or for that matter for first spouses,
00:12:51:24 00:12:55:14 based on your personal experiences in these campaigns,
00:12:55:15 00:12:56:20 other than not running or running,
00:12:56:21 00:12:58:20 or whatever the case may be.
00:12:58:21 00:13:02:24 [Hillary Clinton] Well, there's elections and politics,
00:13:02:25 00:13:05:18 and then there's presidential elections and politics,
00:13:05:19 00:13:09:23 and it's of a difference in degree and kind,
00:13:09:24 00:13:15:17 and so you have to sort of take that into account
00:13:15:18 00:13:20:14 when you approach one of these presidential elections,
00:13:20:15 00:13:25:14 and I was privileged to see two very close on the inside,
00:13:25:15 00:13:31:07 and one nearly that close, but I had worked in presidential
00:13:31:08 00:13:34:07 campaigns before that, as a,
00:13:34:08 00:13:36:07 you know, envelope stuffer,
00:13:36:08 00:13:39:24 as a telephone caller, as a -- you know,
00:13:39:25 00:13:42:09 neighborhood door-knocker.
00:13:42:10 00:13:46:12 I had done the work leading up to being on the inside
00:13:46:13 00:13:51:27 of a presidential campaign when Bill decided to run in '92,
00:13:51:28 00:13:54:29 and you have to really enjoy it,
00:13:55:00 00:13:58:17 or don't try it, because it is grueling,
00:13:58:18 00:14:02:01 it is overwhelmingly stressful.
00:14:02:02 00:14:04:04 You have to like people, you have to care about
00:14:04:05 00:14:07:00 the issues you're talking about, you have to want to listen
00:14:07:01 00:14:08:24 to people.
00:14:08:25 00:14:13:03 It is the greatest experience politically you could have,
00:14:13:04 00:14:15:21 but you have to go into it with your eyes wide open,
00:14:15:22 00:14:22:12 because it is unlike anything else in politics or probably
00:14:22:13 00:14:24:23 life that you'll ever experience.
00:14:24:24 00:14:27:05 [Allen Weinstein] Every woman in political life must develop skin as tough
00:14:27:06 00:14:28:05 as a rhinoceros's.
00:14:28:06 00:14:30:05 I believe you've quote Eleanor Roosevelt once or twice.
00:14:30:06 00:14:30:29 [Hillary Clinton] That's right.
00:14:31:00 00:14:32:08 [Allen Weinstein] You have something to do with her papers,
00:14:32:09 00:14:33:14 too, if I'm not mistaken.
00:14:33:15 00:14:37:19 [Hillary Clinton] Well, Eleanor Roosevelt was someone I always admired,
00:14:37:20 00:14:40:16 but when Bill became president and I moved into
00:14:40:17 00:14:43:25 the White House, I read a lot
00:14:43:26 00:14:46:04 about my predecessors, because it is
00:14:46:05 00:14:49:16 a unique experience, there's no sort of cookbook
00:14:49:17 00:14:52:21 you can take off the shelf and say,
00:14:52:22 00:14:54:12 "How to I become a first lady?"
00:14:54:13 00:14:56:09 You know, how do you do this?
00:14:56:10 00:14:59:12 But I was so impressed by so many of the women
00:14:59:13 00:15:02:22 who had been there before me, and Eleanor Roosevelt
00:15:02:23 00:15:05:28 was unique in every regard.
00:15:05:29 00:15:10:22 She just captivated me even more so after I was
00:15:10:23 00:15:12:07 in the White House.
00:15:12:08 00:15:16:27 In the 1920s, when she was traveling
00:15:16:28 00:15:19:25 around New York, while her husband
00:15:19:26 00:15:24:00 was recuperating from polio, and many thought that
00:15:24:01 00:15:28:21 his political career was over, how could he possibly,
00:15:28:22 00:15:32:24 having been paralyzed by polio, expect to have
00:15:32:25 00:15:35:02 an elected future?
00:15:35:03 00:15:39:20 But Eleanor kept his contacts and hopes alive by traveling
00:15:39:21 00:15:41:14 and exposing herself to politics.
00:15:41:15 00:15:42:29 She had never been, you know,
00:15:43:00 00:15:46:05 that involved with going around making speeches,
00:15:46:06 00:15:48:20 and standing in front of crowds,
00:15:48:21 00:15:52:01 and all that you have to do, and she wrote an article
00:15:52:02 00:15:55:04 which said, " If you are a woman
00:15:55:05 00:15:56:28 involved in politics," and that's not
00:15:56:29 00:16:00:08 running for office, but just being in it,
00:16:00:09 00:16:03:08 "you have to grow skin like a rhinoceros."
00:16:03:09 00:16:07:20 And that was in the 1920s, and I see my friend Alita
00:16:07:21 00:16:12:05 here, and Alita has been -- Alita Brel has been
00:16:12:06 00:16:15:25 working on Eleanor Roosevelt's papers for how many years now?
00:16:15:26 00:16:18:22 [low audio]
00:16:18:23 00:16:23:13 Since the Archives began making that available,
00:16:23:14 00:16:27:01 and so she has collected, in these wonderful volumes,
00:16:27:02 00:16:30:12 everything that is -- can possibly be recovered
00:16:30:13 00:16:33:18 about what Mrs. Roosevelt said, and Mrs. Roosevelt said
00:16:33:19 00:16:36:24 so many wise things over so many years,
00:16:36:25 00:16:39:00 it is hard to keep up with all of it,
00:16:39:01 00:16:42:20 but she was an astute observer of politics.
00:16:42:21 00:16:45:20 She may never have run for office herself,
00:16:45:21 00:16:48:05 but she understood the political process,
00:16:48:06 00:16:51:20 she understood the commitment that you had to make,
00:16:51:21 00:16:54:05 the sacrifice that you had to make,
00:16:54:06 00:16:58:13 and I took a lot of comfort and counsel from her example,
00:16:58:14 00:17:00:06 in those years in the White House.
00:17:00:07 00:17:01:21 [Allen Weinstein] Well, as you know, the National Archives
00:17:01:22 00:17:03:24 runs the presidential library system.
00:17:03:25 00:17:07:03 The Clinton library was not -- library number eleven.
00:17:07:04 00:17:09:03 We have two candidates for library number twelve.
00:17:09:04 00:17:11:23 The Nixon library will probably be out of the gate first,
00:17:11:24 00:17:15:29 and then after that, President Bush 43, 13.
00:17:16:00 00:17:18:26 The founder -- we began in a rather bipartisan way,
00:17:18:27 00:17:21:13 because it was Herbert Hoover who laid the cornerstone,
00:17:21:14 00:17:24:02 who by the way was married to a very independent lady indeed,
00:17:24:03 00:17:25:10 Lou Hoover.
00:17:25:11 00:17:26:19 [Hillary Clinton] And geologist, right?
00:17:26:20 00:17:27:07 [Allen Weinstein] Geologist.
00:17:27:08 00:17:28:01 [Hillary Clinton] Lou Hoover.
00:17:28:02 00:17:31:01 [Allen Weinstein] Who rode shotgun during the events in China
00:17:31:02 00:17:32:22 early in her life, and then,
00:17:32:23 00:17:34:19 of course came Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin.
00:17:34:20 00:17:35:28 Well Franklin loved this place,
00:17:35:29 00:17:37:10 he loved -- he started the first
00:17:37:11 00:17:40:21 presidential library, and I mention all of this
00:17:40:22 00:17:42:09 to confess, if you will,
00:17:42:10 00:17:44:24 that when I get out of my car there's a parking lot
00:17:44:25 00:17:48:09 that has several spaces for physically disabled folks,
00:17:48:10 00:17:49:15 and one space for the mentally disabled
00:17:49:16 00:17:51:17 archivist who [unintelligible]
00:17:51:18 00:17:52:08 [laughter]
00:17:52:09 00:17:55:29 And -- but I'm 30 feet away from a little monument --
00:17:56:00 00:17:58:08 FDR said he wanted one monument only in Washington,
00:17:58:09 00:18:00:25 just a little plaque with his birth and death dates,
00:18:00:26 00:18:01:25 so we talk a little bit.
00:18:01:26 00:18:03:25 I channel him, whatever, but it's
00:18:03:26 00:18:05:07 [unintelligible] very useful.
00:18:05:08 00:18:07:18 Now every public life has turning point moments,
00:18:07:19 00:18:09:24 often moments when things change around,
00:18:09:25 00:18:12:00 one changes one's values, one changes one's attitude,
00:18:12:01 00:18:13:09 one's perceptions.
00:18:13:10 00:18:15:03 For Franklin Roosevelt, it was contracting polio
00:18:15:04 00:18:16:09 I think, in fairness.
00:18:16:10 00:18:18:06 For Harry Truman, it was frankly inheriting
00:18:18:07 00:18:19:11 the presidency the way he did.
00:18:19:12 00:18:21:23 He said the sun and the moon and the stars fell on him
00:18:21:24 00:18:24:05 when he heard that FDR had died.
00:18:24:06 00:18:27:05 For JFK, I think it's probably
00:18:27:06 00:18:30:11 fair to say it was the missile crisis.
00:18:30:12 00:18:32:29 For George Bush, 9/11.
00:18:33:00 00:18:34:16 I think you know what my question is.
00:18:34:17 00:18:37:16 Turning point moments in your life.
00:18:37:17 00:18:38:13 [Hillary Clinton] In my --
00:18:38:14 00:18:39:04 [Allen Weinstein] Public life.
00:18:39:05 00:18:41:13 [Hillary Clinton] -- public, political life.
00:18:41:14 00:18:45:22 Well, in my own political life,
00:18:45:23 00:18:48:19 obviously the first big turning point was deciding
00:18:48:20 00:18:52:09 to move on to the political stage
00:18:52:10 00:18:56:18 on my own behalf, which was a very
00:18:56:19 00:18:58:18 surprising decision to me.
00:18:58:19 00:19:01:22 I had never expected that I would do that.
00:19:01:23 00:19:05:01 I have always loved politics, I've always loved supporting
00:19:05:02 00:19:06:28 people in politics.
00:19:06:29 00:19:10:13 I thought I would continue doing what I'd always done,
00:19:10:14 00:19:12:28 which is to be an advocate, be a volunteer,
00:19:12:29 00:19:16:09 be a -- you know, cheerleader, because I'd
00:19:16:10 00:19:18:18 worked not only for my husband, but I'd worked
00:19:18:19 00:19:22:21 for Jimmy Carter, I worked for Barry Goldwater.
00:19:22:22 00:19:25:09 I had been involved in -- you know,
00:19:25:10 00:19:27:03 political life, and I wanted
00:19:27:04 00:19:30:03 to continue doing that, but I did not foresee
00:19:30:04 00:19:36:14 running for office myself, and I've told this story before,
00:19:36:15 00:19:40:17 but it was a sort of -- building toward a crescendo
00:19:40:18 00:19:43:19 of a turning point.
00:19:43:20 00:19:50:13 In 1998, after Senator Moynihan
00:19:50:14 00:19:56:01 announced that he would not run for reelection in 2000,
00:19:56:02 00:20:01:22 and this was within days after the '98 midterm election.
00:20:01:23 00:20:05:18 I started within literally minutes getting phone calls
00:20:05:19 00:20:09:27 from New Yorkers asking me if I would consider running,
00:20:09:28 00:20:11:12 and I said no.
00:20:11:13 00:20:15:23 I said I thought it was sort of an absurd proposition,
00:20:15:24 00:20:19:05 and said that repeatedly to everyone who tried
00:20:19:06 00:20:20:23 to talk to me about it.
00:20:20:24 00:20:21:29 [Allen Weinstein] Who called you first?
00:20:22:00 00:20:22:26 [Hillary Clinton] Charlie Rangel.
00:20:22:27 00:20:24:05 [Allen Weinstein] That's what I thought, Charlie [unintelligible]
00:20:24:06 00:20:26:07 [Hillary Clinton] Yeah, Charlie Rangel was a friend of mine
00:20:26:08 00:20:27:14 and my husband's, has been a friend
00:20:27:15 00:20:30:10 for a long time, the dean of our New York
00:20:30:11 00:20:34:28 Congressional delegation, Congressman from Harlem,
00:20:34:29 00:20:38:07 I mean -- I mean the phone just rang immediately --
00:20:38:08 00:20:39:25 [Allen Weinstein] And you said what to Charlie when he [unintelligible]
00:20:39:26 00:20:42:13 [Hillary Clinton] Well, Charlie called, and he said,
00:20:42:14 00:20:44:18 "Senator Moynihan's gonna resign,"
00:20:44:19 00:20:46:09 [laughter]
00:20:46:10 00:20:50:18 "And he's not gonna run again, and we really want you
00:20:50:19 00:20:51:18 to think of running."
00:20:51:19 00:20:55:03 And I said, " Charlie, that is ridiculous.
00:20:55:04 00:20:56:17 I'm not gonna do that.
00:20:56:18 00:20:57:15 I can't do that."
00:20:57:16 00:20:59:29 "Oh yeah, you really have to think about it,"
00:21:00:02 00:21:02:16 and so then he started like a phone chain,
00:21:02:17 00:21:05:22 so people were calling me and you know,
00:21:05:23 00:21:10:12 some of them were calling because they wanted me to run,
00:21:10:13 00:21:12:18 they thought it would be a great race,
00:21:12:19 00:21:14:21 they thought I'd be a good senator.
00:21:14:22 00:21:16:21 A lot of them were running because they couldn't
00:21:16:22 00:21:19:21 find another Democrat to run against Rudy Giuliani,
00:21:19:22 00:21:23:02 who was running for the Senate, and so it was --
00:21:23:03 00:21:26:15 I mean I -- this is -- goes back to the -- you know,
00:21:26:16 00:21:28:17 continuing education of human nature,
00:21:28:18 00:21:31:11 you kind of learn to listen.
00:21:31:12 00:21:33:08 "Well, even if you don't win, it would be a great race."
00:21:33:09 00:21:34:17 Well, you know, thank you very much,
00:21:34:18 00:21:35:11 you know.
00:21:35:12 00:21:37:29 [laughter]
00:21:38:00 00:21:39:10 "Besides, we can't find anybody else."
00:21:39:11 00:21:41:19 Well, yeah I guess that's right.
00:21:41:20 00:21:42:22 [laughter]
00:21:42:23 00:21:46:04 So it -- you know, I would say absolutely not,
00:21:46:05 00:21:49:04 and it wouldn't go away, and people would keep
00:21:49:05 00:21:50:13 calling me, or they would come
00:21:50:14 00:21:54:03 and visit me, and then at that time,
00:21:54:04 00:21:57:03 the way the Senate runs, there's something called --
00:21:57:04 00:21:59:15 there's a Republican and a Democratic Senate
00:21:59:16 00:22:01:29 campaign committee, and a Senator
00:22:02:00 00:22:04:16 of each party runs it, and they are responsible
00:22:04:17 00:22:06:25 for recruiting candidates and raising money
00:22:06:26 00:22:10:07 for candidates, and at that time
00:22:10:08 00:22:14:07 the person running the Democratic campaign committee
00:22:14:08 00:22:17:01 was Senator Torricelli from New Jersey,
00:22:17:02 00:22:19:01 and he was calling me and calling me,
00:22:19:02 00:22:21:00 and urging me to run, and I kept saying,
00:22:21:01 00:22:22:06 you know, " I'm not gonna do it,
00:22:22:07 00:22:26:00 I'm sorry, it's just not a good idea."
00:22:26:01 00:22:30:27 And then he told a reporter that he was convinced
00:22:30:28 00:22:32:18 that I would do it, and it just --
00:22:32:19 00:22:33:11 [laughter]
00:22:33:12 00:22:35:20 "You know, you just had to keep talking to her,
00:22:35:21 00:22:38:14 we're convinced that we can persuade her."
00:22:38:15 00:22:41:05 [Allen Weinstein] Do you have a Bob Torricelli imitation as well,
00:22:41:06 00:22:41:26 or --
00:22:41:27 00:22:43:02 [laughter]
00:22:43:03 00:22:44:02 Or a Chuck Schumer?
00:22:44:03 00:22:45:05 [Hillary Clinton] Not one I can share, no.
00:22:45:06 00:22:46:02 [laughter]
00:22:46:03 00:22:47:07 [Allen Weinstein] Okay.
00:22:47:08 00:22:48:25 [Hillary Clinton] He's a great friend of mine, but he was relentless,
00:22:48:26 00:22:49:25 you know, pushing, pushing,
00:22:49:26 00:22:53:19 pushing, and he -- he was now,
00:22:53:20 00:22:54:22 you know, on the case,
00:22:54:23 00:22:56:13 and he enlisted other Senators,
00:22:56:14 00:22:58:10 many of whom I had worked with on children's health
00:22:58:11 00:23:01:05 and other issues, they started calling,
00:23:01:06 00:23:03:11 they asked me to if they could come see me.
00:23:03:12 00:23:06:17 So now we're into '99, and this has not let up,
00:23:06:18 00:23:10:17 and I keep saying no, and they keep saying yes,
00:23:10:18 00:23:11:23 and they say, " You've gotta talk
00:23:11:24 00:23:13:22 to one more person," and I would say,
00:23:13:23 00:23:14:29 "You know, I don't think that's
00:23:15:00 00:23:15:28 a good idea," and they'd say,
00:23:15:29 00:23:17:13 "Oh yeah, we've invited the --
00:23:17:14 00:23:18:19 you know, him or her to come,"
00:23:18:20 00:23:21:19 and so it went on like that for weeks and weeks,
00:23:21:20 00:23:24:13 and every time I would say, " No, I'm not gonna do it.
00:23:24:14 00:23:26:10 I absolutely am not going to do it,"
00:23:26:11 00:23:28:22 something would happen unexpected,
00:23:28:23 00:23:30:18 because of course the press was just eating this up,
00:23:30:19 00:23:32:00 you know, " Will she or won't she?"
00:23:32:01 00:23:33:27 "Should she or shouldn't she?"
00:23:33:28 00:23:35:18 And you know when you're in public life,
00:23:35:19 00:23:38:12 you -- it's like an out of body experience.
00:23:38:13 00:23:39:21 You know, you stand there
00:23:39:22 00:23:43:29 and people are talking about you that you've never met,
00:23:44:00 00:23:46:09 who have never met you, people are relating
00:23:46:10 00:23:49:17 conversations with you that have never taken place,
00:23:49:18 00:23:51:14 and you know, occasionally I'll read
00:23:51:15 00:23:54:20 these things and I'll think, " Well maybe I'm forgetting.
00:23:54:21 00:23:55:29 Maybe I had that conversation."
00:23:56:00 00:23:58:04 [laughter] I remember just as a little aside,
00:23:58:05 00:24:00:15 one time Bill and I were on a state visit,
00:24:00:16 00:24:02:03 we were in London, and I picked up one
00:24:02:04 00:24:05:09 of the London papers, and just flipping through it,
00:24:05:10 00:24:09:00 and big headline: " Exclusive Interview With
00:24:09:01 00:24:10:26 First Lady Hillary Clinton,"
00:24:10:27 00:24:12:29 and I mean it was question and answer.
00:24:13:00 00:24:14:23 The reporter was saying, " And then I said
00:24:14:24 00:24:16:20 to Mrs. Clinton," and you know,
00:24:16:21 00:24:19:02 it would be like, " And then she said,"
00:24:19:03 00:24:21:02 and I read this and I turned, you know you get to feel
00:24:21:03 00:24:23:17 like maybe you're missing out on your own life.
00:24:23:18 00:24:25:04 [laughter]
00:24:25:05 00:24:27:02 When did I give that interview?
00:24:27:03 00:24:28:07 When did this happen?
00:24:28:08 00:24:29:04 So --
00:24:29:05 00:24:30:10 [Allen Weinstein] So in this parallel universe, when did you finally
00:24:30:11 00:24:31:01 decide to run?
00:24:31:02 00:24:33:13 [Hillary Clinton] I -- you know, I finally decided to look
00:24:33:14 00:24:38:28 at it seriously in March of 1999.
00:24:38:29 00:24:42:27 I was in New York City, and I was at an event,
00:24:42:28 00:24:46:03 at a high school appropriately in this Chelsea section
00:24:46:04 00:24:50:09 of New York, which surprisingly
00:24:50:10 00:24:53:00 is next door to the Clinton neighborhood.
00:24:53:01 00:24:54:12 [laughter]
00:24:54:13 00:24:55:14 When we named our daughter Chelsea,
00:24:55:15 00:24:57:27 people started sending us the "Chelsea Clinton News,"
00:24:57:28 00:24:59:11 which we didn't even knew existed before
00:24:59:12 00:25:02:16 we named her Chelsea, and I was at an event
00:25:02:17 00:25:07:15 to introduce an HBO special about women in sports,
00:25:07:16 00:25:12:18 and it was to celebrate title 9, the legislation that said
00:25:12:19 00:25:15:06 women have to be given equal opportunities to compete
00:25:15:07 00:25:17:03 in sports, math, science,
00:25:17:04 00:25:21:23 trying to equalize education, and the title of the HBO special
00:25:21:24 00:25:25:14 was, "Dare to Compete," and so we were on this stage
00:25:25:15 00:25:28:11 with a big banner which said, " Dare to Compete,"
00:25:28:12 00:25:30:20 and Billie Jean King was there, who was one of --
00:25:30:21 00:25:33:22 you know, our great women sports heroes of that --
00:25:33:23 00:25:37:05 my time, and the captain of the girls' basketball
00:25:37:06 00:25:39:07 team introduced me.
00:25:39:08 00:25:40:10 Her name was Sophia.
00:25:40:11 00:25:42:08 So she introduced me, and I went up to the podium,
00:25:42:09 00:25:43:04 and she was, you know,
00:25:43:05 00:25:46:01 about seven inches taller than me,
00:25:46:02 00:25:47:10 and she -- and I went to shake her hand
00:25:47:11 00:25:50:04 to thank her for introducing me, and she leans over,
00:25:50:05 00:25:53:06 and she whispers in my ear, " Dare to compete,
00:25:53:07 00:25:55:21 Mrs. Clinton, dare to compete."
00:25:55:22 00:25:58:00 And you know, I had spent so much
00:25:58:01 00:26:02:22 of my adult life urging young women to be whatever
00:26:02:23 00:26:04:28 they wanted to be, to do whatever they could do,
00:26:04:29 00:26:07:22 to go to college, to run for office,
00:26:07:23 00:26:09:25 to -- you know, try out for this or that,
00:26:09:26 00:26:11:28 and, you know, when this young woman
00:26:11:29 00:26:13:16 said that to me, I thought,
00:26:13:17 00:26:15:03 you know, " Maybe that's it.
00:26:15:04 00:26:18:01 "Maybe, you know, maybe -- I need to explore this,
00:26:18:02 00:26:19:27 "and really decide if it's something that I want
00:26:19:28 00:26:21:00 "to try or not."
00:26:21:01 00:26:21:21 [Allen Weinstein] What a great story.
00:26:21:22 00:26:22:09 [Hillary Clinton] So I did.
00:26:22:10 00:26:23:00 [Allen Weinstein] What a great story.
00:26:23:01 00:26:23:21 Is Sophia in the audience, by the way,
00:26:23:22 00:26:24:12 anybody --
00:26:24:13 00:26:25:09 [laughter]
00:26:25:10 00:26:28:06 Okay now, when someone first asked me,
00:26:28:07 00:26:31:08 after I became Archivist, what my vision was,
00:26:31:09 00:26:32:20 I answered as any sensible person would,
00:26:32:21 00:26:34:05 "It's 20/20 with glasses."
00:26:34:06 00:26:35:05 [Hillary Clinton] Right.
00:26:35:06 00:26:36:20 [Allen Weinstein] What's your vision for America?
00:26:36:21 00:26:38:02 [Hillary Clinton] Same, 20/20 with glasses.
00:26:38:03 00:26:38:23 [Allen Weinstein] 20/20 with glasses.
00:26:38:24 00:26:39:14 [Hillary Clinton] Absolutely.
00:26:39:15 00:26:40:17 [Allen Weinstein] Keeping away from the vision question.
00:26:40:18 00:26:41:26 [Hillary Clinton] You know, I gave a speech
00:26:41:27 00:26:44:14 last summer in which I actually talked about that, Allen.
00:26:44:15 00:26:46:19 I said, you know let's imagine
00:26:46:20 00:26:48:22 what America is like in 2020.
00:26:48:23 00:26:49:22 [Allen Weinstein] Okay.
00:26:49:23 00:26:55:28 [Hillary Clinton] And try to have a clear-sighted vision of where we want to be,
00:26:55:29 00:26:57:16 and you know, we have some
00:26:57:17 00:27:00:05 big challenges that we have to address.
00:27:00:06 00:27:03:05 I mean, how do we keep our economy growing
00:27:03:06 00:27:05:26 in a much more competitive world?
00:27:05:27 00:27:10:23 How do we keep our country safe in a much more dangerous world,
00:27:10:24 00:27:16:10 and how do we further our values in a rapidly changing world?
00:27:16:11 00:27:18:04 How do we do all of that?
00:27:18:05 00:27:24:13 And so if we were to fast forward into 2020,
00:27:24:14 00:27:29:04 I would hope that our country's economy would have continued
00:27:29:05 00:27:32:18 to create jobs and opportunity for the vast majority
00:27:32:19 00:27:36:15 of Americans, and not have moved
00:27:36:16 00:27:39:26 into a two-tier economy, where we have the rich
00:27:39:27 00:27:41:14 and everybody else.
00:27:41:15 00:27:43:05 That's the direction we're heading right now
00:27:43:06 00:27:46:11 if we don't change course.
00:27:46:12 00:27:49:14 I would hope we would be fiscally responsible,
00:27:49:15 00:27:53:20 and have really taken hold of our finances again,
00:27:53:21 00:27:57:28 as we had in the 90's, and with our resources,
00:27:57:29 00:28:00:12 been able to make smart investments.
00:28:00:13 00:28:03:03 Obviously, I think we're on the wrong course now,
00:28:03:04 00:28:05:11 so I would hope we would be back on the course
00:28:05:12 00:28:10:17 of fiscal responsibility, and with our smart investing,
00:28:10:18 00:28:14:11 I would hope that we would be energy self-sufficient
00:28:14:12 00:28:17:05 to a great degree by then, that we would have taken
00:28:17:06 00:28:21:08 action to halt and begin to reverse the effects
00:28:21:09 00:28:23:23 of global climate change, that we would have
00:28:23:24 00:28:26:23 a healthcare system that provided quality,
00:28:26:24 00:28:29:25 affordable healthcare to every American,
00:28:29:26 00:28:32:28 and that we would have an education system
00:28:32:29 00:28:38:07 that prepared every young person to take his or her place
00:28:38:08 00:28:40:18 in this much more competitive world,
00:28:40:19 00:28:43:15 and provided second chance training in education
00:28:43:16 00:28:47:00 to every adult, because as the jobs change,
00:28:47:01 00:28:48:18 we would have to be, you know,
00:28:48:19 00:28:52:05 prepared to change with them, and I would hope that
00:28:52:06 00:28:58:11 America's strategic position in the world would be
00:28:58:12 00:29:00:19 one where we had built new alliances,
00:29:00:20 00:29:03:09 and made more friends than enemies that we were prepared
00:29:03:10 00:29:07:21 to deal with the challenges of global terrorism,
00:29:07:22 00:29:11:15 but also of genocide, of disease,
00:29:11:16 00:29:15:12 of environmental degradation, of the continuing oppression
00:29:15:13 00:29:18:08 and impoverishment of, you know,
00:29:18:09 00:29:21:26 hundreds of millions of people, and that we had reasserted
00:29:21:27 00:29:25:26 our moral leadership, and were seen as the kind
00:29:25:27 00:29:28:08 of country that we like to think of ourselves as being.
00:29:28:09 00:29:30:08 [Allen Weinstein] And yet Senator, despite the hint
00:29:30:09 00:29:33:13 of partisan commentary that we've just heard,
00:29:33:14 00:29:36:11 the buzz in our little village is that you have a particular
00:29:36:12 00:29:37:28 interest in consensus these days,
00:29:37:29 00:29:39:28 that you've sponsored a number of bills with the Republicans,
00:29:39:29 00:29:45:01 that you've led a solid bipartisan life.
00:29:45:02 00:29:48:16 I'm not counting your votes, but how do you account for this?
00:29:48:17 00:29:50:27 Is this accurate, or is this inaccurate?
00:29:50:28 00:29:53:15 Is there a -- what's the perspective
00:29:53:16 00:29:54:21 behind it?
00:29:54:22 00:29:59:11 [Hillary Clinton] Well I have always respected and relished problem solving.
00:29:59:12 00:30:01:29 I mean, I think that
00:30:02:00 00:30:05:05 if you're in public life or private life,
00:30:05:06 00:30:06:29 you have a choice.
00:30:07:00 00:30:12:26 You can either mark time, and just hope that nothing
00:30:12:27 00:30:15:20 upsets your apple cart, or you could throw yourself
00:30:15:21 00:30:19:05 into the work you do, the debates that are around you,
00:30:19:06 00:30:20:10 and try to, you know,
00:30:20:11 00:30:26:25 look for solutions to the problems that you face,
00:30:26:26 00:30:30:19 and you know, when I was practicing law,
00:30:30:20 00:30:32:28 when I was involved in nonprofits,
00:30:32:29 00:30:35:12 like the Children's Defense Fund,
00:30:35:13 00:30:39:00 when I was first lady of Arkansas,
00:30:39:01 00:30:42:27 when I came to Washington, I thought that the job
00:30:42:28 00:30:49:11 was to try to create an evidence-based
00:30:49:12 00:30:53:05 decision-making process that would bring people together
00:30:53:06 00:30:56:08 to find common ground, and reach consensus
00:30:56:09 00:31:01:00 about solving problems, and it's been challenging
00:31:01:01 00:31:04:00 in Washington in the last, you know,
00:31:04:01 00:31:08:27 years, because we've veered away from that,
00:31:08:28 00:31:12:02 and so as a Senator from New York,
00:31:12:03 00:31:16:11 I think it's my job to try to work with people,
00:31:16:12 00:31:19:08 to try to find that common ground,
00:31:19:09 00:31:22:11 and create what I view as at least some efforts
00:31:22:12 00:31:26:08 at solving problems, and obviously on many issues
00:31:26:09 00:31:28:02 that's hard to do, but on some you can
00:31:28:03 00:31:30:13 find people who are willing to work with you,
00:31:30:14 00:31:32:13 if you are willing to work with them.
00:31:32:14 00:31:34:04 [Allen Weinstein] It was once said of Abraham Lincoln that you
00:31:34:05 00:31:36:28 could find Lincoln always at the absolute moral center
00:31:36:29 00:31:40:01 of his party, whatever the issue was.
00:31:40:02 00:31:42:03 There was sometimes said of your husband,
00:31:42:04 00:31:44:22 in the presidency, that if you're looking
00:31:44:23 00:31:47:12 for President Clinton, look toward the center
00:31:47:13 00:31:49:18 of the Democratic Party.
00:31:49:19 00:31:52:03 Have you located yourself anywhere?
00:31:52:04 00:31:56:21 [Hillary Clinton] Well, I think I have done what I believe was right,
00:31:56:22 00:31:59:23 on the votes that I've had to cast,
00:31:59:24 00:32:02:25 on the issues that I've been involved in since
00:32:02:26 00:32:05:04 I came to the Senate.
00:32:05:05 00:32:08:04 People can agree or disagree, but at the end of the day,
00:32:08:05 00:32:10:09 having been around politics for so long,
00:32:10:10 00:32:14:06 as I have, I think it is
00:32:14:07 00:32:18:18 the better course to take to struggle with these decisions,
00:32:18:19 00:32:23:23 to weigh the pros and cons, and make a decision,
00:32:23:24 00:32:29:23 and you know you might say, " Well, I wish I'd known
00:32:29:24 00:32:31:02 this, or I wish I'd done that,"
00:32:31:03 00:32:34:02 but in politics, as in life,
00:32:34:03 00:32:35:23 oftentimes you don't have that luxury.
00:32:35:24 00:32:39:16 You make a decision based on what you know at the time,
00:32:39:17 00:32:43:04 and for me, that's how I tried
00:32:43:05 00:32:47:19 to sort of define my public role,
00:32:47:20 00:32:49:28 and sometimes, you know,
00:32:49:29 00:32:51:24 it might be to the right, it might be to the left,
00:32:51:25 00:32:55:15 it might be in the center, but it's been historically
00:32:55:16 00:33:00:08 important for people on both sides of the aisle certainly,
00:33:00:09 00:33:03:17 to try to find common ground in that center.
00:33:03:18 00:33:05:08 That's when America works better,
00:33:05:09 00:33:10:16 when, you know, we can come to decisions that,
00:33:10:17 00:33:15:04 you know, may not satisfy the ideologues,
00:33:15:05 00:33:17:27 or the extremists, or the people who have
00:33:17:28 00:33:21:27 a commercial or partisan stake, but which are,
00:33:21:28 00:33:24:27 to the best of our ability, where we think we should be,
00:33:24:28 00:33:26:15 in order to move the country forward,
00:33:26:16 00:33:28:06 and I think that's the best place to be.
00:33:28:07 00:33:30:06 It's the most comfortable place for me.
00:33:30:07 00:33:31:17 [Allen Weinstein] Well, speaking on behalf of my fellow raving
00:33:31:18 00:33:33:00 moderates in the audience I --
00:33:33:01 00:33:33:29 [Hillary Clinton] [laughs]
00:33:34:00 00:33:35:14 [Allen Weinstein] I appreciate that now.
00:33:35:15 00:33:37:26 Whenever this may occur, do you have any plans
00:33:37:27 00:33:41:26 for post-political careers, and activities?
00:33:41:27 00:33:44:11 [Hillary Clinton] Well, you know, I was thinking about that.
00:33:44:12 00:33:45:20 [Allen Weinstein] You gave me an opening to ask that question
00:33:45:21 00:33:46:20 [unintelligible]
00:33:46:21 00:33:47:17 [Hillary Clinton] Yeah, well, I was thinking about it
00:33:47:18 00:33:51:13 when we were getting close to the end of Bill's term,
00:33:51:14 00:33:54:19 certainly before I ever thought about running
00:33:54:20 00:33:58:16 for office myself, I mean I have a passion
00:33:58:17 00:34:03:20 for children's issues, and for women's empowerment
00:34:03:21 00:34:05:02 around the world, which I actually think
00:34:05:03 00:34:10:02 go hand-in-hand, and so I had envisioned,
00:34:10:03 00:34:11:08 you know, working on behalf
00:34:11:09 00:34:13:17 of these issues that I've been involved in for --
00:34:13:18 00:34:16:28 you know, 35 years,
00:34:16:29 00:34:18:22 and that's what I would -- that's what I would want
00:34:18:23 00:34:21:01 to do, you know, maybe teaching,
00:34:21:02 00:34:25:16 writing, speaking, advocating.
00:34:25:17 00:34:27:10 There's so much work to be done,
00:34:27:11 00:34:29:25 and I have a great deal of respect for
00:34:29:26 00:34:34:00 the not for profit sector, which is increasingly important
00:34:34:01 00:34:36:24 as many governments fail in their responsibilities
00:34:36:25 00:34:38:21 to take care of their own people,
00:34:38:22 00:34:42:11 to advance a positive agenda that will improve the lives
00:34:42:12 00:34:43:26 of their people.
00:34:43:27 00:34:48:23 We've got to have a vigorous, charitable, faith-based,
00:34:48:24 00:34:51:29 not for profit, nongovernmental sector
00:34:52:00 00:34:55:14 in order to make the case on behalf of,
00:34:55:15 00:34:57:05 you know, what I think are
00:34:57:06 00:34:59:05 core human values, and I would certainly
00:34:59:06 00:35:01:27 want to be a part of that.
00:35:01:28 00:35:04:00 [Allen Weinstein] Let me shift ground to another subject.
00:35:04:01 00:35:06:06 We're coming up soon on the fifth anniversary
00:35:06:07 00:35:09:18 of 9/11, easily the most traumatic
00:35:09:19 00:35:12:14 event of recent memory.
00:35:12:15 00:35:16:11 What has happened, as you see it,
00:35:16:12 00:35:17:20 you go back and forth to New York --
00:35:17:21 00:35:20:02 from New York to Washington, both in terms of New York
00:35:20:03 00:35:23:07 response to this event, in terms of national response,
00:35:23:08 00:35:25:20 beucase you traveled the country a great deal.
00:35:25:21 00:35:26:25 Is it fair to say, for example,
00:35:26:26 00:35:29:28 that most Americans have moved on psychologically,
00:35:29:29 00:35:32:22 in terms of their response to this event?
00:35:32:23 00:35:36:22 To what extent does it still condition actual behavior
00:35:36:23 00:35:38:07 on the part of our countrymen?
00:35:38:08 00:35:40:01 To what extent does -- is it taking on
00:35:40:02 00:35:44:01 a kind of iconic status that doesn't really affect actions
00:35:44:02 00:35:45:03 to any great extent?
00:35:45:04 00:35:47:18 I'm trying -- I'm searching for --
00:35:47:19 00:35:53:05 basically something that would get you to respond to New York,
00:35:53:06 00:35:55:08 and the country that way.
00:35:55:09 00:35:58:17 [Hillary Clinton] Well, when you asked me before about turning points,
00:35:58:18 00:36:01:07 I certainly would have said that the biggest
00:36:01:08 00:36:03:16 turning point once I became a Senator,
00:36:03:17 00:36:07:16 as opposed to making the decision to run for the Senate,
00:36:07:17 00:36:10:18 was 9/11, and you know,
00:36:10:19 00:36:12:09 I am a Senator from New York.
00:36:12:10 00:36:16:15 I see this through the prism of the people that I represent,
00:36:16:16 00:36:20:00 and the people who lost family members,
00:36:20:01 00:36:23:02 the people who were grievously injured,
00:36:23:03 00:36:26:26 the people who lost businesses, the devastation
00:36:26:27 00:36:31:11 in lower Manhattan, the ongoing health problems
00:36:31:12 00:36:37:25 because of the first responders and the volunteers and residents
00:36:37:26 00:36:42:01 who were subjected to the toxic air,
00:36:42:02 00:36:46:07 and the impact that's had on their health,
00:36:46:08 00:36:50:06 the stress and trauma from being part of that event,
00:36:50:07 00:36:54:00 so it is very much alive in everything I do.
00:36:54:01 00:36:59:18 I still spend a considerable percentage of my time
00:36:59:19 00:37:04:25 on issues directly and indirectly related to 9/11.
00:37:04:26 00:37:08:07 Just a few weeks ago I was in New York on these
00:37:08:08 00:37:11:07 health-related issues, because I'd warned that
00:37:11:08 00:37:14:04 the air wasn't safe back after 9/11,
00:37:14:05 00:37:17:19 and the administration basically covered that up,
00:37:17:20 00:37:23:12 and refused to deal with it, and we now finally have someone
00:37:23:13 00:37:28:15 appointed to be the overseer of all of the ongoing
00:37:28:16 00:37:35:26 health and even mortality issues related to the impact that
00:37:35:27 00:37:39:23 the toxins had on people's breathing,
00:37:39:24 00:37:43:29 so I'm very conscious of this every single day,
00:37:44:00 00:37:48:13 so New Yorkers have simultaneously demonstrated
00:37:48:14 00:37:51:28 resolve and resilience, people are back
00:37:51:29 00:37:54:10 to work obviously.
00:37:54:11 00:37:58:07 People have moved forward, but nobody has forgotten,
00:37:58:08 00:38:04:02 and it is something that is very close to everybody
00:38:04:03 00:38:08:08 that I run across, everybody that I deal with.
00:38:08:09 00:38:13:19 In the rest of the country, I think that the specter
00:38:13:20 00:38:18:13 of terrorism and the necessity of preventing that,
00:38:18:14 00:38:23:10 of preparing to be vigilant is a big part of people's,
00:38:23:11 00:38:25:19 you know, mindset, but it's very
00:38:25:20 00:38:27:09 intense and personal in New York,
00:38:27:10 00:38:29:22 I mean we live it every single day.
00:38:29:23 00:38:30:28 [Allen Weinstein] For a few years -- you'd probably agree
00:38:30:29 00:38:34:21 a few years after 9/11, the country felt the way it felt
00:38:34:22 00:38:37:06 to a kid at the start of the Second World War,
00:38:37:07 00:38:40:03 myself and others, it felt united,
00:38:40:04 00:38:42:21 because it was united, to a very great extent.
00:38:42:22 00:38:44:14 Obviously, the war has created the confrontations
00:38:44:15 00:38:48:29 over the policy toward the war, and yet when last year
00:38:49:00 00:38:51:17 at the fourth of July, which we celebrate here
00:38:51:18 00:38:54:01 at the National Archives, the parade begins out here.
00:38:54:02 00:38:57:19 We normally have five, ten thousand people out front,
00:38:57:20 00:39:00:12 and we invited two wounded veterans of the Iraq War
00:39:00:13 00:39:02:24 to come and read the Declaration of Independence,
00:39:02:25 00:39:04:15 and there wasn't a dry eye in the house,
00:39:04:16 00:39:06:18 so that the country, whatever one's view of the war,
00:39:06:19 00:39:09:14 we support the troops, they're a symbol of unity
00:39:09:15 00:39:12:20 in the country, and I just wonder
00:39:12:21 00:39:16:14 as we come back toward the fifth anniversary of 9/11,
00:39:16:15 00:39:19:02 are there any -- are there things that
00:39:19:03 00:39:22:04 can be done to restore, if you will,
00:39:22:05 00:39:25:22 at the metapolitical level, a sense of coherent
00:39:25:23 00:39:29:16 American identity that you see happening,
00:39:29:17 00:39:34:10 or do you see a continued fragmentation going on?
00:39:34:11 00:39:37:24 [Hillary Clinton] Well, you know, Allen, I regret deeply
00:39:37:25 00:39:47:03 that the unity we had after 9/11 did not deepen and expand,
00:39:47:04 00:39:52:29 and become the overarching experience that we all
00:39:53:00 00:39:57:11 took out of the trauma of 9/11.
00:39:57:12 00:40:00:08 There was every reason to believe in the immediate
00:40:00:09 00:40:02:05 aftermath that that would happen.
00:40:02:06 00:40:03:29 [Allen Weinstein] Right.
00:40:04:00 00:40:07:20 [Hillary Clinton] And certainly I, and many others
00:40:07:21 00:40:14:22 were ready to offer absolute support to the president
00:40:14:23 00:40:19:10 to do what had to be done in order to protect our country,
00:40:19:11 00:40:25:24 to rebuild New York, Washington and the Pentagon,
00:40:25:25 00:40:28:15 and the whole world was with us.
00:40:28:16 00:40:29:09 I mean, this was not just
00:40:29:10 00:40:32:00 an American experience.
00:40:32:01 00:40:39:20 We had so many people from one end of the world
00:40:39:21 00:40:42:02 to the other, saying, "We're with New York,
00:40:42:03 00:40:46:08 we're with America, we stand with you,"
00:40:46:09 00:40:49:14 and that was squandered, you know,
00:40:49:15 00:40:53:16 and I say that very, very regretfully,
00:40:53:17 00:40:57:13 beucase it didn't have to be.
00:40:57:14 00:41:01:26 I think it is very important to rebuild the sense
00:41:01:27 00:41:09:11 of trust and unity that is important for us
00:41:09:12 00:41:12:05 to have as a nation, for us to feel with respect
00:41:12:06 00:41:15:23 to our elected leadership, in order to confront
00:41:15:24 00:41:18:02 the challenges that we have, you know,
00:41:18:03 00:41:25:22 we have a lot of really serious, difficult challenges ahead
00:41:25:23 00:41:29:16 that are not going to disappear by,
00:41:29:17 00:41:32:01 you know, us denying them,
00:41:32:02 00:41:36:18 or ignoring them, or by regretting who's in charge
00:41:36:19 00:41:39:18 of our government now, or anything else.
00:41:39:19 00:41:42:09 They're American challenges, and America has to rise
00:41:42:10 00:41:47:14 to the occasion, and so it's my hope
00:41:47:15 00:41:54:02 that we can begin to repair some of the damage that's been
00:41:54:03 00:41:59:26 done to our body politic, to our standing in the world,
00:41:59:27 00:42:03:21 because I think that we have to be united as a nation
00:42:03:22 00:42:08:27 to deal with our domestic and international threats
00:42:08:28 00:42:10:09 and opportunities.
00:42:10:10 00:42:12:14 We have great opportunities, but we have to step up
00:42:12:15 00:42:14:08 and meet them, and we're not doing that,
00:42:14:09 00:42:15:27 and obviously energy comes to mind,
00:42:15:28 00:42:19:02 because you know, we are ignoring our energy
00:42:19:03 00:42:20:15 future at our peril.
00:42:20:16 00:42:23:17 You know, we need,
00:42:23:18 00:42:26:13 you know, very aggressive,
00:42:26:14 00:42:30:16 smart leadership to begin to move away from
00:42:30:17 00:42:34:25 our dependence on foreign oil, and a carbon-based --
00:42:34:26 00:42:38:01 exclusively carbon-based economy to all extent
00:42:38:02 00:42:40:10 and purposes, and begin to,
00:42:40:11 00:42:41:22 you know, really incentivize
00:42:41:23 00:42:44:24 and accelerate the development of,
00:42:44:25 00:42:46:18 you know, homegrown energy.
00:42:46:19 00:42:49:12 That's just one example, abroad we've got to figure
00:42:49:13 00:42:52:18 out how we're going to deal with Iran and North Korea
00:42:52:19 00:42:55:18 and Hamas and China and Latin America,
00:42:55:19 00:42:58:17 I mean the list is pretty daunting,
00:42:58:18 00:43:02:19 so we need to get back to a sense of unity and commitment.
00:43:02:20 00:43:05:01 [Allen Weinstein] I have a question I think no one's ever asked you before,
00:43:05:02 00:43:06:13 which is what do your friends least
00:43:06:14 00:43:07:16 understand about you?
00:43:07:17 00:43:08:19 [Hillary Clinton] My friends?
00:43:08:20 00:43:09:12 [Allen Weinstein] Those who know you.
00:43:09:13 00:43:10:19 [Hillary Clinton] My friends understand me.
00:43:10:20 00:43:11:03 [Allen Weinstein] They do.
00:43:11:04 00:43:13:03 [laughter]
00:43:13:04 00:43:14:18 [Hillary Clinton] I think it's everybody else.
00:43:14:19 00:43:16:06 [Allen Weinstein] [unintelligible] what do your --
00:43:16:07 00:43:18:00 what do your supporters least understand about you?
00:43:18:01 00:43:19:00 [Hillary Clinton] I have no idea.
00:43:19:01 00:43:20:12 I mean, I'm the wrong person to ask.
00:43:20:13 00:43:21:03 [Allen Weinstein] I just wondered.
00:43:21:04 00:43:22:03 [Hillary Clinton] I don't know.
00:43:22:04 00:43:23:29 [Allen Weinstein] Okay.
00:43:24:00 00:43:26:29 Well, the next question I suppose I had for you
00:43:27:00 00:43:30:02 was the question of what -- you wouldn't care to make
00:43:30:03 00:43:31:20 news tonight, would you?
00:43:31:21 00:43:35:08 [laughter]
00:43:35:09 00:43:36:25 I have another way [unintelligible]
00:43:36:26 00:43:38:02 [Hillary Clinton] Well, what do you have in mind?
00:43:38:03 00:43:42:01 [laughter]
00:43:42:02 00:43:46:19 [applause]
00:43:46:20 00:43:48:04 [Allen Weinstein] Well, even the fact that my wife is about
00:43:48:05 00:43:48:25 ten feet away --
00:43:48:26 00:43:50:28 [laughter]
00:43:50:29 00:43:51:15 [unintelligible]
00:43:51:16 00:43:53:24 [Hillary Clinton] And her doctor, so we both better be careful.
00:43:53:25 00:43:56:15 [Allen Weinstein] Two -- two things in mind, obviously.
00:43:56:16 00:43:59:00 One is whether you care to do your Schumer imitation,
00:43:59:01 00:43:59:18 but --
00:43:59:19 00:44:01:02 [Hillary Clinton] [laughs]
00:44:01:03 00:44:01:28 [Allen Weinstein] [unintelligible] The other question,
00:44:01:29 00:44:04:10 would you care to say something nice about President Bush?
00:44:04:11 00:44:05:07 [Hillary Clinton] Sure.
00:44:05:08 00:44:07:13 [Allen Weinstein] Okay, what would that be?
00:44:07:14 00:44:08:10 [Hillary Clinton] He --
00:44:08:11 00:44:10:19 [laughter]
00:44:10:20 00:44:15:10 You know, I really don't think
00:44:15:11 00:44:20:06 it's in our interest to personalize so much
00:44:20:07 00:44:21:13 of our politics.
00:44:21:14 00:44:23:13 I think it's a mistake.
00:44:23:14 00:44:25:06 I certainly thought that in the 90's,
00:44:25:07 00:44:28:21 and I think it in the 21st century,
00:44:28:22 00:44:34:11 and you know in my personal dealings with the president
00:44:34:12 00:44:41:23 on a range of issues, he's been very willing
00:44:41:24 00:44:44:05 to talk.
00:44:44:06 00:44:49:01 He's been affable, he's been good company.
00:44:49:02 00:44:52:13 On a personal level, he is someone who has
00:44:52:14 00:44:53:25 a lot of, you know,
00:44:53:26 00:44:56:01 charm and, you know,
00:44:56:02 00:45:01:11 charisma, and I -- you know,
00:45:01:12 00:45:05:23 I think that after -- in the immediate
00:45:05:24 00:45:10:20 aftermath of 9/11, I was very grateful to him
00:45:10:21 00:45:13:13 for his support for New York.
00:45:13:14 00:45:18:19 You know, Senator Schumer and I went to see him
00:45:18:20 00:45:22:04 on September the 13th, after having gone
00:45:22:05 00:45:25:28 to ground zero on the 12th.
00:45:25:29 00:45:30:09 We couldn't have gone without the President's --
00:45:30:10 00:45:33:00 without the White House agreeing to send us in a plane,
00:45:33:01 00:45:34:18 because there were no planes running.
00:45:34:19 00:45:37:24 There was no way into Manhattan, so they flew us from
00:45:37:25 00:45:40:18 Andrews Air Force Base to LaGuardia.
00:45:40:19 00:45:43:02 We were -- other than the fighter jets circling over,
00:45:43:03 00:45:46:18 we were the only plane in the sky.
00:45:46:19 00:45:49:23 We landed at LaGuardia, and helicoptered to the heliport
00:45:49:24 00:45:55:20 on the west side, and went back to see
00:45:55:21 00:45:57:19 the President -- went to see the President
00:45:57:20 00:46:01:27 the next day to both report on what we'd seen,
00:46:01:28 00:46:04:18 because it was so much worse than what I'd seen
00:46:04:19 00:46:06:03 on television.
00:46:06:04 00:46:07:00 You know, television did
00:46:07:01 00:46:10:05 a great job covering it, but it's a screen,
00:46:10:06 00:46:11:29 you know, you just see whatever
00:46:12:00 00:46:20:05 the inches on the screen are, and we circled over the burning
00:46:20:06 00:46:27:19 disaster of the ground zero site,
00:46:27:20 00:46:31:07 and it was just beyond description.
00:46:31:08 00:46:36:19 It was really like any narrative that I'd ever read in literature
00:46:36:20 00:46:40:15 class about what hell must have been like,
00:46:40:16 00:46:44:27 by Dante or anyone else, and when we saw the president
00:46:44:28 00:46:53:09 the next day, it was a very personal,
00:46:53:10 00:46:59:17 very emotional discussion, and when we asked him
00:46:59:18 00:47:01:16 for the help that New York needed,
00:47:01:17 00:47:06:16 he immediately said yes, and over the next months,
00:47:06:17 00:47:08:27 there were often second thoughts by some people
00:47:08:28 00:47:11:03 in the administration, or some people in
00:47:11:04 00:47:14:09 the Congress about the promise that the president had made
00:47:14:10 00:47:17:06 to Senator Schumer and me about the $20 billion
00:47:17:07 00:47:21:17 we'd asked for, but he always kept it on track.
00:47:21:18 00:47:25:17 He made sure that we got the resources that we needed,
00:47:25:18 00:47:28:14 and I'm very grateful to him for that,
00:47:28:15 00:47:32:05 and obviously we have many disagreements about many,
00:47:32:06 00:47:35:19 many issues, but I am,
00:47:35:20 00:47:38:04 you know, very appreciative
00:47:38:05 00:47:40:25 that in a time when, you know,
00:47:40:26 00:47:44:04 the people I represented really needed his help,
00:47:44:05 00:47:45:19 he was there for us.
00:47:45:20 00:47:46:16 [Allen Weinstein] That's very elegant.
00:47:46:17 00:47:50:10 Thank you very much for that.
00:47:50:11 00:47:51:12 I guess I had a couple other questions,
00:47:51:13 00:47:53:13 but they'll have to wait for our next go around,
00:47:53:14 00:47:54:15 I'm told we're running out of time,
00:47:54:16 00:47:56:06 but I wanted to mention two things that might
00:47:56:07 00:47:58:06 be of interest to you.
00:47:58:07 00:48:00:19 I did want to ask you about -- the one question I wanted
00:48:00:20 00:48:03:19 to ask you about President Clinton,
00:48:03:20 00:48:06:25 about the new relationship with President Bush 41.
00:48:06:26 00:48:08:22 I had the privilege of being in Houston
00:48:08:23 00:48:11:16 when they announced the first money they were giving away
00:48:11:17 00:48:15:13 to the tsunami victims, and listened to Barbara Bush
00:48:15:14 00:48:17:09 do her own take on that particular --
00:48:17:10 00:48:18:03 [Hillary Clinton] [laughs]
00:48:18:04 00:48:20:24 [Allen Weinstein] -- which was hilarious, as she introduced her son,
00:48:20:25 00:48:23:18 Bill the president, and her husband the president,
00:48:23:19 00:48:25:03 and there was another son who was president in Washington.
00:48:25:04 00:48:26:12 [Hillary Clinton] [laughs]
00:48:26:13 00:48:28:00 [Allen Weinstein] And I thought your husband can't have a comeback
00:48:28:01 00:48:28:21 to that, but he did,
00:48:28:22 00:48:29:03 of course.
00:48:29:04 00:48:33:12 He got up there and said -- turned quickly and turned
00:48:33:13 00:48:35:20 to Barbara Bush and said, " Thank you mom."
00:48:35:21 00:48:37:08 [laughter]
00:48:37:09 00:48:38:05 [Hillary Clinton] Right.
00:48:38:06 00:48:39:20 [Allen Weinstein] But it worked.
00:48:39:21 00:48:41:20 Any thoughts on the odd couple?
00:48:41:21 00:48:45:01 [laughter]
00:48:45:02 00:48:48:10 [Hillary Clinton] It is so wonderful.
00:48:48:11 00:48:52:16 It's a very small group of people who are ex-presidents,
00:48:52:17 00:49:00:29 and Jerry Ford and Jimmy Carter have forged a great friendship,
00:49:01:00 00:49:02:29 despite the fact that President Carter
00:49:03:00 00:49:06:17 defeated President Ford, and my husband
00:49:06:18 00:49:13:16 and the first President Bush have equally forged
00:49:13:17 00:49:16:19 this wonderful working relationship,
00:49:16:20 00:49:22:22 and it was an idea that the current President Bush
00:49:22:23 00:49:29:00 came up with after the tsunami, when he called and asked
00:49:29:01 00:49:32:06 Bill if he'd be willing to work with his father
00:49:32:07 00:49:37:06 to try to not only raise money for tsunami victims,
00:49:37:07 00:49:40:29 but demonstrate America's concern for people
00:49:41:00 00:49:45:23 that had suffered because of the tsunami,
00:49:45:24 00:49:47:05 and you know, when the president asks you
00:49:47:06 00:49:49:14 to do something like that, even if you're an ex-president,
00:49:49:15 00:49:51:26 or even if you're the president's father,
00:49:51:27 00:49:55:28 you pretty much agree, because it's something that,
00:49:55:29 00:50:00:16 as a patriotic American, you feel compelled to do,
00:50:00:17 00:50:03:19 and I'm not sure either one of them quite expected
00:50:03:20 00:50:05:19 what would happen, but they have
00:50:05:20 00:50:06:25 the best time together.
00:50:06:26 00:50:10:01 They are -- you know, they travel together,
00:50:10:02 00:50:14:15 they socialize together, Bill has been at Kennebunkport
00:50:14:16 00:50:18:21 and spent the night, he's gone speed boating --
00:50:18:22 00:50:20:09 [laughter]
00:50:20:10 00:50:22:00 -- with President Bush, he's gone golfing,
00:50:22:01 00:50:24:21 which is also speed golfing with President Bush.
00:50:24:22 00:50:26:11 [laughter]
00:50:26:12 00:50:28:17 One day of the blue, President Bush dropped by
00:50:28:18 00:50:31:05 Bill's office in Harlem, unannounced, he just thought
00:50:31:06 00:50:33:23 he'd drop in, and Bill was not there,
00:50:33:24 00:50:36:11 but you know, President Bush came in,
00:50:36:12 00:50:38:04 introduced himself to the whole staff,
00:50:38:05 00:50:39:19 cause he'd worked with some but not all of them,
00:50:39:20 00:50:42:01 sat at the desk, and called Bill,
00:50:42:02 00:50:43:01 and said, " Well Bill,
00:50:43:02 00:50:44:13 I'm sitting in your desk in Harlem."
00:50:44:14 00:50:45:26 [laughter]
00:50:45:27 00:50:47:13 They are having a great time.
00:50:47:14 00:50:49:28 It is absolutely genuine.
00:50:49:29 00:50:51:25 They have respect for each other,
00:50:51:26 00:50:53:27 and you know, and Barbara Bush
00:50:53:28 00:50:57:27 was so funny when she, you know, made that
00:50:57:28 00:50:59:28 joking introduction of, you know,
00:50:59:29 00:51:02:29 she picked up another son along the way,
00:51:03:00 00:51:05:23 but it is -- it's turned into
00:51:05:24 00:51:09:16 a very close relationship, and the current President Bush
00:51:09:17 00:51:11:25 is always kidding about it.
00:51:11:26 00:51:13:25 You know, he'll say things, " Well I guess I'd better
00:51:13:26 00:51:15:13 check with my brother, you know,
00:51:15:14 00:51:20:28 the -- 42, to see what 41 wants to do."
00:51:20:29 00:51:22:01 It's all -- it's all in
00:51:22:02 00:51:22:27 [unintelligible]
00:51:22:28 00:51:24:04 [Allen Weinstein] And they say the same things at firsthand.
00:51:24:05 00:51:25:24 I've heard both presidents talk about it in
00:51:25:25 00:51:26:24 the Clinton Library, I was talking
00:51:26:25 00:51:28:12 with President Clinton, and at the Bush Library,
00:51:28:13 00:51:30:24 with President Bush, my favorite line,
00:51:30:25 00:51:31:27 if you'll forgive me for sharing it,
00:51:31:28 00:51:37:14 because we are among friends, is when he shook his head,
00:51:37:15 00:51:39:17 he's just come from a meeting
00:51:39:18 00:51:40:23 with President Clinton, and Bush came and
00:51:40:24 00:51:41:23 [unintelligible] and said,
00:51:41:24 00:51:43:11 "You know, one of the great things about my meetings
00:51:43:12 00:51:44:20 with President Clinton," he says,
00:51:44:21 00:51:46:05 "Once we said to hello to everybody,
00:51:46:06 00:51:47:23 I don't have to say another word for the rest of the day."
00:51:47:24 00:51:51:13 [laughter]
00:51:51:14 00:51:52:26 [Hillary Clinton] That's really funny.
00:51:52:27 00:51:56:07 [Allen Weinstein] And -- no, we -- we're going
00:51:56:08 00:51:57:25 to have to end now, but I wanted to end
00:51:57:26 00:52:00:27 with two gifts for you, one a gift for New York,
00:52:00:28 00:52:02:14 because one of the things that National Archives
00:52:02:15 00:52:04:17 is doing is we're getting much involved in New York
00:52:04:18 00:52:06:26 with the Foundation for the National Archives,
00:52:06:27 00:52:11:17 which is our sister, brother, compatriot
00:52:11:18 00:52:15:07 in this process, but we are under
00:52:15:08 00:52:17:10 the stewardship of Marvin Pinkard,
00:52:17:11 00:52:19:22 our great museum director, and you've got to see --
00:52:19:23 00:52:21:19 all of you have to stop to see the public vaults tonight
00:52:21:20 00:52:23:07 or some other time.
00:52:23:08 00:52:25:22 But we -- we're going to open an exhibit,
00:52:25:23 00:52:27:13 a special exhibit, and then continue
00:52:27:14 00:52:29:07 with other exhibits at Federal Hall,
00:52:29:08 00:52:31:22 which of course is where George Washington took the oath,
00:52:31:23 00:52:32:21 where the Bill of Rights was written,
00:52:32:22 00:52:35:00 where the first Congress met, etc., so New York,
00:52:35:01 00:52:36:27 you will see more of us in the years ahead,
00:52:36:28 00:52:38:09 and we're going to have a gateway presence
00:52:38:10 00:52:40:18 throughout the city, including -- we've offered
00:52:40:19 00:52:44:09 assistance to whatever work is done at the 9/11 site
00:52:44:10 00:52:45:18 on one condition, that we'll just do the work,
00:52:45:19 00:52:47:08 we don't want any money for it -- do a one year --
00:52:47:09 00:52:49:12 one dollar a year contract, but we don't want to define
00:52:49:13 00:52:50:14 what New Yorkers do.
00:52:50:15 00:52:53:05 New Yorkers will do it, we'll be there to help,
00:52:53:06 00:52:54:23 but --
00:52:54:24 00:52:56:20 [Hillary Clinton] Well Allen, can I also say thank you
00:52:56:21 00:52:58:14 to your staff, you know,
00:52:58:15 00:53:01:13 as you said, the Clinton Library Museum
00:53:01:14 00:53:04:18 is under the National Archives system,
00:53:04:19 00:53:08:15 and you have the most wonderful people working here,
00:53:08:16 00:53:11:21 people who love history, who treasure the artifacts,
00:53:11:22 00:53:12:27 who are so --
00:53:12:28 00:53:20:20 [applause]
00:53:20:21 00:53:22:05 You know, so committed
00:53:22:06 00:53:27:16 to the American experience, and preserving it in every way,
00:53:27:17 00:53:30:04 and I wanted to say thank you to all of them.
00:53:30:05 00:53:31:04 [Allen Weinstein] Senator, that's very kind of you,
00:53:31:05 00:53:33:01 except you just cost the federal government a lot of money.
00:53:33:02 00:53:34:10 Now I've got to give them all raises.
00:53:34:11 00:53:36:10 [laughter]
00:53:36:11 00:53:40:28 But in any event, we have for you,
00:53:40:29 00:53:44:07 hopefully things that would be of some interest,
00:53:44:08 00:53:49:06 a whole series of letters from Eleanor Roosevelt
00:53:49:07 00:53:50:03 to Harry Truman,
00:53:50:04 00:53:52:06 [Hillary Clinton] Oh my.
00:53:52:07 00:53:55:18 [Allen Weinstein] -- and from Truman to Eleanor Roosevelt.
00:53:55:19 00:53:58:17 She got irritated when President Truman did not
00:53:58:18 00:54:00:10 follow her mideast policy.
00:54:00:11 00:54:02:22 Mrs. Roosevelt basically thought she had a policy
00:54:02:23 00:54:04:10 and the administration had one, they would sort of keep
00:54:04:11 00:54:07:04 each other informed of these things,
00:54:07:05 00:54:08:16 and so she threatened to resign,
00:54:08:17 00:54:09:24 and then she got into a correspondence
00:54:09:25 00:54:11:12 with the Secretary of State, George Marshall,
00:54:11:13 00:54:12:12 with Truman -- it's a fascinating
00:54:12:13 00:54:13:27 collection of letters.
00:54:13:28 00:54:15:12 In addition, we have some Dolley Madison
00:54:15:13 00:54:16:15 materials here.
00:54:16:16 00:54:18:15 [Hillary Clinton] Oh, another one of my favorite predecessors.
00:54:18:16 00:54:20:18 [Allen Weinstein] Exactly so, and she got the freedom
00:54:20:19 00:54:21:24 to visit the House of Representatives
00:54:21:25 00:54:23:08 whenever she wanted to have that freedom.
00:54:23:09 00:54:25:02 I don't know if you have the same freedom or not,
00:54:25:03 00:54:26:00 you are in the Senate.
00:54:26:01 00:54:27:02 [laughter]
00:54:27:03 00:54:27:26 It's the other --
00:54:27:27 00:54:28:20 [Hillary Clinton] I get a visa.
00:54:28:21 00:54:29:17 [Allen Weinstein] Okay.
00:54:29:18 00:54:30:17 [laughter]
00:54:30:18 00:54:31:14 But in any event, here they are,
00:54:31:15 00:54:34:17 and I hope they are things that you will find --
00:54:34:18 00:54:35:26 [Hillary Clinton] Thank you so much.
00:54:35:27 00:54:36:16 [Allen Weinstein] Thank you.
00:54:36:17 00:54:37:20 [Hillary Clinton] Thank you.
00:54:37:21 00:54:46:19 [applause]
00:54:46:20 00:54:51:04 I wanted to mention, before thanking our guest
00:54:51:05 00:54:54:06 and letting her go back to her responsibilities,
00:54:54:07 00:54:55:15 I wanted to mention two things about ex --
00:54:55:16 00:54:56:25 former presidents.
00:54:56:26 00:55:00:02 We are honoring President Ford here on the 19th
00:55:00:03 00:55:03:19 of June with special seminars involving a number of folks
00:55:03:20 00:55:06:07 from the administration and journalists and others.
00:55:06:08 00:55:07:13 There will be a dinner that evening.
00:55:07:14 00:55:10:22 There's a whole batch of events going on.
00:55:10:23 00:55:12:10 I don't know if we'll get any other ex-presidents then,
00:55:12:11 00:55:14:19 but we're honoring him.
00:55:14:20 00:55:17:16 We still have an open invitation to President Clinton,
00:55:17:17 00:55:20:01 and to President Bush 41 to be here,
00:55:20:02 00:55:22:03 President Bush 43, the current president,
00:55:22:04 00:55:24:03 has been here several times, and we hope to see him
00:55:24:04 00:55:25:18 again soon.
00:55:25:19 00:55:28:15 President Carter -- we await President Carter,
00:55:28:16 00:55:31:12 and on behalf of everybody here,
00:55:31:13 00:55:34:14 for your incredibly candid and interesting
00:55:34:15 00:55:35:20 performance tonight, I thank you very much
00:55:35:21 00:55:37:08 for taking your time.
00:55:37:09 00:55:38:11 [Hillary Clinton] Thank you.
00:55:38:12 00:56:04:14 [applause]
00:56:04:15 00:56:06:27 Thank you all, thank you.

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