National Archives and Records Administration


American Originals Exhibit

The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)

Treaty of 1868

"This war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land from us without price."
Spotted Tail
"The report and journal of proceedings
of the commission appointed to obtain
certain concessions from the Sioux Indians"
December 26, 1876

The history of Native Americans in North America dates back thousands of years. Exploration and settlement of the western United States by Americans and Europeans wreaked havoc on the Indian peoples living there.

In the 19th century the United States' drive for expansion clashed violently with Native Americans' resolve to preserve their lands, sovereignty, and ways of life. The struggle over land has defined relations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, and is well documented in the holdings of the National Archives.

Until 1871 the U.S. government negotiated treaties with Indian tribes as it did with foreign powers. Many of the treaties extinguished Native Americans' title to land. Other agreements related to the pursuit and maintenance of peace, the status of tribes as dependent nations, and regulation of trade. Many of the treaties are still significant in the defense of Indian land claims, hunting and fishing rights, and tribal autonomy. U.S. treaties with Indian nations are held by the National Archives.
Treaty of 1868, April 29, 1868, selected pages

Treaty of 1868, April 29, 1868, selected pages
Presidential Proclamation of the ratification of the Treaty of 1868, February 24, 1869, selected pages

Presidential Proclamation of the ratification of the Treaty of 1868, February 24, 1869, selected pages Presidential Proclamation of the ratification of the Treaty of 1868, February 24, 1869, selected pages

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The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)
The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)
Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)
Contemporary United States (1968 to the present)

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Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
American Originals 2



National Archives and Records Administration
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Last updated: July 1, 1998
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