The struggle to attain basic rights was fought in every sector of American society. Differences in ethnicity, sex, and ideals often led to issues of inequality that had to be resolved in the courts.
Stereotyped because of her last name, Linda Hernandez was placed in a segregated, Spanish-speaking class even though she did not speak Spanish.
In violation of the Texas state constitution and education laws as outlined in this booklet, Corpus Christi segregated children with Spanish surnames without standardized testing for English comprehension.
Living in an interracial and religious community, white children from Koinonia Farms (a community that provided the conceptual model for Habitat for Humanity) were denied access to better public schools. The complaint stated that the school board refused admission “solely because of their religious and social beliefs” and affiliations.
North Carolina native Junius Irving Scales was the only person convicted under the Smith Act to serve time for his membership in the Communist Party.
The membership provision of the Smith Act made it a crime to be a member of an organization that advocates the overthrow and destruction of the Government by force and violence.