The Formation of Political Parties: The Alien and Sedition Acts

Senate Contempt of Congress charges against journalist William Duane, March 22, 1800
National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the U.S. Senate

William Duane (1760 - 1835)
By Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin, 1802
Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon

"The humble Petition of the Subscribers, Aliens residing in the County of Lancaster, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," January 26, 1802
National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives

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