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Hetch Hetchy Environmental Debates


Resolution by the Massachusetts State Federation of Women's Clubs Against the Raker Bill, November 25, 1913

With this resolution, the Massachusetts State Federation of Women's Clubs urged Congress to defeat the Raker Bill, a bill to grant San Francisco the right to dam the Hetch Hetchy Valley. In 1913, women's clubs from across the country voiced their desire to protect nature and build a stronger National Park system for the sake of both moral and physical health. The Massachusetts State Federation of Women's Clubs here argued that both women and men found health and inspiration in the beauty of the Valley. Although not using strict preservationist arguments, the Federation stressed that with more hotels and better transportation, the Valley could be enjoyed by more citizens. According to their resolution, San Francisco had no need to dam the Hetch Hetchy Valley and its damming would be an irrevocable sacrifice by the whole nation.

RG 46, Records of the U.S. Senate

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