Prologue Magazine
Spring 2002, Vol. 34, No. 1

A Time to Act: The Beginning of the Fritz Kolbe Story, 1900 - 1943, Part 5

By Greg Bradsher

Notes

1 Allen Dulles, The Secret Surrender (1966), p. 22.

2 Unsigned, undated document entitled "The Story of George." p. 1 [probably by Fritz Kolbe, ca., April 1945], "Dulles Files— George Wood Case," folder 90, box 7, Entry 190C, Records of the Office of Strategic Services, Record Group (RG) 226, National Archives at College Park (NACP), College Park, MD (hereinafter cited as [Kolbe], "The Story of George"); unsigned document entitled "Wood's Story" [written in German by Kolbe], May 15, 1945, p. 1, "Dulles Files— George Wood Case," box 7, folder 90, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP (hereinafter cited as [Kolbe], "Wood's Story"); Anthony Quibble "Alias George Wood," Studies in Intelligence 10 (Spring 1966), pp. 71 - 72.

3 For information on the Wandervogel movement and German youth organizations see Walter Laqueur, Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement (1962); Peter D. Stachura, Nazi Youth in the Weimar Republic (1975); Peter D. Stachura, The German Youth Movement, 1900 - 1945 (1981); and Howard Becker, German Youth: Bond or Free (1946).

4 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," pp. 1 - 2.

5 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1.

6 Ibid.; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," pp. 1 - 2; unsigned and unaddressed memorandum, by [Allen Dulles], Aug. 31, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

7 Unsigned [Dulles] and unaddressed memo, Aug. 31, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

8 State Department Special Interrogation Mission Report on Fritz Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 1, Department of State Central File, 1945 - 1949, Decimal 740.00116 EW/10-145, General Records of the Department of State, RG 59, NACP (hereafter cited as State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945); [Kolbe], "The Story of George", p. 1; unsigned [probably Gerald Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 2.

9 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 2; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

10 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1.

11 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," pp. 2, 4.

12 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 2; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1.

13 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 3.

14 Interrogation, Bernd Gottfriedsen, Oct. 2, 1945, p. 11; interrogation, Andor Henke, Nov. 19, 1945, p. 9; interrogation, Heinz Truetzschler von Falkenstein, Oct. 25, 1945, p. 15, all in State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission, Interrogations of Former High-level Nazi Diplomatic and Military Officers (mission by DeWitt C. Poole), 1945 - 46, Entry 1082, RG 59, NACP.

15 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 3.

16 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 3.

17 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 3.

18 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2, RG 59, NACP; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 4.

19 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2, RG 59, NACP; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 4.

20 Unsigned [probably Allen Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP. The "Nansen Passport" was developed by Norwegian explorer and scientist Fridtjof Nansen after World War I. They were issued to refugees who were unable to obtain ordinary passports and were honored by the governments of over fifty countries.

21 Interrogation, Dr. Karl Ritter, Sept. 3, 1945, p. 3, State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP.

22 Interrogation, Dr. Paul Otto Gustav Schmidt, part II, annex I, written and signed by Dr. Paul O. Schmidt, Oct. 22, 1945, p. 2; interrogation, Dr. Erich Kordt, Jan. 7, 1946, p. 7; interrogation, Dr. Paul Otto Gustav Schmidt, part II, annex IV, written and signed by Dr. Paul O. Schmidt, Nov. 12, 1945, p. 22; and interrogation, Dr. Karl Ritter, Oct. 10, 1945, p. 4, all in State Department Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP. "The German Foreign Office under the Nazi Regime," Report No. F-2023, p. 5, ca. 1945, based on information provided by a former official of the German Foreign Office, attached to the Protocol Section, who is now in Allied hands, file XL 10662, Formerly Security-Classified Intelligence Reports ("XL" Series), Entry 19, RG 226, NACP.

23 Interrogation, Dr. Erich Kordt, Jan. 7, 1946, pp. 4, 5, and interrogation, Andor Henke, Nov. 19, 1945, p. 15, both in State Department Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP.

24 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," pp. 1 - 2.

25 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 5; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled, report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," pp. 70 - 71.

26 Unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 5.

27 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72.

28 Unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled, report, Aug.19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

29 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 2; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72.

30 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 3, RG 59, NACP; "The Background of the George Story," by Ernest Kocherthaler, Nov. 17, 1964, p. 2, enclosure in Ernest Kocherthaler to Allen W. Dulles, Nov. 19, 1964, "Dulles Files— George Wood Case," folder 90, box 7, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP (hereafter cited as Kocherthaler, "Background of the George Story"); Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72; memorandum "Trip of June 2 - 6 with George Wood, et al., to Bavaria," from Hanson to 110, Basel, Switzerland, June 9, 1945, "Dulles Files— George Wood Case," folder 90, box 7, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 6; Klemens Von Klemperer, German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938 - 1945 (1994), p. 322.

31 Joseph E. Persico, Piercing the Reich: The Penetration of Nazi Germany by American Secret Agents during World War II (1997), p. 63; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72.

32 Headquarters U.S. Forces European Theater, Military Intelligence Service Center, OI Intermediate Interrogation Report (IIR) No. 1, Dr. Karl Ritter, Aug. 31, 1945, p. 3; interrogation, Karl Ritter, Oct. 10, 1945, p.2; interrogation, Col. Conrad Steinhaeuser, Oct. 24, 1945, p. 2, all in State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP. [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 5.

33 Interrogation, Col. Conrad Steinhaeuser, Oct. 24, 1945, p. 2, and interrogation, Dr. Karl Ritter, Oct. 10, 1945, p. 2, both in State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission; State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 4, RG 59, NACP.

34 "The Organization of the German Foreign Office during the Last Year of the War," Report from Captured Personnel and Material Branch, Military Intelligence Division, U.S. War Department, Information from a German P/W, an ambassador-at-large in the German Foreign Office, Report No. 1603, p. 1, File XL 20140, Formerly Security-Classified Intelligence Reports ("XL" Series); and Third U.S. Army, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, Interrogation Report No. 3, May 15, 1945, p. 17, part I, The German Foreign Office, File XL 11219, both in Entry 19, RG 226, NACP

35 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 1; unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, pp. 1 - 2, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 5; History Project, Strategic Services Unit, Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, War Department, Overseas Targets: War Report of the OSS (Office of Strategic Services), vol. 2. (1976), p. 278.

36 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72; State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 3.

37 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," pp. 5 - 6.

38 Ibid., p. 6; unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 2, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, attachment to memorandum, Russell G. D'Oench to Whitney H. Shepardson, Oct. 21, 1943, "Source and Methods" file, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; Edward P. Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," in Great True Spy Stories, ed. Allen Dulles (1968), p. 22.

39 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 19 - 20; Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (1972), pp. 218 - 219; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story" pp. 6 - 7.

40 Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 19 - 20; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 6; Klaus P. Fischer, Nazi Germany: A New History (1997), p. 536.

41 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 7; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," pp. 2 - 3; Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 19 - 20.

42 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72; Louis L. Snyder, Encyclopedia of The Third Reich (1989), p. 307; Robert Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany (1982), p. 267.

43 Snyder, Encyclopedia of The Third Reich, p. 307; Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany, pp. 267 - 268; Sam E. Woods, Zurich, to American minister, American Legation, Bern, Mar. 8, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern, Switzerland, Legation, Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, RG 84, NACP.

44 [Kolbe], "The story of George," p. 2.

45 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72.

46 Unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters" folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; "The Organization of the German Foreign Office during the Last Year of the War," Report No. 1603, p. 10, file XL 20140, Entry 19, RG 226, NACP.

47 Fischer, Nazi Germany, p. 538; Sam E. Woods, Zurich, to American minister, Bern, Mar. 8, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

48 Interrogation, Gen. George Thomas, Nov. 26, 1945, p. 10, State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP.

49 Maurice W. Altaffer, American consul, Zurich, to American minister, Bern, Aug. 13, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

50 Report, no title, from 999, Apr. 19, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

51 Sam E. Woods, consul general, Zurich to American minister, Bern, Mar. 23, 1943; report, no title, from 123, Source: Private report of a German traveler returning from Germany, Apr. 6, 1943; report, no title, from 805, Source: Conversation with a returned German Traveler, Apr. 6, 1943; report, "Germany: Testimony from Berlin," from 1168, Source: Adolf, Apr. 6, 1943; report, "Notes on German Conditions in April 1943," from 42,220, Source: Roger, May 18, 1943, ibid.; report, no title, from 1259, May 28, 1943; report, no title, from 45,600, Source: B, May 24, 1943, all in File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP. HQ, U.S. Forces European Theater, Military Intelligence Service Center, OI Final Interrogation Report (OI-FIR) No. 12 Baron Franz von Papen, Oct. 27, 1945, p. 7, State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission, RG 59, NACP. Hans Bernd Gisevius, To the Bitter End (trans. 1947, reprint 1998), pp. 473 - 478, 483.

52 Report "Germany: Eye-Witness from Berlin," from 1098, Source: A neutral who travels in Germany, Mar. 9, 1943; report, "Notes on the War," Walter H. Sholes, American consul general, Basel, to American minister, Bern, Mar. 10, 1943; report, no title, from 43,902, Source: Smith, July 1, 1943, all in File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

53 Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 20; [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 7; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," pp. 2 - 3.

54 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 2; State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 2, RG 59, NACP.

55 Maurice W. Altaffer, American consul, Zurich, to American minister, Bern, Aug. 13, 1943; Appenzeiler Zeitung (newspaper), Aug. 10, 1943, translated enclosure to telegram 5897, American minister, Bern, to the Department of State, Aug. 20, 1943; and translation of a secret Swiss newsletter, enclosure to Sam E. Woods, American consul general, Zurich, to Leland Harrison, Zurich, Sept. 2, 1943, all in File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

56 Report, no title, from 981, Source: Andre, July 23, 1943, ibid.; Marie Vassiltchikov, Berlin Diaries, 1940 - 1945 (1987, paperback ed. 1988), p. 86.

57 Report, "Germany: Observations of Munich Lawyer," from 1226, Source: an important Nazi lawyer from Munich, close to party leaders, May 10, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

58 [Kolbe], "Wood's Story," p. 6; State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 3; Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story," p. 1, RG 226, NACP.

59 Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany, p. 299; Snyder, Encyclopedia of The Third Reich, p. 307; Dulles, Germany's Underground, p. 69.

60 Dulles, Germany's Underground, p. 69.

61 Report, no title, from 987, Source: Andre, July 13, 1943; report, "Germany: General Situation," from 1340, Source: Lipski, from a former German leading statesman, July 15, 1943; report, no title, from 981, Source: Andre, July 23, 1943, all in File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP. Fischer, Nazi Germany, p. 537.

62 Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story," p. 1, RG 226, NACP; report, no title, from 82,999, source: B2, Aug. 20, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP; Von Klemperer, German Resistance to Hitler, passim; Fischer, Nazi Germany, p. 537.

63 State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 3, RG 59, NACP.

64 [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 2.

65 Unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, dated Aug. 19, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters" folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 20; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," pp. 2 - 3; Persico, Piercing the Reich, pp. 63 - 64; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 72.

66 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 20; report, no title, from 16,475 Source: C, May 17, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP; Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP.

67 War Report of the OSS, vol., 2, p. 274; Stephen P. Halbrook, Target Switzerland: Swiss Armed Neutrality in World War II (1998), pp. 117 - 141, 189 - 190.

68 Background report on Switzerland, by Elinor Goodfriend, Sept. 1, 1944, p. 2, Folder Berne, Records of the Historian, Outpost Records, 1942 - 1946 (Entry 6J), Records of the Office of War Information, RG 208, NACP.

69 [Office of Strategic Services], X-2 Handbook Switzerland German and Italian I.S., Jan. 1, 1944, pp. 1, 59 - 61, Field Station Files, Bern, box 6, folder 33, Entry 124, RG 226, NACP; Jozef Garlinski, The Swiss Corridor: Espionage Networks in Switzerland during World War II (1981), p. 18.

70 Angelo M. Codevilla, Between the Alps and a Hard Place: Switzerland in World War II and the Rewriting of History (2000), p. 74.

71 Telegram 5310, Bern, American minister, Bern, to Department of State, June 11, 1943, File 800— Switzerland, General Records 1936 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP; [OSS] X-2 Handbook Switzerland German and Italian I.S., Jan. 1, 1944, pp. 69 - 73, RG 226, NACP. During the course of the war, the Swiss arrested some 1,400 persons for espionage, of whom 328 were sentenced to long prison terms and 33 were condemned to death for spying for Germany; 15 were executed. Codevilla, Between the Alps and a Hard Place, p. 74.

72 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 20; unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed [probably to David Bruce in London], memorandum, Aug. 31, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, folder 4, box 445, RG 26, NACP.

73 Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed [Bruce], memorandum, Aug. 31, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 3; State Dept. Special Interrogation Mission Report on Kolbe, Sept. 26, 1945, p. 1, RG 59, NACP; Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story" pp. 1 - 2, RG 226, NACP; British Zurich consulate general to the commercial secretariat, British legation, Bern, Sept. 5, 1945, Ernesto and Oscar Kocherthaler File, Economic Section, Safehaven Name Files, 1942 - 1949, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP; application for nonimmigrant visa, American consulate, Bern, Apr. 2, 1947, File 811.11 Kocherthaler, Ernesto, Economic Section, General Records, 1942 - 1948, 1947, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

74 Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story," pp. 1 - 2, RG 226, NACP.

75 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 2, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP [The date in the memorandum was August 13, but undoubtedly this was a mistake by the writer. It almost looks like the 1 and ¼ pages of material was by Gerald Mayer and the remaining 1 and ¾ by Allen W. Dulles]. Philip Knightley, The Master Spy: The Story of Kim Philby (1990), p. 121; James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (1999), pp. 279 - 280.

76 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 2, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190c, RG 226, NACP.

77 Knightley, The Master Spy, p. 106; Garlinski, The Swiss Corridor, p. 122; Von Klemperer, German Resistance Against Hitler, pp. 315 - 316.

78 Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

79 Copy of telegram, H.M. Minister to M.E.W. Arfar No. 4510, Dec. 4, 1942, File 840.1 Ransom Procedure— Individual Cases, Dreyfus, Paul & Hochberg, Anna; and R.B. D [unreadable], commercial secretariat, British legation, Bern, to D. J. Reagan, commercial attaché, American legation, Bern, Feb. 19, 1943, file 840.1 Ransom Procedure— Individual Cases, Dreyfus, Sohne, both in Economic Section, General Records, 1942 - 1948, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

80 Report, "Notes on the War," Walter H. Sholes, American consul general, Basel to American minister, Bern, Mar. 10, 1943, File 800— Germany, Confidential File, 1940 - 1949, 1943, Bern Legation, RG 84, NACP.

81 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

82 Ibid., p. 2.

83 Garlinski, The Swiss Corridor, p. 122.

84 Dulles, The Secret Surrender, p. 12.

85 Ibid., p. 15.

86 Smith, OSS, pp. 204 - 205.

87 Ibid., p. 208.

88 Dulles, Germany's Underground, p. 125, and The Secret Surrender, p. 12.

89 Mary Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy (1963), pp. 129 - 130.

90 Smith, OSS, p. 204; Srodes, Allen Dulles, p. 229; Dulles, The Secret Surrender, p. 15; Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 140.

91 Srodes, Allen Dulles, pp. 229 - 231.

92 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 69; Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 15; Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 128; Background Report on Switzerland, by Elinor Goodfriend, Sept. 1, 1944, p. 1, Folder Berne, Records of the Historian, Outpost Records, 1942 - 1946 (Entry 6J), RG 208, NACP; Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 15.

93 Dulles, Germany's Underground, pp. xi, 125 - 126; memorandum for the President from G. Edward Buxton, acting director, OSS [review of OSS intelligence operations in Switzerland], June 22, 1945, folder 83, box 18, Entry 99, RG 226, NACP; War Report of the OSS, vol. 2, p. 278.

94 William J. Casey, The Secret War Against Hitler (1988), p. 40; Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 140; Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (1963), p. 7; Gisevius, To the Bitter End, pp. 481 - 482.

95 Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, pp. 134, 140, 151.

96 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 69.

97 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 26, NACP; Persico, Piercing the Reich, p. 65; Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 15 - 16.

98 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 16; Persico, Piercing the Reich, p. 65.

99 Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 16 - 17; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," pp. 69 - 70.

100 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 70.

101 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 17; Persico, Piercing the Reich, p. 65; War Report of the OSS, vol. 2, p. 279.

102 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 18.

103 Ibid., p. 17; Dulles, Germany's Underground, p. 130; War Report of the OSS, vol. 2, p. 273; Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story," p. 2, RG 226, NACP.

104 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, pp. 2 - 3, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

105 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 18 - 19. The account provided in this source contains a version of this initial meeting as well as what undoubtedly happened at a subsequent visit by Kolbe. Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy, p. 141.

106 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, [Dulles], Aug. 31, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," box 1, folder 19, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP.

107 Unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, pp. 1 - 2, Aug. 19, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Morgan "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 19.

108 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 19 - 20; Persico, Piercing the Reich, pp. 63 - 64.

109 Unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, pp. 1 - 2; unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, p. 1, Aug. 19, 1943; unsigned [Dulles] and unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 31, 1943; unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, 8 pp., Aug. 19, 1943, all in "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP. Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; Persico, Piercing The Reich, p. 66.

110 Unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, 8 pp. Aug. 19, 1943, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 71.

111 Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, p. 2, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP.

112 Quibble, "Alias George Wood," pp. 71 - 72; Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 21; Kocherthaler, "The Background of the George Story," p. 2, RG 226, NACP.

113 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 21.

114 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1; and unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled, report, dated Aug. 19, 1943, p. 2, both in "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, R226, NACP. Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," pp. 21 - 22.

115 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 1, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP. In this memo Mayer indicates that the morning meeting was held on August 20, not August 19, but it was undoubtedly held on the nineteenth.

116 Unsigned [Dulles], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943; and unsigned [Mayer], unaddressed, untitled report, Aug. 19, 1943, both in ibid.

117 Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 2, ibid.

118 Unsigned [probably Dulles; if not, Mayer], unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 20, 1943, ibid.

119 Report "Wood Case," Oct. 19, 1943, pp. 2, 3, folder 4, box 445, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP; Quibble, "Alias George Wood," p. 73; Unsigned, unaddressed memorandum, Aug. 28, 1943, p. 2, "Dulles Files: Cables and Letters," folder 19, box 1, Entry 190C, RG 226, NACP.

120 Morgan, "The Spy the Nazis Missed," p. 22; [Kolbe], "The Story of George," p. 3.

121 Dulles cables to Washington 164 - 166 (Aug. 21, 1943), cables 651, 652, 653 (Aug. 25, 1943), 644 - 648 (Aug. 26, 1943), 654 - 657 (Aug. 26, 1943), 658, 659, 660 (Aug. 26, 1943), "Sources and Methods File," folder 2, box 463, Entry 210, RG 226, NACP.

122 War Report of the OSS, vol. 2, p. 279; Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence, p. 82.

123 Kim Philby, My Silent War (1968), p. 106; memorandum for the President from G. Edward Buxton, acting director, OSS, [Review of OSS intelligence operations in Switzerland], June 22, 1945, folder 83, box 18, Entry 99, RG 226, NACP.

A Time to Act, Part 1
A Time to Act, Part 2
A Time to Act, Part 3
A Time to Act, Part 4

See also:

The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group

Holocaust-Era Assets
Greg Bradsher, an archivist at the National Archives and Records Administration, is working on a book about Fritz Kolbe, Allen Dulles, and World War II intelligence. His previous contributions to Prologue have been "Taking America's Heritage to the People: The Freedom Train Story" (Winter 1985) and "Nazi Gold: The Merkers Mine Treasure" (Spring 1999).
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