Foreign Affairs

The Crucial Decade: Voices of the Postwar Era, 1945-1954

Select Audiovisual Records

The National Archives Trust Fund Board

About Our Holdings

Among the audiovisual holdings of the National Archives are more than 90,000 sound recordings. These spoken word recordings were received primarily from agencies of the U.S. Government but also from private, commercial, and foreign sources. Dating from 1896, the sound archives reflect the growth of the recording and broadcasting industries and the Federal Government's interest in and use of the sound medium.

Recordings include, for example:

  • From the 1930s, are performances of the Federal Theater and Music Projects of the Works Progress Administration, press conferences, panel discussions, interviews, and speeches promoting and explaining policies and programs of some 75 Federal agencies.
  • World War II propaganda broadcasts in German, Japanese, and Italian, American propaganda broadcasts in many languages, and news coverage of war campaigns.
  • Oral arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court during the 1955-74 sessions, entertainment broadcasts (usually supporting a Federal activity), documentaries and dramas relating to U.S. history, proceedings of political conventions, campaign speeches, and extensive news coverage.

Sound recordings listed here are representative of the many available audio documents made during the years 1945-54. The selections are international in scope and highlight important events of an era characterized by some historians as one of the most crucial decades of modern history. During this postwar era the balance of power among nations solidified, new political leaders emerged, research spurred technological developments, and the threats of atomic warfare and international and domestic communism directly affected American politics and thinking. These recordings reflect a period of dramatic political change and confrontation. Major topics include postwar economic recovery, inflation, labor strife, politics, McCarthyism, diplomatic relations, communism, the cold war, the Korean conflict, and control of atomic energy.

Recordings are listed in chronological order, and the speaker, subject, and occasion of each item are identified. Where appropriate, highlights have been quoted to further identify the speech or event. Recordings are in English unless otherwise noted. Information about recordings not included in this list is available from the Audiovisual Archives Division.

To order a specific recording

Contact the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Branch at (301) 837-1649; or by facsimile at (301) 837-3620; or through internet e-mail at mopix@nara.gov. Copies are available in most state-of-the-art audio formats.

An asterisk following a description means that the recording is subject to copyright or other restrictions imposed by the agency-of-transfer or by the donor. In most cases, restricted recordings may be used only for education and research and may not be duplicated, broadcast, or used commercially. Orders for restricted recordings must be preceded by written permission from the agency-of-transfer or from the donor before the order can be processed. The addresses for written permission can be found near the end of this file. Additional information about recordings not included in this file can be obtained by writing to the Nontextual Archives Division, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408.

Charles Thomas and Leslie C. Waffen researched, selected, and described the records in this list and wrote these introductory remarks. William E. Dunstan edited this publication.


1945

1945, April 14. Eyewitness coverage of the funeral of President Franklin D. Roosevelt from Washington, D.C. Radio announcer Arthur Godfrey, from the rooftop of the Riggs Bank Building near the White House, describes the event in detail as the caisson passes down Pennsylvania Avenue. CBS. 30 min. 208-134*

1945, April 25. Address by President Harry S. Truman, broadcast from the White House to the Conference in San Francisco drafting the United Nation's Charter, on the task facing the new U.N. organization: "With ever-increasing brutality and destruction, modern warfare, if unchecked, would ultimately crush all civilization.... The essence of our problem here is to provide sensible machinery for the settlement of disputes among nations." 13 min. 200-165

1945, September 2. Radio address by Premier Joseph Stalin on the capitulation of Japan, signaling the end of the Second World War. Stalin recounts Japanese aggression and the Soviet justification for declaring war. (In Russian.) 7 min. 200-682

1945, October 30. "Wages and Prices in the Reconversion Period," radio address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman. Reviewing the strains of reconversion from wartime production and recent labor difficulties, Truman predicts the Nation will have to endure deflation, lowered purchasing power, and some unemployment in the near future: "Above all, we must hold the line on prices." 30 min. 208-192

1945, October 31. "Fourteenth Annual Herald Tribune Forum on Current Problems." Moderator, Helen Reid, wife of Herald Tribune Editor Ogden Reid, introduces Secretary of Labor Lewis B. Schwellenbach and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes. Schwellenbach discusses the recent wave of strikes and difficulties of reconversion; Byrnes speaks on inter-American relations in the postwar era and implicitly warns against Communist subversion of Latin American governments. ABC. 30 min. 208-19O*

1945, November 13. Address by British Prime Minister Clement Atlee to a joint session of Congress from the floor of the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister reviews the cooperation and the common ordeal of the United States and Great Britain during the Second World War and reassures his audience of the Labor Party's desire to aid in the task of maintaining world peace. 30 min. 2O0-WTOP-863/864

1945, December. Excerpt of a United States Strategic Bombing Survey interview with a woman identified as "Miss Palchikoff," a medical missionary born in Russia in 1922, who was living in Hiroshima when the atomic bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945. She details her experiences and describes Japanese reactions. (Recording of entire interview is available.) 18 min. 243-363


1946

1946, January 3. Radio address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman on the "Status of the Reconversion Program." The President gives a comprehensive summary of the domestic problems facing America in 1946, which he calls the "year of decision." "Whether we fall into a period of great deflation because of unemployment or reduced wages and purchasing power, or whether we embark upon a period of great inflation with reduced production and spiraling prices, the result will be equally disastrous." 30 min. 2OO-155

1946, January 18. In this special radio broadcast aimed at American servicemen and their dependents, Army Chief of Staff Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower explains the system being followed by the Army in demobilizing its personnel, reassures servicemen about their separation dates, and describes the tasks remaining for the Army in the occupied countries. 15 min. 200-WTOP-2153A

1946, February 13. Resignation speech by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes in protest to President Harry S. Truman's nomination of oilman Edwin V. Pauley as Undersecretary of the Navy, an appointment Ickes believes will result in a conflict of interest: "I don't care to stay in an administration where I am expected to commit perjury for the sake of the party." 8 min. 48-533

1946, February 28. "The United Nations Organization," an address to the Overseas Press Club by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, from the Waldorf-Astoria's Grand Ballroom, New York City. Byrnes cites the first evidence of friction with the Soviet Union and the need for the United States to maintain its armed strength to counter world communism, but he disavows any alliances to contain the Soviets: "We will do nothing to break the world into exclusive blocs or spheres of influence. In this atomic age, we will not seek to divide a world that is one and indivisible." The Secretary voices unqualified support for the United Nations and promises that America will defend the U.N. Charter at all costs. 30 min. 208-201

1946, March 5. "The Sinews of Peace." On receiving an honorary degree from Westminster College in Fulton, Mo., Winston Churchill delivers his famous speech on the beginning of the cold war, citing Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe and the outbreak of Communist insurrections all over the world: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.... From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war, I am convinced that there is nothing they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.... If the western democracies stand together in strict adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter, their influence for furthering these principles will be immense and no one is likely to molest them." 75 min. 208-202

1946, March 22. "The Opening of the United Nations Organization." Grover Whalen, member of Mayor O'Dwyer's Committee on the United Nations for New York City's government, introduces Trygve Lie, first Secretary General of the U.N. Lie resolves to make the Charter function despite the first appearances of big power frictions in the organization: "We firmly intend to maintain the peace.... We are all in this thing together." (An Office of War Information rebroadcast; includes two choruses of a new song devoted to the United Nations.) 15 min. 208-204

1946, April 13. "Is Congress Doing the Job Regarding Price Control?" Radio debate between Senator Homer Capehart (R., Ind.) and Senator Glen Taylor (D., Idaho), moderated by Ed Hart. Taylor argues for the continuation of price controls and the Office of Price Administration "indefinitely." Capehart maintains that the OPA has failed to control prices, has stifled productivity, and has created black markets; it "can and should be eliminated soon." 15 min. 188-171

1946, April 16. "The Famine Threatening Half the World." Special radio roundtable discussion among four of the American public officials most concerned with alleviating famine in the postwar world: Herbert Hoover, Honorary Chairman of the Famine Emergency Committee; Fiorello La Guardia, Director General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration; Clinton B. Anderson, Secretary of Agriculture; and President Harry S. Truman, who reassures the listening audience that "the warm heart of America will respond to the greatest threat of mass starvation in the history of mankind...." While the last three officials speak from the White Mouse, Hoover broadcasts his message over shortwave radio from Cairo, Egypt. 30 min. 2O0-170

1946, April 26. A program in the radio series "Meet the Press," with guest Paul Porter, Head, Office of Price Administration, being questioned by reporters Bert Andrews, New York Herald Tribune; Cecil Dixon, Gannett Publications; Harold War, Associated Press; and Lawrence E. Spivak, American Mercury. Porter defends his agency, answers questions on specific cases of price control problems, and warns that inflation and "the heginning of a depression" will occur if the OPA is dismantled. NBC. 30 min. 188-177*

1946, May 9. Statement recorded by Dr. Albert Einstein at Princeton University for broadcast during the Student World Government rally at Northwestern University, Chicago. Einstein calls for world government following the necessary American rapprochement with Russia. 12 min. 2O0-852

1946, May 12. "Can We Break the Black Market?" A radio debate on Northwestern University's "Reviewing Stand" program. Dean James McVerney of the School of Speech moderates the discussion among Edward L. Cleary, Chicago Automobile Trade Association; Arthur B. Mauer, Independent Meat Packers Association; and Amos Kaufmann, regional enforcement officer for the Office of Price Administration. MBS (WGN). 29 min. 188-172*

1946, May 19. From a weekly radio series sponsored by Liberty magazine, Fiorello La Guardia moderates a debate between a National Association of Manufacturers' representative, who calls for the abolition of the Office of Price Administration, and chief OPA executive Paul Porter, who accuses the NAM of trying to destroy the OPA so that "postwar profiteers" can raise prices. La Guardia departs frequently from the role of moderator to rebut the NAM position. 15 min. 188-173

1946, May 21. Midnight press conference in the office of Secretary of Interior Julius A. Krug after a day of futile negotiations between labor and management in the coal industry. With both parties at an impasse, Krug announces that the Federal Government must now assume management's role in the negotiations. 13 min. 48-541

1946, May 25. "Legislation for Industrial Peace," special message to a joint session of Congress by President Harry S. Truman concerning the current railroad strike and its disastrous impact on the Nation's economy: "This is no longer a dispute between labor and management. It has now become a strike against the Government itself. That kind of strike can never be tolerated." As the President concludes his address, the Secretary of the Senate hands him a bulletin announcing the capitulation of the union. 21 min. 200-173

1946, May 28. "Operation Crossroads," a special radio forum on strategies for survival in the atomic age, broadcast on the eve of the atomic weapons test at Bikini Atoll. Moderator Robert Trout introduces a variety of well-known public figures who discuss their solutions and fears on the problem of world control of atomic energy: Gen. George Kenny, USAF; Dr. Harold C.Urey, Nobel Prize winning chemist; Senator Brian MacMahon; Edith Wilikie; Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes; Congressman Gerald Voorhees; Harold Stassen; Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas; former Ambassador to Moscow Joseph E. Davies; Dr. Albert Einstein; Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace; and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish. CBS. 60 min. 208-214*

1946, June 14. "World Control of Atomic Energy," address by Bernard Baruch to the opening session of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, rebroadcast overseas by the Office of War Information. After an introduction by U.N. Secretary General Trygve Lie, Baruch discusses the peril of the human situation in a nuclear age: "We are here to make a choice between the quick and the dead.... we must elect world peace or world destruction." He announces that America is ready to "proscribe and destroy this weapon" if the other powers agree and that there must be a viable system of inspection for any plan to work. "All of us want to stand erect with our faces to the sun, instead of being forced to burrow into the earth like rats." 51 min. 2O8-215

1946, June 29. On the eve of the expiration of price controls, President Harry S. Truman explains in a radio message to the Nation why he has rejected the price control bill that has just passed in Congress: "I came to the conclusion that the bill which the Congress sent me was no price control bill at all. It gave you no protection against higher and higher prices." With this veto, "now every member [of Congress] has a clear cut opportunity to show whether or not he wants effective price control." 20 min. 2O0-175

1946, June 30. In a combined radio network broadcast aboard the Operation Crossroads command ship Mt. McKinley, correspondent Ralph Howard Peterson describes the scene in Bikini Lagoon after the explosion of an atomic test device. Other newsmen and correspondents stationed on different ships and outposts around the lagoon add their impressions. (Shortwave interference is present in part of the program.) NBC. 30 min. 2O0-231*

1946, July 21. "Subversive Activities," a radio drama in the "This Is Our Duty" series sponsored by the American Legion and designed to develop "100% Amencanism" in the listening audience. Introduced with the theme that "in America today, subversive elements thrive and prosper as never before," the program tells the story of an idealistic young man being politically seduced by Communist-front group organizer "Max Brettman," until the young man's father is able to confront "Brettman" and expose him. 15 min. 2O0-341

1946, September 6. Major foreign policy address by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes from the State Theater Building, Stuttgart, Germany; shortwave broadcast by Armed Forces Radio. Byrnes attacks "obstructions" thrown up by Soviet Russia to the reunification and economic recovery of Germany: "The Control Council is neither governing Germany nor allowing Germany to govern herself.... The Potsdam Agreement did not provide that there should never be a central German government.... The American people want to return the government of Germany to the German people." 45 min. 2O0-926

1946, September 20. In a broadcast to the Nation from his apartment in the Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D.C., Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace explains his decision to comply with President Harry S. Truman's request for his resignation following Wallace's "One World" speech at Madison Square Garden. Wallace reaffirms his dedication to the "One World" principle and states: "I intend to carry on the fight for peace." 5 min. 200-934

1946, October 10. "The Executions at Nuremberg," report by correspondent Arthur Gaeth for the combined American radio networks. Gaeth describes his previous tour of the city prison and witnessing the deaths on the gallows of convicted Nazi war criminals. He recalls their dying words: Julius Streicher, "The Bolshevists will one day hang you!"; Fritz Sauckel, "I die innocently."; Seyss-Inquart, "I hope that this execution is the last act of tragedy of the Second World War." Gaeth concludes that "there were no cowards among these men." 23 min. 200-234

1946, October 18. Special radio report to the American people by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes on the progress of the Paris Peace Conference. Detailing the failures of the Conference, Byrnes charges primary responsibility to the Soviet Union: "It is the idea of the inevitability of conflict that is throttling the economic recovery of Europe. It is an idea that is causing artificial tensions between states and within states." 30 min. 2O0-928

1946, October 23. President Harry S. Truman's address to the opening session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York City: "The highest obligation of this Assembly is to speak for all mankind in such a way as to promote the unity of all members in behalf of a peace that will be lasting because it is founded upon justice." 30 min. 2O0-237

1946, December 25. In his annual Christmas message to the British Commonwealth, King George VI reviews the privations of the war years, the difficulties of postwar readjustment, and adds words of encouragement to his subjects. 15 min. 2O0-12O8

Ca. 1946. "A Dollar Ain't A Dollar Any More," a country blues musical program produced by the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, Professions, and Sciences in support of the continuation of the Office of Price Administration and its policies. Musicians Pete Seeger, Butch Hawes, and Tom Glazier perform: "We Gotta Save the OPA," "I'm a'going to Starve (If They Don't Wise Up on Capitol Hill)," "I'm as Mad as I Can Be," "The Inflation Talkin' Blues," "The Depression Blues," and theme song "A Dollar Ain't A Dollar Any More." 15 min. 188-32A


1947

1947, January 16. "Should Rent Ceilings Be Lifted?" an edition of the "Town Meeting of the Air" radio series presented by the New York Herald Tribune, with George V. Denny as moderator. Herbert U. Nelson, Executive Vice President of the National Association of Real Estate Boards, and Congressman Albert Gore (D., Tenn.) debate pro and con positions followed by questions from R. J. Thomas, Chairman of the CIO Committee on Housing; Douglas Whitlock, Chairman of the Buildings Products Institute; and the studio audience. ABC. 60 min. 188-186*

1947, February 11. On the eve of Lincoln's Birthday, Republican Senator Robert Taft broadcasts to the Nation, calling for curbs on the power of the Executive Branch of the Government and a return of power to local and State governments. 20 min. 2O-WTOP-1127A/1128B

1947, March 12. "The Truman Doctrine," President Harry S. Truman's special message to Congress, reviewing the crisis situation in Greece and Turkey torn by civil war. Truman pledges American aid and maintains that the ideals of the United Nations cannot work "unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against agressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes." 23 min. 2O0-245

1947, March 17. In his annual St. Patrick's Day radio message to the American people, Prime Minister of Ireland Eamon de Valera reviews the plight of the Irish people and their efforts to reconstruct the economy, and he protests the continued partition of his country. 15 min. 200-1219

1947, March 26. Testimony of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover before the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings concerning the Communist Party in the U.S. Hoover states: "I have always felt that the greatest contribution that this committee could make is the public disclosure of the forces that menace America, Communist and Fascist. That is why the venom of the American Communist and the now-defunct German-American Bund has been directed at the committee, as it has also been directed at the Federal Bureau of Investigation." 45 min. 200-G-2072/2703

1947, March 26. Recorded proceedings of the Inter-Asia Relations Conference, Delhi, India. Excerpts of the first session include a major address by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on the role of the conference in bringing about a "new day" for all Asians, a speech by Indian poet and Conference Chairperson Sarojini Naidu on Asian and Indian culture and its role in world history, and opening remarks by the leaders of the various Asian delegations. 83 min. 200-292

1947, April 2. "The Message of Asia," extemporaneous speech by Mahatma Gandhi during the final session of the Inter-Asia Relations Conference, Delhi, India. Correspondent Alfred Wagg furnishes background commentary. Gandhi discusses the superiority of the culture of India and Asia, which he asserts will save mankind: "You, friends, have not seen the real India.... I have seen the miserable specimens of humanity, lusterless eyes. Yet, they are India." 30 min. 2O0-29O

1947, April 3. Correspondent Alfred Wagg, covering the Inter-Asia Relations Conference, Delhi, India, for the Mutual Broadcasting System, interviews Viet Minh officials Tran Van Giao and Tran Van Lon. They discuss their determination to expel the French from Vietnam, the non-Communist nature of the Viet Minh political program, and the difficulties attending negotiations with Indochina. 29 min. 200-293

1947, June 5. Speaking at Harvard University commencement ceremonies, newly appointed Secretary of State George C. Marshall delivers a foreign policy address outlining his plan for saving the economy of Europe from imminent collapse: "I need not tell you gentlemen that the world situation is very serious.... Europe's requirements for the next three or four years.... are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial help.... It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." 12 min. 200-788

1947, June 12. In a radio message broadcast overseas, Senator Arthur Vandenburg, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, reassures the Greek people that the United States will not permit the Communists to take over their country: "If the freedom of the Greek people.... is suddenly removed, we Americans feel that our freedom is threatened too." 5 min. 208-610

1947, June 20. Radio address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman explaining his veto of the Taft-Hartley bill: "I vetoed this bill because I am convinced it is a bad bill. It is bad for labor, bad for management, and bad for the country.... The bill is deliberately designed to weaken labor unions.... It is loaded with provisions that would plague and hamper management." 16 min. 200-273

1947, June 29. From the closing ceremonies of the 38th Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, held at the Lincoln Memorial, Executive Secretary Walter F. White provides a brief history of his organization, its accomplishments, and the difficulties encountered by the black veteran in the postwar wave of racism. President Harry S. Truman speaks on the remaining tasks in achieving racial equality in America: "Our immediate task is to remove the last remnants of the barriers which stand between millions of our citizens and their birthright." Music by solist Carol Bryce and the U.S. Marine Band. 30 min. 200-274

1947, August 9. Broadcast summary from the proceedings of the "Senate Hearing Into Improprieties in Aircraft Procurement During World War II," featuring testimony by Col. Elliott Roosevelt and Senator Owen Brewster, each answering charges of influence-peddling, and arguments between aircraft executive Howard Hughes, Committee Chairman Homer Ferguson, and Senator Claude Pepper. 55 min. 200-WTOP-1478/1479

1947, September 2. Address to the Inter-American Conference in Rio de Janeiro by President Harry S. Truman, broadcast to America via shortwave radio. The President sums up the tasks facing the American nations in the new and unexpectedly demanding era of the cold war: "The people of the United States engaged in the recent war in the deep faith that we were opening the way to a free world....The postwar era, however, has brought us bitter disappointment and deep concern...." 25 min. 2O0-275

1947, October 23. Broadcast summary of proceedings of the House Un-American Activities Committee "Hearings Regarding Communism in the Motion Picture Industry." On the fourth day of hearings, Robert Montgomery, Ronald Reagan, George Murphy, and Gary Cooper attack Communist influences and methods in the industry. 30 min. 2O0-WTOP-1084/1085

1947, October 24. Radio address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman, explaining why he has called an emergency session of the Congress: "Our domestic prosperity is endangered by the threat of inflation. The peace of the world is endangered by hunger and cold in other lands. These obstacles must be overcome by prompt and courageous action. Legislation by the Congress is essential." 20-min. 2O0-279

1947, October 27. Broadcast summary of the second week of testimony presented before the House Un-American Activities Committee "Hearings Regarding Communism in the Motion Picture Industry." Veteran screenwriter John Howard Lawson defies the committee's authority and Eric Johnson, head of Motion Picture Association, testifies against censorship in the film industry. 30 min. 2O0-1182


1948

1948, January 5. "Republican Radio Rally," a roundtable discussion by leading Republicans on the need to defeat the Democrats in the 1948 elections. Carroll Reese, Chairman of the Republican National Committee, moderates a discussion among Senators Robert Taft and Eugene Milliken and Congressmen Charles Halleck and Joseph Martin. Halleck: "The truth is, the Truman administration has no sound solution for any of our national problems. All it wants is power, and more power, to regiment the people. That's the road to collapse and ruin." 25 min. 200-G-2011/2012

1948, January 7. "The State of the Union." President Harry S. Truman reviews the problems facing the United States, particularly the threat of inflation at home and the threat of Communist expansion overseas: "The state of our Union reflects the changing nature of the modern world. On all sides there is heartening evidence of great energy.... But accompanying this great activity there are equally great questions, great anxieties, and great aspirations." 46 min. 2OO-283

1948, March 17. A program in the "Congressional Roundup" radio series, with Don Pryor as moderator. Recent defense and foreign policy issues are debated by Senator Joseph Ball (R., Minn.), Representative Robert Sikes (D., Fla.), and Senator Glen Taylor (Progressive Party, Idaho). Special attention is given to President Truman's message to Congress on renewal of Selective Service and universal military training and on support of European recovery. CBS. 15 min. 2O0-WTOP-895*

1948, March 17. Address to a joint session of Congress by President Harry S. Truman, who calls for American support to counter the encroachments of the Soviet Union on the sovereignty of Eastern European nations: "The tragic death of the Republic of Czechoslovakia has sent a shock throughout the civilized world." Truman requests approval for economic and military aid to Europe and the enactment of selective service legislation. 22 min. 2O0-287

1948, June 24. Special news report from the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, with correspondents Bill Shidell, Quincy Howe, Bill Henry, and Griffin Bancroft. They discuss the emergency recess just called by anti-Dewey forces and speculate on Governor Dewey's probable nomination on the upcoming third ballot. CBS. 15 min. 2O0-WTOP-336B*

1948, July 13. Broadcast summary of testimony by Elizabeth Bentley, former Communist agent, before the House Un-American Activities Committee "Hearings on Proposed Legislation to Curb and Control the Communist Party." In response to questions from F. Edward Hebert and Richard M. Nixon, Bentley replies "that the mistake people make, when you look at communism, is that you take it as intellectual process. It is not; it is almost a religion." 15 min. 2O0-G-1967

1948, July 15. Address by President Harry S. Truman in Philadelphia, Pa., accepting the nomination at the Democratic National Convention: "The people know that the Democratic Party is the people's party, and the Republican Party is the party of special interest.... And in the record is the stark truth that the battle lines of 1948 are the same as they were in 1932, when the Nation lay prostrate and helpless as a result of Republican misrule and inaction.... The country can't afford another Republican Congress." 30 min. 2O0-3O3

1948, August 4. Broadcast summary of the day's proceedings before the House Un-American Activities Committee "Hearings into Proposed Legislation to Curb and Control the Communist Party." Alleged Soviet spy Nathan Silvermaster is questioned by Representatives Richard Nixon, Karl Mundt, John Rankin, and Chief Committee Investigator Robert E. Stripling. 15 min. 2O0-G-2136

1948, August 5. Broadcast summary from the House Un-American Activities Committee "Hearings into Proposed Legislation to Curb and Control the Communist Party." Includes testimony from Alger Hiss concerning allegations made by Whittaker Chambers and testimony concerning alleged shipments of uranium to Russia during World War II. Committee member John Rankin calls for an appearance by former Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace to explain his appointments of alleged Communist spies to key Government positions. 15 min. 2OO-G-2137

1948, September 6. Labor Day campaign address in Cadillac Square, Detroit, Mich., by President Harry S. Truman: "If you let the Republican administration reactionaries get complete control of this Government, the position of labor will be so greatly weakened that I would fear, not only for the wages and living standards of the American workingman, but even for our Democratic institutions of free labor and free enterprise." 23 min. 2O0-3O5

1948, October 19. Campaign address by President Harry S. Truman at the State Fairgrounds, Raleigh, N.C.: "You remember the Hoover cart.... [,]the remains of the old tin lizzie being pulled by a mule because you couldn't afford to buy a new car, you couldn't afford to buy gas for the old one....This year the Republicans are putting on a terrific advertising campaign in order to sell you the same old brand of Hoover carts." 30 min. 200-309

1948, November. Special broadcast by correspondent William L. Shirer from Berlin on the massive airlift of essential materials to the city after the Soviets had blockaded land routes. "It's difficult to describe the airlift-difficult, I suppose, because there's never been anything like it before.... [;] it has impressed Europe more than anything else we've done since the end of the war. It has astounded the Russians." CBS 15 min. 20O-G-1974*

1948, November 10. From a program in the special series "You and Television," host Lyman Bryson interviews Edward R. Murrow, who discusses the capacity of television to distort as well as report the news and the probable effect the new medium will have on the political process. CBS. 15 min. 200-WTOP-2677*


1949

1949, January 5. Address by President Harry S. Truman to a joint session of Congress on the State of the Union: "The United States.... have achieved the greatest prosperity the world has ever seen. But.... we still have a long way to go-many of our shortcomings stand out in bold relief.... Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to expect from our Government a fair deal." 35 min. 2O0-315

1949, January 19. President Harry S. Truman addresses a dinner of the Presidential Electors Association in Washington and imitates NBC radio commentator H.V. Kaltenborn's election night broadcast in November 1948 that gave a premature assessment of the impending victory of Thomas E. Dewey. 3 1/2 min. 200-1655

1949, February 11. "The Trial of Cardinal Mindszenty," special news report broadcast from Vienna by correspondent Gabriel Kressman, who describes the proceedings of the trial in Budapest, the reactions of the Hungarian people, and contrasts the trial with American and "free world" judicial processes. CBS. 15 min. 200WTOP-714A *

1949, February 24. Address at the annual Jefferson-Jackson Day dinner, Washington, D.C., by President Harry S. Truman: "The central issue of the campaign last fall was the welfare of all the people against special privilege for the few. When we made it clear where the Democratic Party stood on that issue, the people made it clear where they stood with us." 30 min. 2O0-317

1949, March 8. Statement by Emperor Bao Dai of Vietnam expressing his confidence in a growing reconciliation between the "independence of Vietnam with the French Union" based on the agreement of June 5, 1948. The Emperor states that this reconciliation is the popular will of both peoples and together Indochina and France will share a common prosperity in the economic association. (In French.) 5 min. 2O0-1291

1949, March 31. "Humanity, Technology, and the Cold War," address by Sir Winston Churchill delivered at the Boston Gardens for the Midcentury Convention on the Social Implications of Scientific Progress, sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Karl Compton, president of MIT, and Bernard Baruch introduce Churchill, who maintains that the principal problem facing technologists is human want: "It is quite certain that mankind will not agree to starve equally.... and there might be sharp disagreement about how the last crust would be shared." Churchill traces the miseries of the world wars and alleges the Communists have destroyed universal hope for peace after the Second World War. "We are now confronted with something quite as wicked, but in some ways more formidable than Hitler," Churchill maintains, and he calls on free world peoples to show fortitude and steel their nerves for the struggle. He concludes: "United we stand secure-fearing God, and nothing else!" 60 min. 2O0-320

1949, May 17. Press conference by Gen. Lucius Clay on his return from commanding U.S. occupation forces in Germany. Clay answers questions on the status of Germany, especially relative to the Soviet threat, and expresses the opinion that American troops should remain in Germany "until there is a stable Europe." 20 min. 165-16

1949, July 13. Radio address to the Nation on the state of the national economy by President Harry S. Truman, who makes public the contents of his midyear economic report recently sent to Congress: "We are going through an economic change which is the result of the inflationary spiral that we were in until a few months ago.... The very heart of sound Government finance is to make the expenditures that are necessary to help achieve prosperity and peace." 30 min. 200-343

1949, August 22. "The Nation's Defenses," first show in a series described by host Charles Collingwood as "an unprecedented attempt to examine the nature and condition of our national defenses." Guests are Secretary of Defense Louis B. Johnson and Chief Advisor to the Secretary of State George F. Kennan, who discuss America's military and diplomatic readiness. CBS. 29 min. 330-4*

1949, October 12. "What the Russian Atom Bomb Means to the U.S.A.," a broadcast by Gen. Omar Bradley from Akron, Ohio. Bradley cites the recent detonation of a nuclear weapon by the Soviet Union and attempts to assess its impact on American policy and possible U.S. responses to situations involving atomic confrontation. 16 min. 330-54

1949, October 13. Address to a joint session of Congress by Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, who discusses the common ideals shared by the United States and India despite different cultural heritages and pledges future friendship in the postwar era. 20 min. 2O0-WTOP-685A/B

1949, October 23. Special radio report on the congressional hearings concerning the B-36 bomber. Commentator Alan Jackson provides the unifying narrative; recordings from the hearings depict the struggle between the U.S. Navy and the Air Force over the role of the bomber and the respective importance of the two services in the national defense. CBS. 25 min. 2O0-WTOP-2857/2858*

Ca. 1949. After spending 6 years in command of the 8th Army troops occupying Japan, Gen. Robert Eichelberger meets with the press and discusses Japanese character and culture, Japanese reactions to the Americans in the occupation force, the character of the occupation force itself, and the menace of communism in the Far East. 25 min. 165-15


1950

1950, June 26. U.N. Secretary General Trygve Lie speaks on the "United or Not" press conference series sponsored by the United Nations and the U.N. Correspondents' Association. "The Korean Crisis," Lie maintains, "is a symptom and effect of the deadlock which divides the world.... It only serves to support my conviction that a start must be made toward settling the differences between the major powers." Lie also answers questions on French colonialism, Arab politics, control of atomic weapons, and so forth. ABC. 30 min. 306-18

1950, July 4. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's speech to the Boy Scout encampment at Valley Forge, transcribed and rebroadcast over the Mutual Broadcasting System later the same day. Eisenhower speaks principally of the global struggle with communism to which every American must be committed: "I believe that any among us who embraces communism or its purposes, thereby becomes an enemy of America." The general also speaks on Valley Forge and its place in history, the values of George Washington, and the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag; then he leads the Scouts in the Pledge. 15 min. 306-17

1950, July 4. "The Attack on Korea," a speech by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, delivered from the grounds of the Washington Monument: "On this Independence Day, our thoughts are irresistably drawn to Korea.... The attack on Korea represents the timeless issue of whether lovers of liberty will be vigilant enough, brave enough, and united enough to survive despotism." 15 min. 306-19

1950, July 19. Radio and television address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman summarizing his earlier message to Congress on the situation in Korea: "The free nations have now made it clear that lawless aggression will be met with force. The free nations have learned the fateful lesson of the 1930's . . [;] appeasement leads only to further aggression and ultimately to war." Truman quotes General MacArthur on the military situation: "Our strength will continually increase while that of the enemy will relatively decrease. His supply line is insecure. He has had his great chance and failed to exploit it...." 30 min. 200-353

1950, August 14. "Korea War Roundup," a program in a weekly transcribed series produced by the Mutual Broadcasting System and the Trans-Canada Network. Participating in the transoceanic panel discussion are: in New York-Mutual correspondents Les Higby, Cedric Foster, and Maj. George Fielding Elliot; in Toronto-J.B. McGeeky, Toronto Globe and Mail; in Tokyo-David Duncan, Life magazine, Ward Price, London Daily Mail, and Bob Steward, MBC. They discuss the current North Korean advance, the failings of the American soldier, and the prospects for military disaster. 30 min. 330-33*

1950, September 1. Radio and television address to the Nation on the situation in Korea by President Harry S. Truman, who explains the reasons for committing United States troops in Korea: "For the first time in all history, men of many nations are fighting together under a single banner to uphold the rule of law in the world.... We cannot hope to maintain our own freedom if freedom elsewhere is wiped out. That is why the American people are united in support of our part in this task." 30 min. 200-357

1950, September 9. Radio and television address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman on the Defense Production Act: "To do our part in building up our military strength and the military strength of the free nations throughout the world, the United States must more than double its defense efforts.... This defense program cannot be achieved on the basis of business as usual.... We must be prepared to accept some reduction in our standard of living." 30 min. 200-358

1950, September 14. Actuality recording made by combat correspondent Ens. Jack Seigal, USN, as he accompanied the Marine landing force ashore at Wolmi Do Island in Inchon Harbor, Korea. Recorded under fire, this recording includes interviews with the Navy beachmaster, the Marine commander, and various other Navy and Marine personnel. 15 min. 330-80

1950, October. Lt. James Black, USAF, interviews President of South Korea Syngman Rhee in the garden of Rhee's residence overlooking Seoul. Rhee praises U.N. air power for its role in liberating the capital city and claims the Korean people do not resent its destruction of their homes: houses can be rebuilt, but "in slavery, nothing matters." 8 min. 330-78

1950, October 3. "Surrender Demand to the Commander in Chief, North Korean People's Army." from Gen. Douglas MacArthur, broadcast by an announcer in the Korean language with English voice-over translation. The North Korean soldiers are advised that further resistance is futile and that they should surrender to avoid further bloodshed: "The early and total defeat and complete destruction of your armed forces and warmaking potential is now inevitable." (Recorded for actual broadcast to the NKPA.) 2 1/2 min. 330-69

1950, October 20. Combat actuality recording made by war correspondent Wes MacPheron as he accompanied the 187th Regimental Combat Team during an airborne assault on Munsan-ni. North Korea. Included are the intelligence briefings the night before the assault, conversations with paratroopers before and during the actual operation, the recording of MacPheron jumping from the airplane by parachute and landing in the combat drop zone, the sounds of the relief column reaching the assault team the next day, and the press conference held on the battlefield by commanding officer Brig. Gen. Frank S. Bowen as the operation ends. 16 min. 330-337C

1950, October 24. Special program on the fifth anniversary of the United Nations, broadcast via Armed Forces Radio to U.S. military personnel overseas. Raymond Burr provides unifying narrative to remarks by Warren Austin, U.S. Delegate to the U.N.; Senator John Foster Dulles; Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall; and Secretary of State Dean Acheson. 30 min. 330-32

1950, November 1. "Assassination Roundup," special radio report on the attempt on President Harry S. Truman's life at Blair House by two Puerto Rican nationalists. Eyewitnesses are interviewed and official reactions reported. Reporter Everett Hollis comments: "Many are asking tonight whether this attempted murder of the President was merely the idea of two crazy fanatics or a deep-dyed plot? And were the Communists involved in this attempt on Mr. Truman's life?" MBC. 15 min. 200-G-2275*

1950, November 27. National Security in Relation to the World Situation. address by Gen. Lucius Clay before the State Dinner of the Southern Governors' Conference, Charleston, S.C. Introduced by former Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, General Clay speaks on U.S. foreign policy commitments worldwide, calls for the rearmament of Germany, discusses lack of progress of NATO programs for common defense, offers support of U.S. expenditures for Europe's economic revitalization, and voices concern over possible further intervention in Korea by the Chinese Communists. 30 min. 330-36

Ca. 1950. Special news report. "The Case of the Flying Saucer." Correspondent Edward R. Murrow provides the unifying narrative to transcribed interviews, news features, and commentary in an attempt to analyze and explain the sightings of unidentified flying objects and to offer possible hypotheses for the phenomenon. 30 min. CBS. 330-85*


1951

1951, February 2. Special broadcast to the Nation from the Pentagon by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower speaking as military Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization forces. The general urges Americans to support NATO and help the European countries resist Soviet expansion. 15 min. 2O0-WTOP-2152A

1951, April 8. Radio and television address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman on the need for Government operation of the steel mills. Blaming management almost exclusively for the crisis in the steel industry. Truman announces he will seize and operate the mills through the Department of Commerce: "A big boost in steel prices would raise the prices of other things all up and down the line.... If we knuckled under to the steel industry, the lid would be off." 26 min. 200-382

1951, April 11. Following his dismissal of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, President Harry S. Truman delivers a radio and television address to the Nation. The President defends the U.S. intervention in Korea: "The attack on Korea was part of a greater plan for conquering all of Asia.... Our resolute stand in Korea is helping the forces of freedom now fighting in Indochina." Truman maintains, however, that the Korean conflict must be kept limited: "What would suit the ambitions of the Kremlin better than for our military forces to he committed to a full-scale war with Red China?.... A number of events have made it evident that General MacArthur did not agree with that policy. I have therefore considered it essential to relieve General MacArthur." 21 min. 200-364

1951, April 12. Radio roundtable discussion among correspondents Bill Hillman, Everett Hollis, Leslie Higby, and Joseph McCafferey on attitudes in Washington, D.C., following President Harry S. Truman's dismissal of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The correspondents discuss also its possible effects on U.S. policies. MBS. 15 min. 330-67A*

1951, April 12. "Man-in-the-street" interviews conducted by newsman Ray Morgan along K Street NW.. Washington, D.C.. on Gen. Douglas MacArthur's dismissal by President Harry S. Truman. Responses range from support to anger and suspicion. MBS. 18 min. 330-67B*

1951, April 19. "Farewell Address" to a joint session of Congress by Gen. Douglas MacArthur; introduction by Speaker Sam Rayburn. MacArthur warns his audience of the menace of world communism, its particular virulence in modern Asia, and the need for placement of U.S. strategic frontiers on Taiwan and other outposts; he defends his own opposition to the policy of limited war in Korea: "War's very object is victory--not prolonged indecision. In war, indeed, there is no substitute for victory.... Why, my soldiers asked me, surrender military advantages to an enemy in the field? I could not answer.... I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Goodbye." 42 min. 330-66

1951, May. "The Defeat of the Communist Spring Offensive," press conference by Gen. Matthew Ridgeway from Tokyo after his return from the Korean front. Ridgeway describes how U.N. forces defeated a major Communist drive that began on April 22: "Never.... have the Communist masters revealed more clearly their cynical disregard for the lives of their own men than in this continuing, deliberate slaughter.... With them, there is no compromise." 18 min. 330-337

1951, June 14. Radio and television address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman on the need for extending inflation controls. The President reads letters from Americans on fixed incomes who plead for extended controls, he castigates the National Association of Manufacturers for opposing controls, and he praises the work of the Office of Price Stabilization: "Everybody should understand that the price rises we have had so far are only curtain raisers to what will come along if the Congress fails to pass a strong price control law." 30 min. 200-369

1951, June 26. "The Korean War: The First Year," special anniversary program in the "Time for Defense" radio series produced by the Department of Defense and broadcast by the American Broadcasting Company. Featured are actuality recordings of jet combat and airborne assaults on North Korea, a report on the naval bombardment of Wonsan, a description of the retreat of Task Force Smith from the 38th parallel to the Pusan Perimeter, a presentation of the Medal of Honor by President Truman at the White House, a report on wounded soldiers in Korean hospitals, and a choral hymn by a Seoul choir. 30 min. 330-TFD-54

1951, July 3. Program from the "Longines Chronoscope" television series, sponsored by the Longines-Wittnauer Watch Company, with guest Dr. Tingfu F. Tsiang, Chinese (Nationalist) Ambassador to the United Nations. Interviewed by William Bradford Huie, editor of American Mercury, and Henry Hazlitt, editor of Freeman magazine, Tsiang is asked about the Korean cease fire talks, veto power in the U.N. and chances for peace in the Far East, Russia, and China. 15 min. 200-LW-3

1951, August 14. President Harry S. Truman speaks at the dedication of the new Washington headquarters of the American Legion, making a veiled attack upon McCarthyism. President Truman states that "true Americanism" is under at tack by Communists and that it is under attack also "by people in this country who are loudly proclaiming that they are its chief defenders.... Character assassination is their stock in trade. Guilt by association is their motto." Truman is greeted by a band rendition of "Hail to the Chief." 15 min. 200-372

1951, August 24. Special broadcast by Senator Joseph McCarthy (R., Wis.) responding to President Harry S. Truman's speech of August 14 that attacks McCarthyism. McCarthy reiterates his charges that Communists have infiltrated the Federal Government and questions Truman's loyalty: "On July 27, 1944, the Dally Worker wrote an article about the Democrat Convention, which had just selected Truman over Wallace for Vice President. The whole tenor of the article was that the Worker approved and that Truman was their second choice after Wallace." 15 min. 200-1664

1951, September 4. Address by President Harry S. Truman in San Francisco at the opening of the Conference on the Japanese Peace Treaty: ".... it is a treaty that will work. It does not contain the seeds of another war. It is a treaty of reconciliation, which looks to the future and not to the past." 30 min. 200-373

1951, November 7. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's press conference on his departure for Europe to serve as Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Forces. He discusses NATO capabilities and requirements and indicates that he is unable to comment on rumors of his availability for the Presidential nomination while on active duty. 14 min. 33O-353

1951, November 7. President Harry S. Truman's radio and television address to the Nation on the joint disarmament proposal made to the U.N. General Assembly by the United States, Great Britain, and France: "It may seem strange to talk about reducing armed forces and armaments when we are working so hard to build up our military strength. But there is nothing inconsistent about these two things.... If we can't get security and peace one way, we must get it the other way." 30 min. 2O0-376

1951, November 16. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (R., Wis.) interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by Col. Ansel Talbert, editor of the New York Herald Tribune, and William Bradford Huie, editor of American Mercury. McCarthy is questioned about atrocity reports from Korea, his "fight against the State Department," and prospects for the 1952 election. 15 min. 200-LW-28

1951, December 7. Arthur Garfield Hays, constitutional lawyer and general counsel for the Civil Liberties Union, interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by Victor Riesel, labor columnist for the New York Daily Mirror, and William Bradford Huie. Hays is questioned about the social and political impact of Senator Joseph McCarthy's methods and the ensuing danger to civil liberties. 15 min. 200-LW-3l

Ca. 1951. From the Korean front, radio combat correspondent Wes MacPheron interviews black enlisted men and white and black officers of the 96th Field Artillery on their views of the conflict; included is a rapid-fire howitzer demonstration and a rendition of the spiritual "On the Battlefield for My Lord" by men of the unit. 10 min. 330-339


1952

1952, January 14. Harold E. Stassen, president of the University of Pennsylvania and former Governor of Minnesota, interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Henry Hazlitt. Stassen answers questions about his chances of securing the Presidential nomination, foreign policy, an Eisenhower draft, primary elections, socialism, Korean negotiations, and dismissal of Gen. Douglas MacArthur by President Harry S. Truman. 15 min. 2O0-LW-42

1952, February 11. Senator Estes Kefauver (D., Tenn.) interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Henry Hazlitt, on domestic and foreign policy matters, the Truman administration, sounder finances for the country, and more adequate measures to curb corruption. 15 min. 2O-LW-54

1952, March 14. Senator Hubert Humphrey (D., Minn) interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by Edgar Baker, managing director of Time-Life international and Henry Hazlitt, on his recent victory in securing tax reform legislation and on patronage in the Internal Revenue Service. 15 min. 2O0-LW-69

1952, April 22. Gen. Matthew Ridgeway in an address to a joint session of the Congress on his return from the Far East as Supreme Commander of U.N. forces. Ridgeway reviews his assumption of command in Korea following U.N. combat reverses and organization of a counteroffensive, and he speaks on current truce negotiations, Chinese Communists, and U.S. relations with Japan. 29 min. 330-393.

1952, May 7. Senator Everett M. Dirksen (R., I11.) interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradord Huie and Donald I. Rogers, financial editor of the New York Herald Tribune. Dirksen responds to questions about the Senate bill to limit powers of the Wage Stabilization Board, Government seizure of the steel industry, credit controls, and the Presidential campaign. 15 min. 2OO-LW-417

1952, June 10. Radio and television address to the Nation by President Harry S. Truman, who explains the Supreme Court decision that forced him to rescind his Executive order to control the steel mills. President Truman urges the Congress to seize and operate the mills and requests passage of a seizure law in lieu of using the Taft-Hartley Act, which would be "unwise, unfair, and possibly ineffective." Reporter David Brinkley recaps speech. NBC. 30 min. 330-397*

1952, June 14. Speech by President Harry S. Truman at Groton, Conn., at keel-laying of first atomic energy submarine, the U.S.S. Nautilus: "I pray that this ship, this first atomic submarine, will never have an enemy to fight. 1 hope she will be tied up someday as an historic relic of a threat of war long passed." 24 min. 2O0-387

1952, June 25 Senator Joseph McCarthy (R., Wis.) interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Donald I. Rogers, answers questions on prospects for the 1952 election, his senatorial reelection campaign, his book McCarthyism: The Fight for America, and his exposure of "Communists" and "crooks" in the Federal Government. 15 min. 2O0-LW-114

1952, July 2. Robert Morris, special counsel, Internal Security Subcommittee (McCarran Committee), interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Donald I. Rogers regarding investigation of the Institute of Pacific Relations, foreign policy in the Far East, suspected Communists connected with I.P.R. and the U.S. Government, and the McCarran Committee's grand jury recommendations. 15 min. 200-LW-419

1952, July 26. Adlai Stevenson, accepting the Presidential nomination at Democratic National Convention, reaffirms strength of party, castigates Republicans, and promises a dignified, rational campaign: "Let's talk sense to the American people." Speech interrupted by prolonged cheering as President Harry S. Truman and Vice President Alben Barkley approach podium to stand with Stevenson; includes two choruses of "Hail to the Chief." 22 min. 64-l2

1952, August 8. Dr. Willy Ley, scientist and author of Rockets, Missles, and Space Travel. Interviewed on "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Henry Hazlitt. He discusses flying saucers and other unidentified flying objects, future space travel. and recommendations for establishment of a coordinating Government agency for all space exploration projects. 15 min. 200-LW-124

1952, September 19. Scott W. Lucas, former Democratic Senator of Illinois, interviewed on "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Elliott Haynes, editor of United Nations World. Lucas answers questions about irregularities in the 1952 Presidential campaign and alleged misuse of campaign funds by Vice-Presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon. 15 min. 2O0-LW-420

1952, September 23. Vice-Presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon's radio and television address to the Nation, replying to charges of irregularities in procuring his campaign contributions and misuse of campaign funds: he denies all accusations, reviews his financial and political career, and appeals for public support: "It is not easy to come before a nationwide audience and bare your life, as I have....I know that this is not the last of the smears....I intend to continue to fight...." 30 min. 2OO-1124

1952, October 7. Congressman John F. Kennedy (D., Mass.) and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R., Mass.), are interviewed on the "Keep Posted" public affairs television program on the topic: "Who can do more for America, Eisenhower or Stevenson?" Kennedy and Lodge are questioned by Martha Roundtree; Lawrence Spivak; Sylvia Porter of the New York Post and the Boston Herald; Mark van Doren, professor of literature, Columbia University; and members of a "citizens" panel. CBS. 30 min. 64-41*

1952, October 24. Republican Presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a campaign address from Masonic Temple, Detroit, Mich. Opening of address is delayed by chants: "We want Ike!" General Eisenhower blames Korean conflict on the failures of the Democratic administration's foreign policies in Asia: "The Korean war more than any other war in our history, simply and swiftly followed the collapse of our political defenses." He pledges an early and honorable end to the conflict if elected and promises, "I shall go to Korea!" 30 min. 306-21


1953

1953, January 20. "Inaugural Ceremonies": the Vice-Presidential oath of office is administered to Richard M. Nixon. Eugene Conley sings "America the Beautiful," prayers and invocations are offered. Chief Justice Fred Vinson administers the Presidential oath to Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Eisenhower delivers the inaugural address. 33 min. 200-425A

1953, February 16. Socialist leader Dr. Norman Thomas interviewed on "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Hardy Burt, author and correspondent. Dr. Thomas criticizes the new Eisenhower administration regarding Formosa. and he discusses Chiang Kai-shek, communism, bombing of Manchurian bases, recognition of Red China, Korean truce, the next world war, taxes, and world peace. 15 min. 2O0-LW-428

1953, March 9. Speech from Red Square by Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, head of the Foreign Office, at the funeral of Joseph Stalin. (In Russian.) 15 min. 2O0-1299

1953, March 17. CBS newsman Charles CoIlingwood reports on the atomic explosion at Yucca Flats, Nev. Collingwood describes the preparations, the actual blast, and the aftermath. 16 min. 2O0-388*

1953, March 20. "Bomb Target, U.S.A.," radio documentary narrated by Arthur Godfrey on the current state of America's defense readiness against atomic attack. Correspondents Charles Collingwood, Dave Moore, and Peter Hackes cover a simulated "enemy" atomic attack designed to test defense reactions. The program includes interviews with military leaders, civil defense officials, and private citizens. CBS. 60 min. 330-160*

1953, April 16. President Eisenhower's address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Statler Hotel, Washington, D.C. The President discusses the importance of the press in American society, he reviews the postwar quest for peace, and he appeals to the Soviet Union to end the arms race; ".... the new Soviet leadership now has a precious opportunity to awaken, with the rest of the world, to the point of peril reached, and to help turn the tide of history." 30 min. 200-391

1953, May 25. W. Averell Harriman, former U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain and Russia, now Director of the Mutual Security Agency, interviewed on "Longines Chronoscope" program by William Bradford Huie and Hardy Burt. Harriman gives his interpretation of the Russian peace offensives and his evaluation of the Eisenhower administration. 15 min. 200-LW-436

1953, July 26. "Truce in Korea," radio network coverage of the truce-signing ceremonies with world reactions reported by Robert Pierpoint in Panmunjom, Charles Collingwood in New York, Robert MacKensie in London, and David Schoenbrun in Paris. In an address that followed the signing, President Eisenhower observed: "In this struggle, we have seen the United Nations meet with the challenge of aggression, not with pathetic words of protest, but with deeds of decisive purpose." Secretary of State John Foster Dulles remarked: "For the first time in history, an international organization has stood against an aggressor...." Henry Cabot Lodge presents the truce communique to U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold and President of the General Assembly L.B. Pearson. CBS. 88 min. 330-131*


1954

1954, March 19. Gen. Matthew Ridgeway addresses the National Press Club. General Ridgeway speaks on the concept of modern warfare, the role of a modern army in peacetime, "brush-fire" wars, the impact of new weapons technology, strategic and tactical planning for nuclear warfare, and the necessity of a conventional army. 40 min. 330-157E

1954, March 23. Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson's press conference; Secretary Wilson answers questions about Senator Joseph McCarthy's charges of electronic surveillance, the situation in Indochina, the battle of Dien Bien Phu, and the presence of U.S. advisory personnel in Vietnam. 47 min. 330-157F

1954, April 5. President Eisenhower's radio and television address to the Nation from the White House. President Eisenhower urges Americans to rely on the "spiritual strength" of the country's heritage in an age of anxiety caused by world communism, atomic weapons, and the possibility of depression; he warns that fear of Communist infiltration into the U.S. may lead some "to use intemperate investigative methods, particularly through congressional committees, to combat communistic penetration.... There can be very grave offenses committed against an innocent individual by someone having the immunity of congressional membership." 29 min. 200-405

1954, November 12. Professor Arnold J. Toynbee, British author and historian, interviewed on the "Longines Chronoscope" program by Larry LeSueur and August Heckscher of the New York Herald Tribune. Professor Toynbee assesses the evolution of nations through history, speculates that the discovery of atomic weapons may revolutionize human attitudes toward war, predicts that the Soviet Union and the United States may learn to coexist, and offers qualified optimism for the future of the world. 15 min. 200-LW-5O


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