Holocaust-Era Assets

Looted Assets

1. Aalders, Gerard. "Plundering of Jewish assets during the Second World War". Spoils of War no. 3(December 1996): 47-49.
Note: This report on the dimensions of Nazi theft in the Netherlands and the conversion of loot into cash focuses on the looting of financial assets including stocks and bonds. In 1941-2, Dutch Jews were forced to hand over securities, cash and bank holdings, art, precious metals and jewels to an Amsterdam bank created for this purpose. Bank assets were traded on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. Post-war restitution has been difficult; 75% of the Dutch Jews perished in the Holocaust - entire families never returned and the dates of death are unknown.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow3.arplunde.htm.

2. Abramson, Ronald D. and Stephen B. Huttler. "The legal response to the illicit movement of cultural property". Law and Policy in International Business 5(1973): 932-970.
Note: Legal issues related to displaced property.

3. Ahnborg, Bertil. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: progress report. n.p.: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, May 1998.
Note: The Commission's assignment is to clarify what happened to the property of Jewish origin brought to Sweden in connection with the persecution of the Jews before and during WWII. This progress report tells of the tasks and methods determined by the Commission. The final report is due late in 1998.
Filed in the Library at S14.

4. Albright, Madeleine K. Remarks at the opening of the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 5 pp.
Note: Secretary of State Albright noted that the conference efforts serve a twin purpose: first to forge a common approach to the issues surrounding the Holocaust assets; and, secondly to advance Holocaust education, remembrance and research.
Filed in Library at A21.

5. Allen, John L. "Digging for gold in the archives". National Catholic Reporter 35, no.6(December 4, 1998): 5.
Note: All over the world, archives are being searched for information about looted assets during WWII. The Vatican has been reluctant to open its records.

6. Ardenne, R. German exploitation of Belgium. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1942.

7. Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for sale? The negotiations between Nazis and Jews 1933-1945. Paris: Liania Levi, 1996. 306 pp.
Note: This book tells of the many attempts to negotiate with the Nazis for the release of Jews in exchange for money, goods, or political benefits. Before the war, the Nazis were willing to permit total emigration of Jews from Germany. During the war, Himmler tried to keep open options for a separate peace with Western powers by using first property and then Jewish lives as negotiating tools.
Shelved in the Library at DS135.G3315 B38 1994.

8. Bauer, Yehuda. "Deliverance through property transfer". In Jews for sale? The negotiations between Nazis and Jews 1933-1945, 5-29. Paris: Liania Levi, 1996.
Note: In the early Nazi years, some of the wealthy German Jews managed to leave with their capital to go to Palestine. By 1935, the issue was how to aim at the emigration of Jews without hurting Germany economically; it was clear that mass emigration could not take place without capital transfer because foreign countries would not take penniless Jews. In 1938,the Nazis had moved toward the total expropriation of Jewish property and the expulsion of German Jews while forbidding the export of Jewish capital.
Shelved in the Library at DS135.G3315 B38 1994.

9. Butler, Pierce. "German scholarly libraries during the war". Library Quarterly 18(April 1948): 120-123.
Note: Author presents an account of the terrible library destruction with a table showing the losses of about thirty large and important libraries. The necessity of duplicate catalogs is stressed, noting the loss of such records ran to over 50%.

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10. Cohen, Richard. "The money matters". Washington Post(December 8, 1998).
Note: In answer to Charles Krauthammer's op-ed column in the Washington Post and Abraham Foxman's piece in the Wall Street Journal, Cohen responds that Holocaust victims paid once for being Jewish, now they should not be told that it is unseemly for them to press their claims, but not wrong for banks to hold on to victims' assets.
Filed in Library at C9.

11. Decker, Andrew. "Moving toward restitution". ARTnews 98, no.1(January 1999): 60.
Note: Austria has passed legislation that would allow the return of artworks to Holocaust victims.
Filed in Library at D11.

12. "Directive by Head of Financial Department of GCB Main Department II to Minsk City Commissar, all Regional and Chief Commissars on procedure for delivering gold and silver items to the Berlin Pawn Shop.". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 117-119. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. Valuables clasificed as Jewish, hostile state and ownerless property were confiscated. Silver and gold items were delivered directly to the Berlin Pawn Shop.

13. "Disbursements from the dormant Swiss accounts in the case of Poland". Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 2-page paper.
Note: In 1949, Polish-Swiss Compensation Agreement negotiations called for the restitution of money belonging to Polish citizens on Polish territory on September 1, 1939 who could not be contacted. It was agreed that Switzerland would deposit the funds into the accounts of the National Bank of Poland. This paper notes that it is false to say that Poland fulfilled commitments to Switzerland with this money.

14. The Documentation Project. New York: Cultural Property Research Foundation, 1998.
Note: Elizabeth Simpson is the Documentation Project's Chairman, Konstantin Akinsha, the Research Director, and Jonathan Petropoulos, Administrative Director. The primary aim of the Project for the Documentation of Wartime Cultural Losses (The Documentation Project) is to publish research results and, if appropriate, disseminate information online.
Online: http://docproj.loyola.edu.

15. Eizenstat, Stuart E. "US and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II". Ambassadors Review(Spring 1997). (Excerpted from the report, US and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II: preliminary study, May 1997).
Note: This summary of the full study by State Department Historian, Dr. William Slany, presents the report's major conclusions and policy implications; identifies three phases in the actions of WWII neutrals; and, addresses the serious shortcomings in US and Allied postwar policies dealing with issues related to neutral countries, and most importantly, issues relating to the plight of Nazi victims after WWII. In conclusion, the summary calls for making records accessible in order to make the history known and to make it possible to provide justice to survivors.

16. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Opening remarks delivered to the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, November 30, 1998. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 3 pp.
Note: Eisenstat, co-Chairman of the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, called for the international participants to work on the final chapter in the unfinished business of the Holocaust through the following efforts: undertaking a moral accounting, completing the historical record, providing restitution, educating future generations, righting the wrongs of the past, and seeking justice for the living and the dead.
Filed in Library at E11.

17. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Opening statement to the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, December 1, 1998. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 7 pp.
Note: Ambassador Stuart Eizenstat reviewed the current efforts to resolve the issues of Nazi-confiscated assets and called for an acceleration of the momentum in order to complete the tasks by the end of the century.
Filed in Library at E12.

18. Friedman, Max P. Holocaust-era assets, the archives and non-archival resources. Washington: Max P. Friedman, 1998. 4-page typescript (Paper presented at the Holocaust-Era Assets Symposium, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, December 4, 1998).
Note: This paper relates the stories of individual Holocaust-era survivors and how their tales relate to the documents residing in archives.
Filed in Library at F4.

19. Friszke, Andrzej. "Occupation of Poland, 1939-1945". Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 8-page paper.
Note: The German-Soviet Treaty of September 1939 divided Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union. Of Germany's part, the western and northern territories were annexed to the Reich, the rest was under German occupation. In the occupied territory, the loss of life and property was immense.

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20. "From the verbatim transcripts of the court proceedings at the trial for the crimes committed by the German fascist invaders in the Bylorussuan SSR.". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 192-193. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. According to transcript, the Germans imposed Jewish contributions in the District Uprava's Jewish Board and the valuables were sent to Berlin. Also, in July 1941 all Jewish citizens of the city of Vileika were instructed to come to the synagogue with their valuables. They were then taken to the river and shot.

21. Genieva, Ekaterina. "German book collections in Russian libraries". In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, 221-224. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at international symposium, The Spoils of War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, January, 1995).
Note: The author speaks of the plight of German library collections removed to Russia and suggests that making copies of publications may be one means of cooperating.

22. Goldfarb, Ronald. "Holocaust lawyers". Washington Post(December 8, 1998).
Note: In response to Charles Krauthammer's op-ed column, "The Holocaust Scandal", Goldfarb calms that Krauthammer misses the point that the truth does come out in lawsuits. These looted-asset claims for payment are not only about money, but about accountability, precedent and reparation.
Filed in Library at G4.

23. Hediger, Ernst S. "Nazi exploitation of Occupied Europe". Foreign Policy Reports 18, no.6(June 1, 1942): 66-79.
Note: This article, published months after Pearl Harbor, offers a wealth of information about economic issues related to WWII that are currently being looked at by Holocaust scholars. Hediger makes the point that the Nazi drive for power was the best prepared drive, in a military, economic and psychological sense, for world conquest ever conceived with the Nazis employing a pay-as-you-go war technique. Special economic units accompanied the military forces with the charge to obtain resources for the continuation of war through looting and reorganizing the conquered territories in order to pay the bills for new conquests. Occupation authorities were given quotas for workers to be transported to Germany with the workers' remittances paid for by the occupied country. The author predicts that the system of "streamlined looting" will reuslt in the total depletion of goods and financial bankruptcy of the conquered countries.
Filed in Library at H41.

24. Hirsch, Michael. "The hunt hits home". Newsweek(December 14, 1998): 48.
Note: Brief article noting that the Chase Manhattan Corporation is to be named in a class-action suit re looted assets during WWII.

25. Hockstader, Lee. "Vast Holocaust database planned: 'list of lists' would track European Jewry through WWII". Washington Post(December 1, 1998): A1, A18.
Note: Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust institute, will present a victim-tracking database at the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. It is expected that the list will provide information for parties staking claims to Holocaust assets.
Filed in Library at H40.

26. Krauthammer, Charles. "The Holocaust scandal". Washington Post(December 4, 1998).
Note: In this op-ed piece, Krauthammer asserts that looting was the least of the crimes of the Holocaust crimes and that the current treasure hunt should be beneath the dignity of the Jewish people and it risks reviving anti-Jewish feelings.
Filed in Library at K11.

27. Latvian Position Paper for the Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 7 pp.
Note: This position paper traces the issues associated with the terrible legacy of the Holocaust in Latvia.
Filed in Library at L21.

28. Leach, James A., Chair, House Banking and Financial Services Committee. Statement to the International Leadership Conference, American Jewish Committee. Washington: House of Representatives, May 16, 1998. 5 pp. (Press release).
Note: Committee Chair James A. Leach speaks of his Holocaust Victims Redress Act which passed House and Senate unanimously and was signed into law by the President in March. The Law authorizes a U.S. contribution of $25 million for Holocaust survivors and $5 million for archival research to assist in the restitution of looted assets. The Law also puts Congress on record in support of dedicating to Holocaust victims the remaining assets under the control of the Tripartite Gold Commission.
Filed in Library at L10.

29. Leach, James A., Chair, House Banking and Financial Services Committee. Leach introduces bill to aid Holocaust victims. Washington: House of Representatives, October 1, 1997. 5 pp. (Press release).
Filed in Library at L11.

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30. "Legal problems of property restitution in Poland". In Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 7-page paper.
Note: After WWII, Poland's government was based on the Soviet model with socialist property given preferential treatment over private property. After the fall of Communism, the new legal system of the Republic of Poland marks the return of property rights to pre-WWII status.

31. Lehmann, Klaus-Dieter. "A new proposal for negotiations by the German-Russian Expert Group concerning the repatriation of the spoils of war". Spoils of War no. 3(December 1996): 12.
Note: The German-Russian Committee of Experts of Libraries concerned with the repatriation of cultural property was established in 1993 as part of the Government Commission on Restitution. In 1996, the group proposed a gradual procedure for the return of library collections, shortly before the repatriation of 100,000 books from Georgia to Germany.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow3.

32. Lehmann, Klaus-Dieter. Die Trophäenkommissionen der Roten Arme: Eine Dokumentansammlung zur Verschleppung von Büchern aus Deutschen Bibliotheken. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klosterman, 1996. 251 pp.
Note: The 1992 meeting to discuss library restitution between Germany and Russia was a hopeful meeting. Now the German librarians claim that Russian librarians, faced with difficult conditions, have sealed off their collections from both Russian and foreign users. This volume contains German translations of Soviet documents related to the transportation of German books.
Review filed at L7.

33. Lehmann, Klaus-Dieter and Ingo Kolasa, eds. "Restitution von Bibliotheksgut: Runder Tisch deutscher und russicher Bibliothekare in Moskau am 11, und 12. Dezember 1992]". Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie(1993). (1992 meeting between German and Russian librarians on the topic of book collection restitution was published as a special issue).
Note: In 1992, German and Russian librarians met in Moscow to discuss the restoration of volumes looted from Soviet libraries by Germans and from German libraries by Soviets between 1941 and 1947. There was a general spirit of reconciliation and hope at the meeting calling for unrestricted access to Germans of the transported books in Russian libraries with return to Germany to follow soon.

34. Levine, Itamar. The fate of stolen Jewish properties: the cases of Austria and the Netherlands, 30 pp. Policy studies no. 8. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 30 pp.
Note: After WWII, Austria evaded restitution payments to the Jews claiming victim status as a country; this meant that anyone who profited from the theft of Jewish property retains their gains. The Netherlands also defined the state as the heir to assets left behind by Jewish victims. The author addresses these unresolved questions in this policy study.

Summary filed in library at L2.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/polstud8.htm.

35. Maldis, Adam. "The tragic fate of Belarusan museum and library collections during the Second World War". In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, 77-80. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at international symposium, The Spoils of War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, January, 1995).
Note: Belarus lost one-third of its population and much of its cultural property during WWII. In requesting copies of the Smolensk holdings and other documents held in the US; the author, expressing the need for goodwill on the part of all parties, notes that Belarus has returned materials to Russia and the Ukraine that were held by them.

36. Mikva, Abner. Opening remarks delivered to the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 2 pp.
Note: Mikva, co-Chairman of the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, called for contributions to the historical record of the Holocaust in this introduction to the speaker, Elie Wiesel.
Filed in Library at M30.

37. Molotsky, Irvin. "Over here, paper chase for Nazi gold: at a Maryland archive, searching for assets and a view of neutrality". New York Times International(March 30, 1997): 6.
Note: Report on the number of researchers searching for information about WWII looted assets in the National Archives and Records Administration.
Filed in Library at M11.

38. Mosidse, Juri. "A splendid gesture: chronology of a restitution. Part II". Spoils of War no. 3(December 1996): 57-58.
Note: Mosidse, a Georgian, explains that the library staff wanted to return the valuable book collections to Germany when they received them in the 1950s.
Filed in the Library at A2.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow3.

39. "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998. 413 pp.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. All state property and left without an owner due to war actions, as well as the property of Jews was declared German property. All Jews had to resettle in the ghetto and give over all their valuables. This volume contains testimonies by victims, witnesses and executors after the Germans were ousted from parts of the Republic in 1943, as well as testimonies taken at the court trial in 1946.

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40. Ostaszewshi, Janusz. "Memorandum re: lost Swiss bank accounts". In Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 3-page paper.
Note: In 1949 Poland and Switzerland concluded two treaties re Polish claims against Switzerland for monies held in Swiss banks by Poles who died or disappeated during WWII. All bank accounts belonging to Polish citizens residing in Poland in September, 1939, who had not contacted Swiss banks by May; 9, 1945 would be transferred to the National Bank of Poland. Funds were transferred to Poland in 1960 and in 1975.

41. Pomrenze, Seymour J. "Offenbach reminiscences: the Netherlands' experiences". Spoils of War no. 2(July 1996): 18-20. (Among National Archives Library's periodical holdings).
Note: Pomrenze, former Director of the Offenbach Archival Depot, tells of the materials gathered at the collecting point for looted books, focusing on the fact that over 70% of all Dutch books seized by the ERR during the war were returned to The Netherlands.

42. Progress report, May 1998. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War, 1998.

43. Rathkolb, Oliver. Verm"gen jüdischer Kunden im "Postsparkassenamt in Wien": Naziraub 1938-1945 (Assets of Jewish clients in the 'Postsparkassenamt', Vienna: Nazi loot 1938-1945). Austria: Institute for Contemporary History, University of Vienna, 1998. 3-page, plus appendices.
Note: The Postsparkassenamt or P.S.K (translated as Postal Savings Bank Office) asked Dr. Oliver Kathkolb to conduct specific research in relation to Nazi victims and the fate of their assets held with P.S.K. from 1938 and 1945. The P.S.K., a state-guaranteed bank trusted by many small savers and businesses, was dissolved by decree of Hitler in 1938, incorporated into the Postsparkassenamt (Postal Savings Bank Office), with most of its assets transferred to the German Reich. After the War, the P.S.K. finally became a separate public agency in 1969, again with State guarantees. The present Board wants to face up to its responsibilites by doing everything possible to document the whereabouts of P.S.K. deposits of Jewish citizens. This first interim report identifies more than 7000 personal and business accounts held by Jews who had to leave the country after March 1938 or were deported to the Nazi concentration camps. These accounts were looted by the Nazis. The P.S.K. is prepared to make a symbolic gesture of making revalued balances of these accounts up to US $200,000. Further work will be concerned mainly with savings accounts and security deposits.
Filed in the National Archives Library at R40.
Online: http://www.psk.co.at/report.

44. Reisel, Berit and Bjarte Bruland. The Reisel/Bruland report on the confiscation of Jewish property in Norway during World War II. Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Justice, 1997. 125 pp. (Part of Offical Norwegian Report 1997: 22).
Note: In March 1996, the Norwegian Ministry of Justice appointed a committee to investigate what happened to Jewish assets in Norway during WWII and to survey restitutions made after the war. This is the report of the minority of the committee's members. It includes summaries of the majority and minority reports, as well as the minority report in full with appendices.
Shelved in library at D819.N8R4 1997.

45. "Report of Minsk District Commissar to Trusteeship Department of Main Section III of GCB on confiscation of personal Jewish property". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 70-71. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. Summons to hand in gold, silver, cash, etc. brought in less cash than had been expected. Jews were then confined to ghettos which revealed valuables and furniture that were seized.

46. "Report of the Glubokoye District Commissar to the Tursteeship Department of Main Section III of GCB on stock-taking of property and valuables transferred by Jews to non-Jewish population". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 87-88. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. This report indicates that the local "unreliable" population was so greedy that there were mass thefts during ghetto liquidization. It was known that Jews gave valuables to non-Jews for safekeeping but it was not known who was given what.

47. "Resolution by G. Lohse, Reichskommisar, on currency legislation in Ostland". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 52-58. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. This resolution on currency legislation took effect in November 1941.

48. "Resolution of Ostland Reichskommissar on handling Jewish property in the Ostalnd Reichskommissariat". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 32-33. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. This resolution on Jewish property went into effect on October 13, 1941.

49. "Resolution of Reichsminister on Occupied Eastern Territories to Reichskommissars of Ostland and Ukraine to complement resolution of June 18, 1942 on stock-taking and sale of personal Jewish property, Soviet state and ownerless property". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 117-119. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. In order to take stock of Jewish property not yet at German disposal, summons were to be placed in daily newspaper calling for handing the propety over. All property was to evaluated and all transfers were to be traced. This information was given by guerillas reporting on the German occupation.

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50. Restitution of Jewish property in Central and East Europe: the U.S. Congress strongly endorses Jewish efforts to retrieve the legacy of Central and East European Jewry. Policy Dispatch No. 8. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, April 1995. 4-page report
Note: In Eastern Europe, most Jewish properties taken during WWII were not restituted between the liberation from the Nazis and the imposition of Communist rule; moreover, foreign citizens not living in the country were ruled to be ineligible to retrieve property, and only religious communties existing continually since WWII received restitution. This pattern of penalizing Jews is now being opposed.
Filed in Library at W8.

51. The return of looted collections (1946-1996): an unfinished chapter. Amsterdam: Stichting Beheer IISG, 1997. 126 pp. (Proceedings of an International Symposium to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Return of Dutch Book Collections from Germany in 1946).

52. Reveille, Thomas. The spoil of Europe. New York: Norton, 1941.

53. Robinson, Nehemiah. "Restitution of Jewish property". Congress Weekly 10(March 12, 1948): 11-12.

54. Robinson, Nehemiah. Indemnification and reparations: Jewish aspects. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1944. 302 pp.
Note: In 1944, Robinson developed a matrix of Jewish wealth, occupational patterns, currency values, population figures and land distribution throughout Europe, whereby he demonstrated that $8 billion dollars in Jewish wealth and property was spoiled, destroyed, and lost during the Nazi terror.

55. Robinson, Nehemiah. Indemnification and reparations: second supplement covers the crucial year 1945. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1946. ix, 181 leaves.

56. Robinson, Nehemiah. Indemnification and reparations: third supplement. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1946. 23 leaves typescript.

57. Robinson, Nehemiah. Indemnification and reparations: fourth supplement: the working and the results of the German reparation. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1946. 43 leaves typescript.

58. Robinson, Walter V. "Norway says its probe downplays WWII guilt". Boston Globe(June 24, 1997).
Note: A Norwegian report on the role of Norway in looting Jewish assets has created national conflict as two members claim in their minority report that the government commission minimized not only Jewish losses, but Norway's moral responsibility for its role in the Holocaust. The postwar handling of Jewish claims received close attention by commission members.

Article is filed in the Library at R24.
Online: http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/paintings.

59. Schleunes, Karl A. The twisted road to Auschwitz: Nazi policy toward German Jews, 1933-1939. Revised ed. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990. 284 pp.
Note: Schleunes traces the progress of Aryanization which served to concentrate any Jewish wealth and industry into fewer and fewer hands.

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60. Schmidt, Werner. "Die Verluste an deutschem Kulturgut im Zusammenhang mit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: Vortrag in New York am 19. Januar 1995 (The loss of German cultural assets in connection with the Second World War: Symposium in New York, January 19, 1995)". Kunstblatter 39, no.2(1995): 34-41.
Note: This presentation before "The Spoils of War" symposium in NYC in 1995, offers first an overview of the lost art and architecture, through destruction or plunder, in Germany resulting from World War II, and then focuses on the artworks looted by the Red Army at the end of the war. Some of the art was returned during the 1950s to East German museums but many works are still in Russia.

61. Schmidt, Werner. "The loss of German artistic property as a result of World War II". In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, 95-98. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at international symposium, The Spoils of War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, January, 1995).
Note: A 1965 catalog of painting lost or missing from German museums lists approximately 6500 paintings, of which nearly a thousand are known to have been destroyed during air raids or in the fires and explosions at the end of the war. After the war, Soviet troops, within their occupation zone, transported all cultural property of international renown, along with inventories and photographic documentation, located within their occupation zone to the Soviet Union; a major part of the East German treasures were repatriated in the 1950s. Schmidt concludes with a description of private German art collections still held by the Russians.

62. Schneeberger, Ernst. "Property and war, in particular the Swiss-American-German conditions". Georgetown Law Journal 34(March 1946): 265-287.

63. Terms of reference. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, February 13, 1997. 4 pp.
Note: Summary of the assignment of the Commission to be appointed and charged with the task of investigating: Swiss dealings with property, including gold, belonging to Jews and acquired from Nazi Germany before and during the war; Swiss handling of bank deposits and other assets of Jews after the war which as a result of the Holocaust remained unclaimed; and claims that German-Jewish property was liquidated by the Foreign Capital Control Office.
Filed in library at S13.
Online: http://www.ud.se/english/nazigold/nazigold.htm.

64. Tomas, Charles. "Masonic losses during the Second World War in Belgium". Spoils of War no. 3(December 1996): 21-22.
Note: Masonic lodges were the first institutions in Belgium to be spoiled systematically, first by the SS, followed by the ERR. Most of the material was never returned to Belgium after the war; in the last few years, Belgian freemason materials have been found in Germany, in Russia and in Poland.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow3.

65. Waite, Robert G. The handling of looted books in the American Zone of Occupation, 1944-1951. Washington: Justice Department, Office of Special Investigations, 1997. 44 pp.

66. Weinberg, Gerhard L. Testimony. Washington: House of Representatives, 1998. (Testimony by Gerhard L. Weinberg, before the House Banking & Financial Services Committee, in Washington, June 25, 1997).
Note: Noting that the Eizenstat report is in general very sound, Weinberg points out aspects which he believes need greater emphasis. First, Switzerland knew that Germany had no funds because they had borrowed from the Swiss in order to make purchases during 1940-1942. Not only did Switzerland have to know that any future deposits of gold and valuables were loot; in fact, the legal position of the Swiss was that looting was legal and the looter can convey legal title to another. Even after the war, in 1949, the Swiss signed an agreement to Poland whereby the Polish looted the Swiss accounts of Holocaust victims. Secondly, as late as April 1945, the Swiss signed a secret agreement with the German government which violated an agreement made with the Allies a month earlier; the agreement was made solely out of greed for money. Finally, Weinberg believes that the Allied concern that the Swiss government, and the Red Cross, might renounce their role with prisoners of war held by Germany, kept the Allies from pressuring the Swiss government.
Filed in Library at W4.
Online: http://www.house.gov/.

67. Wolfgang, Ulrich. "The material losses of the German Freemasons". Spoils of War no. 3(December 1996): 18-21.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow3.

69. Yanowitch, Lee. "Paris denies role in Vichy looting of Jewish property". JTA: Jewish Telegraphic Agency(November 23, 1998).
Note: Following the publication of the book, Private estate, which accused the City of Paris of owning buildings confiscated for deported Jews, the Mayor of Paris ordered a research report (known as the Matteoli Commission report)on the topic. The report concluded that none of Paris-owned apartments were seized from Jews.
Online: http://www.jta.org/nov98/23-pari.htm.

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