Holocaust-Era Assets

Bibliography: Nazi Gold

1. Ain, Stewart. "Nazi gold stored in NY: Federal Reserve stash may contain fillings pulled from Jewish victims of Holocaust". Jewish Week 209, no.21(September 20, 1996): 1.
Note: According to recently declassified documents, a pile of gold bars, believed to be the largest repository of gold in the world, is stored in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York vaults in lower Manhattan. The declassified State Department documents indicate that the cache includes tons of Nazi gold found at the Merkers salt mine in Germany.
Filed in the Library at A8.

2. Ansembourg, Jan. "The Netherlands". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 355-356. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Netherlands delegation will be covering three issues at this conference: where did the looted gold come from and what happened to it?; what steps have been taken to compensate occupied countries and individual victims?; and, what should be the next steps?
Shelved in the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

3. Arsever, Sylvie. "Five key technical points on the issue of unclaimed funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The five key technical points to be considered: legal requirements, proof, anonymous accounts, intermediaries, and fraud.
Filed in Library at A3.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Technique.E.html

4. Arsever, Sylvie. "The matter of Jewish funds implicitly reveals Switzerland's relationship with its Jewish community". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Repeatedly since 1944, Jewish organizations claimed that possessions stolen from Jewish individuals or communities must be used for Jewish rebuilding. Where no one survived to make claim, the money must be given to Jewish organizations for aiding victims and renewing the Jewish culture. For decades, Swiss Jews, as a small minority, were not heard; in the 1960s, some demands were met. At this time, Switzerland is reconsidering all the orphan fund issues, determined that examining the past will promote democracy.
Filed in Library at A6.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Communaute.E.html

5. "Bank of England: the Bank of England's role as custodian of the Tripartite Gold Commission's holdings of gold". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 31-41. London: HMSO, 1997.
Shelved in the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

6. Beker, Avi. Movements of Nazi Gold: uncovering the trail. Policy studies no. 9. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 28 pp.
Note: A moral confrontation is taking place in Europe as a result of the campaign for the restitution of Jewish property during the Holocaust and the end of the Cold War with the collapse of Communism. More than twenty commissions have been named to investigate national behavior during the war and to see how stolen Jewish property was dealt with after the war.

Summary filed in Library at B1.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study09.html.

7. "Belgium: the gold of the Belgian monetary institutes". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 67-70. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Following the invasion of Belgium in 1940, the Germans removed the Belgian gold deposited at the Bangue de France and transferred gold and foreign currency the Belgians were forced to sell.
Shelved in Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

8. Beranek, Milan. "Steps taken hitherto to compensate occupied countries and individual victims". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 249-252. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Noting that Czechoslovakia never received reparations from Germany, the author concentrates on what the now Czech Republic has done in the area of compensation of victims on its own.

9. Berggren, Henrik. "Suppressing the memory of recent events". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: Sweden was a rich post-war country partly due to its wartime actions. In this interview, author-journalist, Maria-Pia Boethius, tells of transit shipments of German troops through Sweden to Norway and Finland, iron ore exports to Germany, Swedish censorship, and other examples showing that Swedish neutrality amounted to support for the Germans/.
Filed in Library at B8.

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10. "Bern, December 19, 1996: Naming of the Independent Commission of Experts and instructions of the Federal Council: historic and legal research on the fate of assets in Switzerland resulting from National Socialist rule". In Report to the Treasurer of New York State and the Comptroller of New York City, 4-page Section 6A. n.p.: Credit Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.
Note: Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs release on the naming of the Independent Commission of Experts chaired by Jean-Francois Bergier. The Commission is made up of historians including Holocaust specialists, World War II historians and two economic historians knowledgeable about Swiss history of the World War II period. Their assignment is to study the part played by Switzerland and its financial role within the context of World War II.

11. Bower, Tom. Nazi gold: the full story of the fifty-year Swiss-Nazi conspiracy to steal billions from Europe's Jews and Holocaust survivors. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. 381 pp.
Note: This story of Switzerland's painful progress toward dealing with its WWII treatment of Jews explores issues that have had little attention paid to them in the past.
Shelved in library at HG3204.B68 1997.

12. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for documents on Nazi Gold". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 3, no.5(May 1997): 5-6, 23-24.
Note: In 1944, the US initiated a "Safehaven Program", involving a number of federal agencies, to identify and stop the movement of Nazi assets out of Germany so that the Allies would be able to recover and repatriate them. Records of these activities and those of reparation groups at the end of the war make up a tremendous store of information relating to Holocaust assets in the holdings of the National Archives at College Park. Recent interest in these records has resulted in increased research activity at Archives II.
Filed in Library at B7.
Online: http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html

13. Bradsher, Greg. "Documenting Nazi plunder of European art: records in the National Archives provide research base for tracking works seized during war". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 4, no.2(November 1997): 7, 9.
Note: Bradsher gives details about the participation of US government groups in WWII cultural restitution activities that led to the great number of records collected in the National Archives at College Park.
Online: www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html

14. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for records relating to Nazi Gold: Part II". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 4, no.5 (May 1998): 7-11, 46.
Note: Greg Bradsher's overview of Nazi Gold research activities at NARA notes that the number of researchers looking at looted assets issues has grown mightily since researchers from Senator D'Amato's office began working at Archives II in early 1996. At the behest of President Clinton, an Interagency Group on Nazi Assets, including NARA, issued its first report on Allied efforts to restore assets stolen by Nazis during the war; the report included Bradsher's 300-page NARA finding aid to the records at Archives II.
Online: http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html

15. Braun, Stephen. "Bitter secrets and a cache of gold". Los Angeles Times(November 25, 1996 Washington edition): A4.
Filed in Library at B4.

16. "Brazil: how is Brazil dealing with the Nazi gold issue?". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 71-72. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Brazilian government has set up a Special Commission charged with identifying and investigating Nazi assets believed to have been brought into the country.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

17. British policy towards enemy property during and after the Second World War. History Notes No. 13. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records Department, April 1998. 144 pp.
Note: This report concludes that the reunification of Germany in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact changed the face of Europe in a way that those responsible for administering enemy property policy during and after the Second World War could never have anticipated. Great Britain's recognition of the independence of the Baltic States in 1991 reopened the question of British use of former Baltic Central Banks' gold reserves leading to the transfer in 1992-1993 to each Baltic State gold equal to that deposited with the Bank of England in 1940. Individual victims seeking property they had held in the UK before the war can find in this report the policies and machinery for the seizure and release of property.

18. Brown, Bobby. "Israel". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 315-316. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: This presentation reminded the listeners of the Evian conference in 1938 to discuss the plight of Jewish refugees.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

19. Busterud, John A. "The treasure in the salt mine". Army - Arlington (Association of the United States Army) 47, no.3(March 1997): 47-51.
Note: At the end of WWII, US and Allied forces discovered looted art deep in a mine near Merkers, Germany. The author, commander of both munitions and security platoons, was assigned the task of guarding and ultimately removing the wealth and art from the mine.
Filed in the Library at B2.

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20. Campiche, Christian. "Mediators seek a definitive settlement of the Jewish funds affair". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Intermediaries are jostling to reach an agreement with figures ranging from millions to billions of dollars.
Filed in Library at C2.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Deal.E.html

21. Campiche, Christian. "What goes through a Swiss banker's mind when questioned about Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The author gives an account of how the Swiss banking establishment is handling the matter of orphaned Jewish funds.
Filed in Library at C8.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Banquier.E.html

22. Carpozi, George. Nazi gold: the real story of how America and Europe plundered Jewish treasures. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizons Press, 1998. 400 pp.

23. Castelmur, Linus von. Schweizerisch-alliierte Finanzbeziehungen im šbergang vom Zweiten Weltkrieg zum kalthen Krieg: Die deutschen Guthaben in der Schweiz zwischen Zwangsliquidierung und Freigable (1945-1952)/Swiss-Allied financial relations during the transition from World War II to the Cold War: the German property in Switzerland in between compulsory liquidation and voluntary release (1945-1952). Zurich: Chronos, 1992. 421 pp. (Revised version of author's PhD from the University of Basel, 1991).
Note: The treatment of the German assets in Switzerland was a central issue for the Swiss Foreign Ministry to resolve after the Second World War. It was not only about important material interests, but also about the position of Switzerland within the newly formed system of international relations. From the Allied viewpoint, Switzerland had compromised itself by its cooperation with the German National Socialism. Thus the Allies demanded exptradition of the booty and all other German assets that had made their way to Switzerland. The author reconstructs the negotiations from 1945 to 1952 showing how the Swiss Foreign Ministry overcame its isolation within the world community.

24. Clement, Piet. "The Bank for International Settlements during the Second World War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 44-60. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the wartime activities of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), focusing in particular on the gold transactions undertaken with the German Reichsbank.
Shelved in Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

25. Clement, Piet. "The Bank for International Settlements during the Second World War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 44-60. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the wartime activities of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), focusing in particular on the gold transactions undertaken with the German Reichsbank.
Shelved in the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

26. Cline, Francis X. "Wartime envoy on Nazi gold bristles at hindsight". New York Times(May 25, 1997): 3.

27. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: interim report. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, July 1998.
Note: The interim report deals with the handling by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.

28. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: list of unclaimed bank accounts at Swedish banks. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, May, 1997.
Note: The interim report deals with the handling by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.
Filed in Library at S16.

29. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Disposition of assets deposited in Swiss banks by missing Nazi victims. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. iv, 549 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., Committee Serial No. 104-76, December 11, 1996).
Note: Hearing to consider claims that WWII victim assets are still in Swiss banks in unnumbered accounts opened by Jews lost in the Holocaust as well as Nazi accounts opened to hold funds seized from Jew. The Committee investigation on problems of locating these assets heard from Senator Alfonse D'Amato on the handling of unclaimed assets and other witnesses including: Stuart E. Eizenstat, Thomas Borer, Edgar Bronfman, Paul Volcker, Georg Krayer, Rolf Bloch, Arthur Smith, Jacques Picard, James H. Hutson, Veronica B. Katz and Alice B. Fischer.

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30. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. The Eizenstat report and related issues concerning United States and allied efforts to restore gold and other assets looted by Nazis during World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. 313 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., Committee Serial No. 105-18,).

31. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss banks and the shredding of Holocaust era documents. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. 29 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., S. Hrg. 105-152, May 6, 1997).
Note: Hearing on the recent events which related to the inquiry into the assets of Holocaust victims deposited in Swiss banks including the circumstances surrounding the shredding of bank records believed to pertain to business dealings during the Nazi rule in Germany.

32. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss banks and the status of assets of Holocaust survivors or heirs. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1996. iii, 73 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., S. Hrg. 104-582, April 23, 1996).
Note: Hearing on the circumstances surrounding the deposit of assets into Swiss banks by European Jews and others, the methodology utilized by the financial institutions in recording and maintaining these accounts and the response by Swiss banks to claims and inquiries made by Holocaust survivors or heirs regarding these accounts. Witnesses included Edgar m. Bronfman, Greta Beer, Hans J. Baer and Stuart E. Eizenstat.

33. "Contribution of the Historic Archive Directorate of the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 295-299. London: HMSO, 1997.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

34. "Denmark". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 251-252. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Germans did not seize Danish monetary gold because part of the gold reserves were deposited in New York and stayed there during the war. As a result, no claims were made to the Tripartite Godl Commission although claims were presented to the Paris Conference on Reparation in 1945 as a result of losses suffered during the occupation.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

35. Dertilis, G. B. "Results of the steps taken to compensate the country and individual victims". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 300-301. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Approximately 80% of the gold claimed by Greece after WWII was restituted; the rest represented looted private holdings with incomplete claims. The author notes other claims that have not been met including silver, an imposed loan to Nazi Germany.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

36. Die Schweiz und die Goldtransaktionen im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Zwischenbricht (Switzerland and gold transactions in World War II: interim report). Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, May 1998. 286 pp.
Note: This interim report of the Independent Commission of Experts, popularly known as the Bergier Report, provides contextual information on the gold which the Swiss National Bank bought from the German Reichsbank. The report notes that it was clear during 1943 that German Reichsbank transfers might include gold from occupied countries; however, although the report confirms that the Reichsbank deliveries included victim gold, there is no evidence that the responsible Swiss National Bank parties had knowledge of this.

English summary filed in Library at S8.
Online: http://www.uek.ch; English summary at http://www.switzerland.taskforce.ch/doc/decl_e.htm

37. "Directive by Head of Financial Department of GCB Main Department II to Minsk City Commissar, all Regional and Chief Commissars on procedure for delivering gold and silver items to the Berlin Pawn Shop.". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 117-119. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. Valuables clasificed as Jewish, hostile state and ownerless property were confiscated. Silver and gold items were delivered directly to the Berlin Pawn Shop.

38. "Disbursements from the dormant Swiss accounts in the case of Poland". Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 2-page paper.
Note: In 1949, Polish-Swiss Compensation Agreement negotiations called for the restitution of money belonging to Polish citizens on Polish territory on September 1, 1939 who could not be contacted. It was agreed that Switzerland would deposit the funds into the accounts of the National Bank of Poland. This paper notes that it is false to say that Poland fulfilled commitments to Switzerland with this money.

39. "Dutch gold". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 357-358. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Paris Reparation Act, signed in January 1946, regulated reparation payments and called for the restitution of stolen gold. It set up the Tripartite Gold Commission to which all countries, victims of Nazi theft, could submit claims for restitution of stolen monetary gold. Only half the gold claimed was found and returned because much German gold had been transferred to Switzerland. Switzerland claimed it had obtained the gold legally, however, to help reconstruct Europe, Switzerland did make some payment on the claims. The Dutch received less than 50% of their gold claim and they have never withdrawn this claim.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

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40. Easton, Donald F. "The Troy treasures in Russia". Antiquity 69, no.262(1995): 11-14.
Note: Article on the Trojan Treaures captured by the Red Army from Germany at the end of WWII.

41. Easton, Donald Fyfe. "The excavation of the Trojan treasures, and their history up to the death of Schliemann in 1890". In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, 194-199. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at international symposium, The Spoils of War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, January, 1995).
Note: By the time of Schliemann's death, Troy treasures were dispersed to Berlin, where Schliemann deposited the state's share of his treasures; Constantinople; Athens, where Schliemann kept his own share; and, missing items, some of them stolen from the repository at Constantinople.

42. "Eight key people in the battle between the United States and Switzerland over Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: "Eight personalities and eight different approaches to the question of Jewish funds" is the way the journal approaches these descriptions of D'Amato, Bronfman, and Kunin in one camp; Chapuis, Häni, and Cotti in a second; with Volcker and Bloch acting as arbitrators.
Filed in Library at E2.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/People.E.html

43. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Testimony: on the U.S. Government supplementary report on Nazi assets. Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Testimony for Under Secretary of State Eizenstat for the House Banking Committee on the U.S. Government supplementary report on Nazi assets, June 4, 1998).
Note: Eizenstat notes that the latest report is a follow-up to the first report which focuses on the uses to which the looted gold was put - how it enabled the Nazis to purchase critical war supplies from neutral countries.
Filed in Library at E3.

44. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Holocaust reverberation: the emerging story of Nazi gold. Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Address to the United Jewish Appeal National Young Leadership Conference, Washington, March 23, 1998).
Note: The author led an 11-agency federal effort to establish the facts about the policies and actions of the US in denying Nazi Germany the economic capacity to wage war; and our postwar efforts to recover the assets looted by Nazis during WWII in order to compensate looted countries and individual victims. The report established that the German Reichsbank incorporated into its gold reserves looted monetary gold from governments of countries occupied by the Nazis; that much of the looted gold went on Swiss banks; that neutral countries facilitated the Nazi war efforts through gold exchange and supplies; that some victim gold was included in neutral bank gold; and that the Allies did not make an sufficient effort to recover looted assets from neutral countries. Eizenstat told this group that Switzerland has recently led the international effort to face its past honestly, and suggested goals for sustaining the momentum and moving forward to secure justice for victims and heirs.

45. "The fate of Nazi gold". Maclean's (Canada) 110, no.50(December 15, 1997): 32.
Note: Boycotts against Swiss banks have been suspended as negotiations result in a lump sum settlement for Holocaust victims with dormant accounts.

46. "Federal Reserve Bank of New York". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 253-271. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: This paper reflects the historic involvement of the Federal Reserve Bank with Nazi gold due to its role as depository for the Tripartitel Gold Commission and includes a bar-by-bar inventory; a history of all TGC account activity since 1947; and other paperwork.

47. Forsyth, Frederick. "Forsyth proved right". Dagens Nyheter: DN (Sweden)(1996).
Note: In 1971, Forsyth, researching The Odessa File, was informed that the Nazis had exported a huge shipment of gold secretly to Switzerland in the last weeks of WWII as the result of an August 1944 meeting between German miliary and industrial parties and Swiss bankers. The final shipment was to fund a new exiled Nazi party and, one day, a new Fourth Reich; it was planned to spirit top SS out of the Allies' hands and into "safe havens" abroad by setting up the ODESSA to fund the leadership abroad, to fund foreign leaders advocating antiSemitism. Forsyth was shocked as he delved deeper into the events after 1945, to find that the Allies had not scratched the surface of retribution. The Holocaust was not only a human crime, it was the biggest robbery in history: Jewish assets were confiscated, Jewish labor was exploited in slave labor camps.
Filed in Library at F3.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eforsyth.html

48. "France: plunder of Jewish property in France and its restitution". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 273-278. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: This paper offers a chronological list of legislation passed by the Vichy regime against the Jewish community. It also provides information about the looting of French art, including the brave story of Rose Valland of the Jeu de Paume museum.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

49. "From the verbatim transcripts of the court proceedings at the trial for the crimes committed by the German fascist invaders in the Bylorussuan SSR.". In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 192-193. Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.
Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. According to transcript, the Germans imposed Jewish contributions in the District Uprava's Jewish Board and the valuables were sent to Berlin. Also, in July 1941 all Jewish citizens of the city of Vileika were instructed to come to the synagogue with their valuables. They were then taken to the river and shot.

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50. Gerasimov, Valentin. "Belarus. Speech 1". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 61-62. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Throughout the war years, Belarus was the site of 350 camps and prisons; one in four inhabitants of Belarus died during WWII.

51. "German restitution for National Socialist crimes". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 286-292. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: This paper describes the efforts the Federal Republic of Germany has made to compensate Nazi victims. The very first efforts were restricted to property, not to personal damage but, in 1952, the Luxembourg Agreement between Germany and Israel recognized that Israel bore the tremendous financial burden of providing for many Nazi victims and provided for German aid in resettling Jews in Israel. Over the years the number of persons eligible for compensation increased; after the fall of the Communist bloc, those victims could submit applications for restitution.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

52. Gold transactions in the Second World War: statistical review with commentary. Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, December 1997. 21 pp. (Contribution to the Conference on Nazi Gold, London, December 2-4, 1997).
Note: This working paper wars prepared as a technical contribution to establish for future discussion a foundation of statistics and standard definitions of categories of gold.
Filed in Library at I1.
Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/news5.htm

53. Haberman, Clyde. "NYC: Bank's gold inspires tales of plunder". New York Times(September 27, 1996 Late edition): 1.
Note: Article on the possibility that two tons of gold stored in the vaults of Federal Reserve Bank of New are actually part of WWII Nazi plunder deposited in Swiss banks.
Filed in Library at H8.

54. Hancock, Ian F. "International Romani Union". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 307-308. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Third Reich targeted the Romani gypsies for extermination as the only racially defined population singled out besides the Jews. Because of their tradition of carrying personal wealth on one's person, there is little paperwork on the topic.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

55. "A harsh report on Nazi gold". Maclean's (Canada) 110, no.20(May 19, 1997): 40.
Note: US report is critical of the Truman administration, Switzerland and other neutral countries in the trafficking of gold and other looted WWII assets.

56. Hedin, Sven Fredrik and G"ran Elgemyr. Sweden and the Shoah: the untold chapters. Policy studies no. 11. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 29 pp., plus appendices
Note: Based upon a 1996 Swedish newspaper series revealing the extent to which Sweden purchased gold looted by the Germans, this study reveals that the Swedish traded gold, traded vital raw materials, and gave Germany permission to use Sweden as a transit corridor for Nazi troops. The study notes the awkward balance between self-interest and compassion in recalling Sweden's humanitarian actions to aid victims of the Nazis.

Summary filed in library at H5.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study11.html

57. Heintz, Jim. "Nazi gold may top estimate". Associated Press(January 22, 1997).
Note: A Sweden investigative team's report indicates that Sweden received far more gold that previously thought and apparently disregarded Allied warnings that some of it may have been looted by the Nazis.
Filed in library at H7.
Online: http://www.freep.com:80/news/nw/qnazi22.htm

58. Henry, Marilyn. Switzerland, Swiss banks, and the Second World War: the story behind the story. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1997. 42 pp.
Note: This analysis of Switzerland's banking activities during WWII and what happened to Jewish assets in Swiss banks calls for Switzerland to help the remaining Holocaust survivors and to engage in "moral stock-taking" about its business and banking history. The documents of "Operation Safehaven", a US military intelligence operation assigned to identify and track Nazi assets in neutral countires, indicate that besides holding dormant Jewish accounts, Switzerland had stored German assets and allowed Germany to exchange gold for currency thereby enabling the Reich's war effort. Switzerland's behavior since WWII demonstrates that the Swiss felt no commitment to uncover victim assets on their own.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at D819.S9H46 1997.

59. Higgins, Andrew. "Macau's golden goose". Guardian(February 7, 1998).
Note: It is believed that Macau may have a center for laundering gold looted by Nazis from Jewish victims and other sources. Witnesses have testified that weekly shipments of gold were unloaded in Macao and sent on to China.

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60. Hirsh, Michael. "Nazi Gold: the untold story". Newsweek(November 4, 1996): 47-48.
Note: Newsweek's probe discloses that after 50 years of financial sifting, there is no huge stash of Nazi gold in Switzerland - it has been scattered worldwide. The probe also indicates that many other parties, besides the Swiss, and including the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), were involved in laundering Nazi money during the war or hoarding stolen assets after the war. What little remains of the estimated $7.8 billion U.S. dollars in gold confiscated by the Nazis may only come to $65 million, the amount held by the Tripartite Gold Commission, set up after the war to return stolen gold to national treasuries.
Filed in the Library at H2.

61. Holland, Carolsue and Thomas Rothbart. "The Merkers and Buchenwald treasure troves". After the Battle no. 93(November 1996): 22.
Note: Nonmonetary gold found at the huge mine in Merkers, near Weimar, and also near the Buchenwald concentration camp may have been mixed with monetary gold when it was shipped to the Frankfurt Exchange Depository (FED) for safekeeping.

62. Holocaust victims' assets in Swiss banks. Washington: Ace-Federal Reporters, 1996. (Transcript of Hearings, United States Senate, Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, New York City, October 16, 1996).
Note: This hearing reviewed the role that Swiss banks and government played in WWII with regard to European Jews and others who used the Swiss banks, as well as the relationship of Switzerland and its banks with Nazi Germany. Senator Alfonse D'Amato chaired the hearing and among the witnesses were Estelle Sapir, who testified that the Swiss demanded a death certificate for her father although she had a bank deposit slip and ledger books as part of her claim.
Filed in the Library at H20.

63. Howe, Desson. "A wealth of new information on Holocaust: declassified bank, other wartime papers at Archives generate lots of interest". Washington Post(November 18, 1998): B1, B8.
Note: This article focuses on the importance of archival records to the study of Holocaust history; because of NARA records, the economic history of WWII is being told, as well as the full level of knowledge and complicity on the part of business, financial, and political leaders.
Filed in the Library at H30.

64. Hug, Peter and Marc Perrenoud. Assets of Nazi victims in Switzerland and the compensation agreements with the Eastern bloc. Bern: Swiss Foreign Affairs Department, 1997. 142 pp.
Note: In the Fall of 1996, the Swiss government's Task Force for the Assets of Nazi Victims asked the authors to report from the historical point of view, and using only the holdings of the Swiss Federal Archives, on questions about the Holocaust, victim assets, and compensation agreements with Eastern European states. The report was intended to suggest approaches to identifying beneficiaries with rights to unclaimed victim assets.
Filed in library at H4.

65. "An ingot nearer to the truth". Economist (London) 345, no.8046(December 6, 1997): 56-57.
Note: Reports on the December 1997 3-day conference on Nazi gold held in London to explore the source and flow of gold between Germany and other countries.

66. "International Union of Former Juvenile Prisoners of Fascist Concentration Camps". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 309-313. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: People from the former USSR lost 27 million lives in WWII and had 6 million people in German concentration camps (2 million died). The looting of the occupied USSR states was total and unrelenting. This claim for fairness in distributing Nazi gold in made on behalf of the victims of Nazism.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

67. Jones, Michael Arthur. Swiss bank accounts: a personal guide to ownership, benefits and use. New York: Liberty Hall Press, 1990. ix, 211 pp.
Note: One section of this introduction to the world of Swiss banking and the type of accounts available to Americans reports on the German attempts to halt transfer of German money to bank accounts abroad. Charged with finding out who had funds secreted away, the Gestapo were able to locate some of the fugitive capital. Their efforts led Switzerland to promulgate the Swiss Bank Act of 1934 which provided a legal basis for Swiss banking secrecy.

68. Kaplan, Alissa. "Hot on the paper trail: the profits of plunder". ABCNEWS.com(November 6, 1998).
Filed in Library at K8.

69. Kaplan, Alissa. "Details emerge on assets' fate: 'all of Europe' benefited from war booty". ABCNEWS.com(December 19, 1997).
Filed in Library at K10.

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70. Klich, Ignacio. "Argentina: Nazi war criminals and assets: 2". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 23-25. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The academic coordinator of the Commission of Enquiry into the Activities of Nazism in Argentina (CEANA) spoke on Argentins's interest in reaching an informed estimate of Nazi war criminal arrivals, as well Nazi gold as loot entering the country.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

71. Koller, Frédéric. "Research bodies multiply. Inventory". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: A review of the various investigations into the question of orphaned Jewish funds involving Swiss banking that were under way in November 1996.
Filed in Library at K4.

72. Koller, Frédéric. "The inevitable compromises of Swiss neutrality to survive the war... and preserve solidarity". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: In this interview, historian Antoine Fleury claims that it is mythology to believe that a neutral country can avoid making concessions. Yet because few countries in the world were not assisted during the war by Switzerland's humanitarian services or its diplomatic service, its neutral status was respected by both sides. Even after the war, it was necessary for Switzerland to compromise with the Allies or risk being shut out of the reconstruction of Europe and the world.
Filed in Library at K6.

73. Koller, Frédéric. "What they were saying fifty years ago". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: This short article links to an article written in 1946 about the Washington Accords' agreements, noting the legalistic tone of the report.
Filed in Library at K7.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/50ans.E.html

74. Komisar, Lucy. "Image of the Swiss is tarnished by stolen gold". American Reporter 4, no.770(March 20, 1998).
Note: The author tracks the background of Switzerland's tarnished banking industry, noting that Swiss banks are asking to be judged as financial, not political institutions. She suggests that the US consider the integrity of Swiss banks in weighing the merger of Swiss banks and US banks.
Filed in Library at K30.
Online: http://www.american-reporter.com/770/st1.html

75. Kramer, Jane. "Manna from hell: Nazi gold, Holocaust accounts, and what the Swiss must finally confront". New Yorker(April 28 & May, 1997): 75-89.
Note: Kramer looks at the moral issues related to Switzerland's financial dealings with the Nazis during WWII and their attempts to avoid paying Holocaust heirs since the war.
Filed in Library at K20.

76. Krejci, Jan. "Nekolik poznamek k historil navraceni ceskoslovenskeho menoveho zlata (Comments on the history of Czechoslovak gold reserves recovery)". Pr vnik 125, no.7(1996): 675+.

77. Kubu, Eduard. "Czech Republic: Czechoslovak gold reserves and their surrender to Nazi Germany". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 245-248. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Nazis stole more than 45 tons of gold from Czechoslovakia. The Tripartite Commission recognised most of the Czech claim (43.99kg)as the basis of restitution proceedings.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

78. Lederer, Edith. "Nazi Gold Conference ends". ABCNEWS.com(December 4, 1997).
Note: Report on the 41-nation conference on Nazi gold held in London discloses that Switzerland was not alone in their financial dealings with Hitler's Germany.
Filed in Library at L6.

79. "Legal problems of property restitution in Poland". In Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 7-page paper.
Note: After WWII, Poland's government was based on the Soviet model with socialist property given preferential treatment over private property. After the fall of Communism, the new legal system of the Republic of Poland marks the return of property rights to pre-WWII status.

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80. Lema, Luis. "Alfonse D'Amato, or how the United States wields "western-style diplomacy"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Filed at L3.

81. Lema, Luis. "Portugal, too, must examine its past". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: According to the author, fabulous quantities of gold circulated around Europe, especially the neutral countries. The gold reserves at the Bank of Portugal quadrupled between the early 1930s and the end of the war; the question is how much stolen gold was accounted for at the end of the war and returned.
Filed at L4.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Portugal.E.html

82. London Conference on Nazi Gold. Stockholm: Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 1997. 1 page press release.
Note: Press release on the London Conference on Nazi Gold in December 1997 reports on steps taken by Sweden to make reparations to the WWII occupied countries and to individuals. Release notes that the Swedish central bank, the Riksbank, appointed an independent Committee of Inquiry to examine WWII gold transactions in January, just before the appointment of a special Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War.
Filed at S15.
Online: http://www.regeringen.se/galactica/service=irnews/action=obj_show?c_obj_id=34644

83. "Luxembourg gold despoiled by Germany during the Second World War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 345-350. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany in 1940. This paper is a detailed tale of the assets looted from Luxembourg.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

84. "Luxembourg gold despoiled by Germany during the Second World War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 345-350. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany in 1940. This paper is a detailed tale of the assets looted from Luxembourg.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

85. Mamarbachi, Esther. "Switzerland stung by lack of political sensitivity". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: After a period of political fumbling, Switzerland created a crisis headquarters to handle all matters related to the orphaned funds, assuring the world that Switzerland would bring the issue to the full light of day.
Filed at M7.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Piege.E.html

86. Mamarbachi, Esther. "The amateurishness of Swiss authorities". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The author asks how Switzerland's lack of political perceptiveness on the matter of Jewish funds can be explained. She concludes that the Swiss model of government favors the nomination of friends rather than comptetent experts, the safety of the known rather than the debate of ideas.
Filed in Library at M12.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Amateur.E.html

87. Marks, John. "Swiss cupidity, but German evil". U.S. News & World Report 123, no.23(December 15, 1997): 9.
Note: In recounting the tales of Swiss banks hoarding the assets of Jewish victims and the implication of other nationals in criminal activities during the Holocaust, the author reminds his readers that the Holocaust was a German undertaking.
Filed in Library at M3.

88. Mascaro, Maria-Pia. "Washington quietly makes its own investigation". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The U.S. State Department began its own investigation into Nazi gold and other orphaned Jewish assets this year under the pressure of new archival documents becoming public. The investigation, headed by Under Secretary of State for International Commerce, Stuart Eizenstat, is headed by an interdepartmental commission with the first intermediary report due by February.
Filed at M1.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Washington.E.html

89. Maurice, Antoine. "Jewish funds, ongoing matter of urgency". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The Journal de Genève began to publish on the issue of "orphaned Jewish funds" in 1995. In this editorial, Maurice calls for looking carefully at the past in terms of today's risks and difficulties.
Filed at M6.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Edito.E.html

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90. McDowall, Duncan. "Canada: due diligence". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 80-233. London: HMSO, 1997. (A report on the Bank of Canada's handling of foreign gold during World War II).
Note: Report prepared for the Bank of Canada in response to a July 1997 allegation based on an anonymous late-war intelligence report that the bank of Canada had been party, by means of paper transfer, to a complex gold transfer involving six tons of gold shuffled first between Switzerland and Portugal in 1942 and later between Portugal and Sweden with Canada's central bank playing the role of intermediary.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

91. Meier, Barry. "War's plunder and the Swiss: the new old news of Nazi loot". New York Times(November 3, 1996 (Late edition)): 1.
Note: The tales of looted gold and stolen art treasures have been around for some time but in the last few years, everything came together: the 50th anniversary of WWII and the end of the Cold War.
Filed in the Library at M20.

92. Meier, Barry. "U.S. Archives describes contents of Nazi hoard". New York Times(October 24, 1996 (Late edition)): A10.
Note: A recently declassied document indicates that a large cache of art and gold were hidden in German salt mines. This may have been part of a money laundering scheme.
Filed in the Library at M8.

93. Miller, Page Putnam. "National Archives provides leadership in making accessible records related to Nazi gold". NCC Washington Update 3, no.6(February 18, 1997): 1.
Note: Miller praises NARA's efforts to make its holdings accessbile to Nazi gold researchers.
Filed in Library at M13.

94. M"ller, Horst. "Germany: statement". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 280-285. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: In 1949, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany established the Institute for Modern History to focus on National Socialism. This mission was later extended to include 20th century history since WWI. Intense research has not been done on the topic of Nazi gold because the Americans had confiscated the looted gold still in Germany. In this paper, the author assesses the research literature and calls for a systematic evaluation of other records, including those of the Tripartite Commission in Brussels.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

95. Morgenthau, Henry Jr. "Declaration by Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau on Axis looting, February 22, 1944". In Voices of history, 1944-1945: speeches and papers, 121-122. New York: Gramercy Publishing, 1945.
Note: Declaration that the United States Treasury has taken steps to protect the assets of the invaded countries and to prevent the Axis from disposing of looted assets on the world market.

96. Moss, Stanley. Gold is where you hide it: what happened to the Reichsbank treasures? London: Andre Deutsch, 1956. 191 pp.

97. Murr, Andrew and Tom Masland. "The Swiss halo slips again: add Jewish camps to Switzerland's list of sins". Newsweek 131, no.4(January 26, 1998): 36+.
Note: During the Nazi era, the Swiss requested Germany to add the letter "J" to Jewish passports and did not extend Swiss banking-secrecy laws to cover Jews who had to reveal their account numbers, secret codes, and balances. Recent research show that the Swiss not only denied safe harbor and stole gold from Holocaust victims, but that the Swiss also maintained work camps for over 20,000 Jews, including resident Jews.
Filed in the Library at M5.

98. Naughton, John. "Internet: finally, there's one place you can go to find out the truth about Nazi gold". IntelliSearch: Advanced Business Intelligence(August 2, 1998).
Filed at N1.
Online: http://www.intellisearchnow.com

99. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. Part II: Monetary gold, non-monetary gold and the Tripartite Gold Commission. History Notes No. 12. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records Department, May 1997. 58 pp.
Note: The goal of this study was to determine whether non-monetary gold, as in particular, victim gold, might have found its way into the Tripartite Gold Commission monetary gold pool. Based on material from the British archives, victim gold was kept separate from monetary gold and only monetary gold added to the TGC pool. If any victim gold found its way into the TGC pool it would have been in bars smelted by Germans before the Allied occupation, or as coins.

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100. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. History Notes No. 11. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records Department, September 1996. 23 pp.
Note: By 1939 Germany had defaulted on its loans and exhausted its credit; nearly all trade was on a barter basis and the nation's economic base was too weak to sustain a long war. To solve this problem the Nazis seized gold in national treasuries when occupying territories and plundered the wealth of businesses and individuals, especially that of European Jews. This report notes that Great Britain tracked German WWII gold movements, particularly those involving neutral powers, concluding that a relatively detailed picture of German gold dealing can be reconstructed from the records.
Filed in Library at N20.

101. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. Revised. History Notes No. 11. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records Department, Revised January 1997. 27 pp.
Note: This edition reports on further activity on the question of Nazi gold: consideration of requests from Jewish organizations to use Tripartite Gold Commission gold to compensate individual victims; the U.S. establishment of an interagency Presidential Taskforce on Nazi gold; the establishment of an international Committee of Experts to investigate all Swiss financial transactions with the Third Reich.

102. Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997. London: HMSO, 1997. 834 pp.
Note: The Rt. Hon. Robin Cook, MP, in his opening speech, noted that the participants were there to help clarify one of the darkest episodes in human history, to resolve the questions of gold stolen by the Nazis. In his opening plenary statement, Stuart Eizenstat, Under Secretary of State, spoke of the common effort to establish a special survivor fund, and to conclude the work of the Tripartite Gold Commission after five decades.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

103. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: summary. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, July 1998. 5 pp.
Note: This interim reports deals with the handling by the Riksbank of Nazigold which came in the form of bars and coins from the German Reichsbank during WWII. After the war, gold known to have been taken from the treasury reserves of occupied countries was returned, but the problem of gold consfiscated from individuals has never been solved. The Commission offers a relatively detailed account of the present state of international research on victim gold and concludes that there is cause to critize the WWII governing board of the Riksbank.
Online: http://www.regeringen.se/galactica/service=irnews/action=obj_show?c_obj_id=34922

104. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: interim report. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, August 1998. 105 pp.
Note: This interim reports deals with the handling by the Riksbank of Nazigold which came in the form of bars and coins from the German Reichsbank during WWII. After the war, gold known to have been taken from the treasury reserves of occupied countries was returned, but the problem of gold consfiscated from individuals has never been solved. The Commission offers a relatively detailed account of the present state of international research on victim gold and concludes that there is cause to critize the WWII governing board of the Riksbank.
Shelved in Library at HG3176.N3 1998.

105. Nekhay, O. A. "Belarus. Speech 1". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 63-65. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The speaker asked for a fair distribution of Nazi gold.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

106. New, Mitya. Switzerland unwrapped: exposing the myths. London: I.B. Tauris, 1997. xii, 210 pp.
Note: Account includes information on Swiss banking and labor camps durng WWII.

107. Nordmann. Switzerland, the war and the victims of Nazism: financial relations in historical perspective. London: Embassy of Switzerland, December 11, 1996. 2 pp.
Note: Ambassador's remarks about the Swiss Parliament adoption of a decree calling for an indepth inquiry beginning in January 1977 on foreign assets deposited in Switzerland between 1933 and 1945. There will be a series of interim reports before 2001, the target date. At the same time, a Joint Commission chaired by Paul Volker, former President of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, is auditing dormant accounts in Swiss banks.

Ambassador Nordmann's speech is filed in the library at N5.
Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/nordmann.htm#Switzerland

108. Norton-Taylor, Richard. "Nazi gold set to reopen old wounds". Guardian(December 1, 1997): 10.
Note: The author predicts that the London Conference will spark emotional disputes when representatives of 40 countries discuss the gold and financial assets looted by the Nazis from the Jews during WWII and beleived to be lying hidden in banks worldwide. There will be pressure on the US, UK, Switzerland and the Vatican.

109. Note on gold operations involving the Bank for International Settlements and the German Reichsbank, 1st September 1939-8th May 1945. Basle: Bank for International Settlements, May 12, 1997.

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110. Ostaszewshi, Janusz. "Memorandum re: lost Swiss bank accounts". In Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland, November 1998. 3-page paper.
Note: In 1949 Poland and Switzerland concluded two treaties re Polish claims against Switzerland for monies held in Swiss banks by Poles who died or disappeated during WWII. All bank accounts belonging to Polish citizens residing in Poland in September, 1939, who had not contacted Swiss banks by May; 9, 1945 would be transferred to the National Bank of Poland. Funds were transferred to Poland in 1960 and in 1975.

111. Pechota, Vratislav. "The 1981 U.S.-Czechoslovakia claims settlement agreement: an epilogue to postwar nationalization and appropriation disputes". American Journal of International Law 76, no.3(1982): 639-653.
Note: The 1981 Agreement resolved disputes including the claims of US nationals against Czechoslovakia resulting from Czechoslovakian confiscation of foreign property between 1945 and 1981, and the disposition of Nazi-looted gold recovered by Allied armies at the end of World War II.

112. Pfirter, Rogelio. "Argentina: Nazi war criminals and assets: I". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 21-22. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Pfirter spoke on Argentina's firm determination to establish the facts connected with Nazism in that country.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

113. Philon, Alexandros. "Greece". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 293-294. London: HMSO, 1997.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

114. Picard, Jacques. Switzerland and the assets of the missing victims of the Nazis: assets in Switzerland belonging to victims of racial, religious and political persecution and their disposition between 1946 and 1973. Zurich: Bank Julius Baer, 1996. 30 pp.

115. Poncet, Charles. "Switzerland: Decree on the legal investigation of the assets deposited in Switzerland after the advent of the National-Socialist regime and Decree on the Special Fund for Needy Victims of the Holocaust, December 13, 1996 and February 26, 1997". International Legal Materials 36, no.5(September 1997): 1272-1278.

116. Preston, David Lee. "Hitler's Swiss connection". Philadelphia Inquirer(January 5, 1997).
Note: One month after Swiss banking officials and Jewish leaders announced an agreement to set up an independent commission, chaired by former US Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volker, to search for the whereabouts of funds deposited in Switzerland by Holocaust victims, a Swiss citizen named Francois Genoud committed suicide. Author David Lee Preston suggests that Genoud's suicide may be linked to the new commission as well as to Senator D'Amato's investigations for the U.S. Senate Banking Committee and class action lawsuits against Swiss banks filed by Holocaust survivors and victims' heirs. Genoud, a Nazi enthusiast and friend of Hitler's, worked with Swiss and German intelligence during WWII; he was then active in setting up the ODESSA network for the transfer of money from Germany and the evacuation of key Nazi leaders at the end of the war. Postwar, Genoud used his wartime contacts to become an advisor to Arab causes and anti-Israel activities.
Filed in the Library at P3.
Online: http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/swiss-and-hitler.html

117. Puto, Arben and Qirjako Qirko. "Albania: on the plundered Albanian gold by the Nazis; Jews in Albania". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 17-19. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: During the 1930s, Albania saw an influx of Jewsih refugees from Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia even after the fascist invasion of Albania by Italy. The Albanian people provided help for many Jewish families during WWII. After the fall of fascist Italy in late 1943, Albania was invaded by the Nazis who took the Albanian gold reserves, but declared Albania independent and neutral.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

118. "Republic of Croatia". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 235-243. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: The Croatian delegation asks that the remaining Tripartite Commission funds be used exclusively for compensation to Nazi victims and renounces the Croatian government's share in the distribution of the remaining funds in favor of Jewish victims.

119. "The restitution of the monetary gold stolen from Luxembourg by the Nazis". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 351-354. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany in 1940 and liberated in September 1944.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

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120. Reveille, Thomas. "The purse strings: the art of commandeering money and banking". In The spoil of Europe: the Nazi technique in political and economic conquest, 89-147. New York: W.W. Norton, 1941.
Note: In this early report on the plunder of occupied countries by Germany, the author tells of the financial and economic structure imposed on the conquered areas including the seizure of raw materials, finished products, machinery, and trains, as well as the imposition of a charge for "costs of occupation". Reveille notes that all gold and foreign asset reserves of occupied countries are seized and he tells how the Nazis stripped the Jews of property and wealth. The author's chapter entitled "The Golden Haul" tells in detail how the gold reserves were taken and how the Bank for International Settlements served Nazi purposes.

121. Rings, Werner. Raubgold aus Deutschland: die "Golddrehscheibe": Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Stolen gold from Germany: the "Golden Turn Table": Switzerland during WWII). Zurich: Artemis Verlag, 1985. 232 pp.
Note: This was an early disclosure of Nazi gold transactions involving both Sweden and Switzerland. The author was able for the first time to examine the Swiss National Bank documents as wll as relevant German and U.S. records. Rings concludes that the SNB's cooperation hinged upon its profit-making interests and its anti-Communist stance rather than Nazi sympathies.

122. "Roundtable: "The ongoing debate is forcing Switzerland to rethink its relations with the rest of the world"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Rolf Bloch, Mauro Cerutti, Nicolas Pictet, and Verena Grendelmeier debate the issue of Jewish funds.
Filed in Library at R5.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/TableRonde.E.html

123. Rubin, Seymour J. "Allied-Swedish accord on the German external assets, looted gold, and related matters". Department of State Bulletin 17, no.421(1947): 56-61.

124. Ruth, Arne. "Postwar Europe: the capriciousness of universal values". Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 126, no.3(Summer 1997): 241-276.
Note: The Nazi gold controversy is hopefully the beginning of a new look into the national mythologies relating to the Holocaust. The author asserts that the deeper dimension of the Nazi gold controversy is that it reminds us of the fact that the Holocaust was only the climax of a policy whereby a state set out to exclude a group of citizens as "enemies" of "real", ethnically defined citizens, then making much of the population accomplices by allowing them to profit from the elimination of the so-called enemy. The policy was largely accepted as an unavoidable fact by other national states, and the Holocaust became a form of robbery combined with murder.
Filed in the Library at R29.

125. Ruth, Arne. "The Holocaust as a business project". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).
Note: During WWII, Switzerland served as a curtain for other countries by creating multinational gold depository for neutral and non-aligned national states - Sweden, Portugal, Spain and Turkey - to use in trading money with the Axis. After the war, at a time when the Swiss were claiming that they had not received stolen Nazi gold, Swedish officials collaborated the Swiss statements by indicating that they, too, had trust in Emil Puhl, who led the day-to-day operations for the German Reichsbank, and who had assured the Swedes that no stolen gold had been transferred to the Swedish accounts. According to the author, Puhl planned with the SS how victim gold and other valuables could be used for the war effort.
Filed in the Library at R15.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eaffair.html

126. Ruth, Arne. "Why we are probing into World War II". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: DN's editor Arne Ruth argues that Swedes must face up to their pro-Nazi activities in WWII.
Filed in library at R11.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eintro.html

127. Ruth, Arne. "Saved by the Cold War: "The Wallenbergs helped the Germans"". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(November 28, 1996).
Note: Newly-declassified documents trace the economic links between German and Swedish financial circles during WWII. Only the fact that the Cold War made finding allies more important than exposing collaboration with Germany, kept the U.S. from investigating Wallenberg activities.
Filed in library at R3.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/ewallenberg.html

128. Ruth, Arne. "Paul Erdman's thriller opens the Swiss bank vaults". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).
Note: The Swiss Account, by Paul Erdman, put the World Jewish Congress on the track of the Nazi gold and what happened to Jewish assets during WWII. The book describes the Swiss relationship as Nazi Germany's agent in the world market.
Filed in the Library at R9.

129. Sayer, Ian and Douglas Botting. Nazi gold: the story of the world's greatest robbery. New York: Congden and Weed, 1984. xx, 423 pp.
Note: An account of how the Nazis swept up much of Europe's gold to serve their needs.

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130. Scally, William. "U.S. report details close Swiss-German war ties". Reuters(December 17, 1996).
Note: According to an official 1945-1946 report, gold deposits in Swiss banks doubled between 1939-1945 due to Nazi gold deposits. The report also states that Swiss industry was geared to the German war effort and Swiss banks used for German financial transactions.
Filed in Library at S17.

131. Schemo, Diana Jean. "A Nazi's trail leads to a gold cache in Brazil". New York Times(September 23, 1997): 1.
Note: Albert Blume was born in Germany where he became a member of the Nazi Party. He moved to Brazil in 1938 and left a cache of gold when he died. Brazil's commission to investigate Nazi war criminals contends that Blume was sent to Brazil as a spy and later as a channel for gold.

132. Schneeberger, Ernst. "Property and war, in particular the Swiss-American-German conditions". Georgetown Law Journal 34(March 1946): 265-287.

133. Schueler, Kaj. "Switzerland's gold trading overshadows Sweden's". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(1998).
Note: The author asks whether Sweden could have stayed out of the war without making concessions to Germany.
Filed in the Library at S3.

134. Simpson, Christopher. America's recruitment of Nazis and its effects on the Cold War. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988. xv, 398 pp.
Note: According to the author, anti-Communist appeals made in Italy after WWII were funded by US "black currency" that came from captured Nazi German assets including victim gold and currency.

135. Smith, Arthur Lee. Hitler's gold: the story of the Nazi war loot. Oxford: Berg, 1996. xix, 174 pp.
Note: An account of how assets looted from Holocaust victims, and from the treasuries of occupied nations, became a pawn in the Cold War struggle between the US and the Soviet Union, and how the issue has remained unresolved. Smith examines the Safehaven program and the post-war restitution negotiations.

136. Stanglin, Douglas. "Follow the money". U.S. News & World Report 124, no.1(January 12, 1998): 15.
Note: Found among the documents at the National Archives recently is a brief intelligence report asserting that a Croatian priest, in contact with the Vatican and sponsor for Croatian Fascists hiding in Rome after World War II, worked with this group to hide millions in gold looted from Jews and gypsies at the Vatican. It is alleged that he also provided the Fascists with assistance in fleeing to South America. The Vatican has denied the charges but refuses to open related files.
Filed in Library at S10.

137. Steinberg, Jonathan. The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during the Second World War. Munich: Oscar Beck, 1998.
Note: The Historical Commission to Examine the History of Deutsche Bank in the Period of National Socialism was appointed by the Deutsche Bank in December 1997 because the Bank decided that it had to take up the issues which the debate on gold had aroused. The bank had already established both an historical archive and an institute for study of the history of the bank. A history of the bank had been published, but the availability of new Soviet archival sources made another closer study of the gold dealings of the largest German commerical bank under conditions of total war advisable. Historians appointed included Avraham Barkai, Gerald D. Feldman, Lothar Gail, Harold James, and Jonathan Steinberg, the principal author of the report. Their investigation showed that the Bank did trade in victim gold during WWII. In his conclusion, Steinberg concluding that their guilt began in 1933 when they tolerated the outrages which ruined their colleagues noted that the Deutsche Bank directors "profited from the disappearance of Jewish colleagues and rivals and went on pretending that business could go as usual".
Filed in Library at S6.

138. Steinberg, Jonathan. Why Switzerland? 2d ed. Munich: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xvi, 300 pp.
Note: Steinberg, European historian at the University of Cambridge, attempts to answer three related questions about Switzerland in this book: why has such an exception to European norms survived? What can the non-Swiss learn from its idiosyncracies? Can so unusual a society continue when many of the conditions behind its development no longer exist? The author describes the uniqueness of Switzerland: its direct democracy, universal military service, its four national languages, its wealth, its lack of centralization of state and economy, and its lack of integration into the European Union. After the publication of this edition, Jonathan Steinberg, appointed by the Deutsche Bank of Switzerland to The Historical Commission to Examine the History of Deutsche Bank in the Period of National Socialism, served as principal author of the report The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during the Second World War.

139. "The story of the gold deposited at the Bank of Italy (1943-1958)". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 323-344. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: In 1943, the German military ordered the transfer of the Bank of Italy's gold reserves to the North to keep it away from the Allied advance. It was transferred in two shipments in September to Milan and then later to an armoured tunnel in Fortezza. In 1944 the gold was signed over to the Germans and a shipment was made to Berlin in February. A second shipment was sent to Switzerland to settle Swiss National Bank debts and then another shipment was sent to Berlin. In 1945 all the Italian gold was moved from Berlin - some of it was sent to the Merkers salt mine.
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

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140. "Study: Swiss banks stashed gold taken from Nazi camp victims". CNN World News(May 25, 1998).
Note: A study by a panel of international historians discloses that the Swiss National Bank (SNB) stored victim gold in its vaults.
Filed in the library at C7.
Online: http://cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9805/25/nazi.gold

141. Stuttaford, Genevieve. "The Swiss, the gold, and the dead: how Swiss bankers helped finance the Nazi war machine". Publishers Weekly 245, no.5(February 2, 1998): 73.
Note: The review claims that Ziegler's book is the fullest picture to date of Swiss complicity in Nazi German war crimes of WWII.
Review is filed in Library at S15.

142. Swardson, Anne. "New British study adds impetus to the hunt for Nazi Gold in Swiss vaults". Washington Post(September 12, 1996): A28.
Note: A British Foreign office report's claim that Swiss banks may be holding more than $6 billion worth of Nazi gold stolen from nations and individuals and transferred to Swiss banks added to the pressure faced by the Swiss banking industry.
Filed in Library at S9.

143. Sweden and the Nazi Gold. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, December 2-4, 1997. 19 pp. (Conference paper presented at the London Conference on Nazi Gold, December 2-4, 1997).
Note: A report on Swedish progress toward ascertaining whether Sweden knowingly received gold from Nazi Germany during WWII that had been seized from the central banks of occupied countries or had been stolen from Jewish victims. The conference report describes Swedish negotiations with the Allies after the war, describes investigations into dormant bank accounts and other private property that took place in the 1960s and notes the progress on work of the Riksbank and the Commission itself.
Filed in Library at S12.

144. "Swiss banks, Nazi plunder". Atlantic Unbound(June 26, 1997).
Note: Noting the recent govenment report, "U.S. and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II," the Atlantic Monthly explores Nazi past through its articles beginning in September 1946.
Filed in Library at S21.

145. Terms of reference. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, February 13, 1997. 4 pp.
Note: Summary of the assignment of the Commission to be appointed and charged with the task of investigating: Swiss dealings with property, including gold, belonging to Jews and acquired from Nazi Germany before and during the war; Swiss handling of bank deposits and other assets of Jews after the war which as a result of the Holocaust remained unclaimed; and claims that German-Jewish property was liquidated by the Foreign Capital Control Office.
Filed in library at S13.
Online: http://www.ud.se/english/nazigold/nazigold.htm

146. Toshkova, Vita. "Bulgaria: anti-Semitic legislation in Bulgaria, 1940-44: a case study of some aspects". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 73-77. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Anti-Semitic legislation enacted in Bulgaria facilitated the looting of Jewish gold there. The legislation, modeled after Germany's Nuremberg laws, limited the right of Jews to participate in Bulgaria's economy and political life.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

147. "Vatican drawn into scandal over Nazi-era gold". CNN World News(July 22, 1997).
Note: Vatican sources have denied that the Vatican served as a repository of Nazi gold after WWII. A newly declassified document, dated October 21, 1946, and declassified on December 31, 1996, states that the Vatican held 200 million Swiss francs for Croatian fascists and notes rumors that it may still have be at the Vatican or have been sent to Spain and Argentina through a Vatican "pipeline".
Filed in the library at C5.
Online: http://cnn.com/WORLD/9707/22/nazi.gold/index.html

148. Vogler, Robert. The Swiss National Bank's gold transactions with the German Reichsbank from 1939 to 1945. Zurich: Swiss National Bank, 1984.

149. Warner, Alison. "Search for a golden fleece". The Banker (London) 147, no.856(June 1997): 26-27.
Note: This article about the gold market brings up the role of the Swiss as bankers and financial brokers for the Nazis and the recent uproar over "victim gold". The furor has led to a revaluation of the Swiss National Bank's gold reserves and the decision to sell some of the gold to support the Swiss Foundation for Solidarity, a foundation set up to restore Switzerland's humanitarian image.
Filed in the Library at W5.

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150. Weinbaum, Laurence. Righting a historic wrong: restitution of Jewish property in Central and East Europe. 3d ed. Policy studies no. 1. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1995. 41 pp.
Note: Most Jewish properties looted by the Nazis were later seized by the Communists before they could be claimed by their rightful owners. The collapse of the Soviet Union and its hold over Central and East Europe has given Jews a new opportunity to reclaim lost property. In 1992 the World Jewish Restitution Organization (WJRO) was formed to negotiate Jewish communal claims. The WJRO has found a disturbing pattern of national laws restricting the rights of Jews to reclaim their property.

Summary filed in library at W3.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study01.html

151. Weinberg, Gerhard L. Testimony. Washington: House of Representatives, 1998. (Testimony by Gerhard L. Weinberg, before the House Banking & Financial Services Committee, in Washington, June 25, 1997).
Note: Noting that the Eizenstat report is in general very sound, Weinberg points out aspects which he believes need greater emphasis. First, Switzerland knew that Germany had no funds because they had borrowed from the Swiss in order to make purchases during 1940-1942. Not only did Switzerland have to know that any future deposits of gold and valuables were loot; in fact, the legal position of the Swiss was that looting was legal and the looter can convey legal title to another. Even after the war, in 1949, the Swiss signed an agreement to Poland whereby the Polish looted the Swiss accounts of Holocaust victims. Secondly, as late as April 1945, the Swiss signed a secret agreement with the German government which violated an agreement made with the Allies a month earlier; the agreement was made solely out of greed for money. Finally, Weinberg believes that the Allied concern that the Swiss government, and the Red Cross, might renounce their role with prisoners of war held by Germany, kept the Allies from pressuring the Swiss government.
Filed in Library at W4.
Online: http://www.house.gov/banking/62597ger.htm

152. The whereabouts of the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank. Bundesarchiv R4-2850/18. Berlin: Bundesarchive (Federal Archives) and the Deutsche Bundesbank (F2 Historical Archives), 1998.
Note: This research report focuses on the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank, in particular the records of the Precious Metals Department, the Foreign Exchange Department and the Securities Department after the collapse of the Reich in 1945 and after the liquidation of the Reichsbank in 1976. The need for such a research report became evident in 1997 when U.S. OMGUS records were found to show that more documentation of the Precious Metals Department of the German Reichsbank had survived the end of the war than was previously known and that these records contained information on victim gold transactions. This research did not turn up this documentation; among the missing records were the 26 "Melmer" folders of acceptance/delivery receipts for victim gold that accompanied 76 shipments delivered to the Deutsche Reichsbank, records which had been evaluated by American authorities after the war.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at HG3055.W4 1998.

153. Winkler, Hans. "Austria". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 27-29. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: Austria has taken the findings of the Commission headed by Secretary Eizenstat as a starting point for their investigation into events surrounding the illegal seizure of the official Austrian gold reserves by the Nazi regime.
Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

154. "World War II allies attacked at Nazi gold conference". CNN(December 3, 1997): 2 pp.
Filed in Library at C6.

155. Zabludoff, Sidney. Movements of Nazi Gold: uncovering the trail. Policy studies no. 10. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 28 pp.
Note: In today's dollars, the Nazi-looted gold amounts to more than $8.5 billion. More than 2/3 of that sum came from the treasuries of occupied countries; the rest came from gold taken from individuals and businesses. 35% of the gold was found by the Allies in Germany and Austria; most of the rest of the gold was funneled by Germany through Switzerland to purchase strategic gold and services from foreign countries during WWII. The author presents a flow model to provide a framework for consideration of all elements of gold movement and concludes that Switzerland has not returned all the looted gold stored there.

Summary filed in library at Z1.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study10.html

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