Holocaust-Era Assets

Civilian Agency Records - Notes

1. Researchers may find useful Cordell Hull, Memoirs of Cordell Hull (New York: Macmillan, 2 vols. 1948); Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, eds., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943-1946 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975); James Francis Byrnes, Speaking Frankly (New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1947); Charles E. Bohlen, Witness to History, 1929-1969 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1973); Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: Norton, 1989); Sumner Welles, The Time for Decision (New York and London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1944); Sumner Welles, ed., An Intelligent American's Guide to the Peace (New York: The Dryden Press, 1945); George F. Kennan, Memoirs 1925-1950 (Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown, 1967); Beatrice Bishop Berle and Travis Beal Jacobs, eds., Navigating the Rapids 1918-1971: From the Papers of Adolf A. Berle (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1973); Harley Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation: 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949); Graham H. Stuart, The Department of State: A History of Its Organization, Procedure, and Personnel (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1949); Francis L.oewenheim, Harold D. Langley, and Manfred Jonas, eds., Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (New York: Saturday Review Press/E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1976); Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy 1932-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); Warren F. Kimball, The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991); Irwin F. Gellman, Secret Affairs: Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, Sumner Welles (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995); Herbert Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin: The Way They Waged War and the Peace They Sought (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957); Raymond C. O'Connor, Diplomacy for Victory: Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Unconditional Surrender (New York: Norton, 1971); Edward R. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians (New York: Macmillan, 1949); Department of State, A Decade of American Foreign Policy: Basic Documents 1941-1949, rev. ed. (Washington, D.C. Department of State, 1985); Fredrick Aandahl, comp. The Cumulated Index to the U.S. Department of State Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939-1945. 2 vols. (Millwood, New York: Kraus, 1982 or is that 1992); Milton O. Gustafson, ed., The National Archives and Foreign Relations Research (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1974); John C. Campbell, The United States in World Affairs 1945-1947 (New York and London: Harper & Brothers for the Council on Foreign Relations, 1947); John C. Campbell, The United States in World Affairs 1947-1948 (New York and London: Harper & Brothers for the Council on Foreign Relations, 1948); Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943-1945 (New York: Vintage, 1968); John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972); Gaddis Smith, Diplomacy During the Second World War, 1941-1945 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966); Thomas G. Patterson, Soviet-American Confrontation: Postwar Reconstruction and the Origins of the Cold War (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973); Robert Beitzell, The Uneasy Alliance: America, Britain, and Russia, 1941-1943 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972); John R. Deanne, The Strange Alliance: The Story of Our Efforts at Wartime Cooperation with Russia (New York: Viking Press, 1947); Jacques de. Launay, Secret Diplomacy of World War II (New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1963). [Back to text]

2. Decimal file 840.48 pertains to the general problem of calamities, disasters, and relief activities in Europe. Major topics covered in this file, for the 1938-1949 period, include State Department assistance to the American Red Cross in shipping drugs, medical supplies and equipment, and other relief supplies to Europe; wartime relief efforts for the civilians of occupied countries; postwar relief efforts of the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), and C.A.R.E. (Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe, Inc.); and, overall relief aspects of European reconstruction, better known as the Marshall Plan. The 1938-1949 files are contained on rolls 1-18 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M1284. [Back to text]

3. Decimal file 840.48Refugees pertains to the problem of European refugees. Major topics covered in this file, for the 1938-1949 period, include the Intergovernmental Meeting on Political Refugees; the Intergovernmental Committee for Political Refugees; the smuggling of refugees, particularly Jewish refugees, out of Europe to all parts of the world; illegal Jewish migration to Palestine; and, the activities of the War Refugee Board, including its weekly reports of activities and news and the appointment of special War Refugee Board attaches to U.S. missions. The 1938-1949 files are contained on rolls 19-70 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M1284. [Back to text]

4. This case had its origins in a World War I Alien Property matter. The first phase of legal proceedings culminated in January 1937, when in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, the Government obtained a judgment ($6,967,987.30 plus interest) against the plaintiff, which was affirmed on appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit. Because the Government was unable to collect the full amount due, plus interest, a suit was brought on the judgment in the Civil Court of Basel, Switzerland in June 1939, and after the Swiss Bank Corporation opened an agency in New York City in July 1939, civil suit was filed against the Swiss Bank Corporation in the District Court for the Southern District of New York (Civil Action No. 10-328) in November 1939. By 1941 the amount due was some 14 million dollars. In the spring of 1941, after negotiations between the Swiss Government and the State Department and a series of communications between the Attorney General and the Secretary of State a compromise of some 2 million dollars was reached and on July 22, 1941, the case was dismissed with prejudice. The State Department file contains a substantial quantity of documentation about the case with many summary documents, correspondence between the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, and correspondence between the Department of State and the Swiss Government. In Federal Bureau of Investigation Headquarters File 65-30919-629 is a memorandum by S.S. Rubenstein, dated May 1, 1941, providing information on the case. In it he states that he had met with Brice Toole, an attorney in the Alien Property Bureau of the Department of Justice, and that Mr. Toole "advised that in connection with this case he had gone to Switzerland and was accompanied by Special Agent O.A. Herring, and that he would not be surprised if some scheme was effected whereby the Swiss Bank Corporation would endeavor to avoid paying this suit. He stated that it was his opinion that the Swiss Bank Corporation was nothing more than a German front to handle German financial matters in the United States. Mr. Toole further stated that the Department's position in this suit was that they desired to obtain the full amount due the United States Government, namely the seven million dollars plus interest; whereas the State Department was endeavoring to bring about a compromise settlement for about two million dollars." The Department of Justice case file number for the case is 9-17-9-10281. [Back to text]

5. Occupation and control of Austria. [Back to text]

6. Occupation and control of Germany. [Back to text]

7. Occupation and control of Italy. [Back to text]

8. Council of Foreign Ministers. [Back to text]

9. European Advisory Commission. [Back to text]

10. This file contains a relatively long formerly Top Secret memo entitled "Illegal Emigration Movements in and Through Italy," dated May 15, 1947, by Vincent La Vista. [Back to text]

11. There are no boxes 4219 and 4221, but no records are missing. [Back to text]

12. For assistance using these records, including the locations, please consult the staff in the consultation area in Room 2600. [Back to text]

13. Please consult the staff in the consultation area in Room 2600 for the location of the 1963-1966 Subject-Numeric File. [Back to text]

14. Researchers may find useful Dean Acheson, Present At The Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1969), especially the two chapters on economic warfare. [Back to text]

15. Researchers may find useful Tommie Sjoberg, The Powers and the Persecuted. The Refugee Problem and the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (ICGR), 1938-1947 (Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press, 1991); Michael R. Marrus, The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Mark Wyman, DP: Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945-1951 (Philadelphia: Balch Institute, 1989); Arieh Tartakower and Kurt R. Grossman, The Jewish Refugee (New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs of the American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress, 1944); Joseph B. Schechtman, European Population Transfers 1939-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946); Richard Breitman and Alan M. Kraut, American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987); Leonard Dinnerstein, America and the Survivors of the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982); Henry L. Feingold, The Politics of Rescus: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 (Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1970); Saul Friedman, No Haven for the Oppressed: United States Policy toward Jewish Refugees, 1938-1945 (Detroit: Michigan State University Press, 1973); David S. Wyman, Paper Walls. America and the Refugee Crisis, 1938-1941 (New York: Pantheon, 1985); David S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews. America and the Holocaust 1941-1945 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984); Bernard Wasserstein, Britain and the Jews of Europe 1939-1945 (London: Institute of Jewish Affairs; Oxford: Clarendon, 1979). [Back to text]

16. For other Division of World Trade Intelligence records see Records of Interdepartmental and Intradepartmental Committees (State Department) RG 353. [Back to text]

17. For the text of the agreement see the section of the finding aid on the Files of the U.S. Delegation to the Inter-Allied Reparations Agency in the Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84). [Back to text]

18. Department of State Bulletin, September 29, 1946, p. 563. [Back to text]

19. Poland received two adjudications; one for pre-war Poland and one for Danzig. [Back to text]

20. Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes; Nazi Gold: Information from the British Archives , Historians, LRD No. 11 September 1996; Second Edition: Revised January 1997 (ISBN 0 903359 69 3). In the preface to the October 1996 edition of his book Hitler's Gold, Arthur L. Smith, Jr., wrote that the TGC "has functioned these many years in absolute privacy, and has carefully avoided public scrutiny. The very name itself suggests a body of dull bureaucrats carrying out rather monotonous tasks. Secure in its obscurity and wrapped in official secrecy, the Commission has yet to reveal a far different role, one that was often pivotal in any number of instances where the withholding of the return of looted gold to a communist state was crucial in the Cold War. Just as the world clamors for an accounting from Switzerland, perhaps the same should apply as regards the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold." [Back to text]

21. In June 1947, the TGC issued a questionnaire to all members of the IARA, Poland, and Italy, calling for a statement of wrongful removal of monetary gold and also for a statement of movements, covering losses and receipts, during the wartime period. The questionnaire also contained a definition of monetary gold agreed to use by the TGC: "all gold which, at the time of its looting or wrongful removal, was carried as a part of the claimant country's monetary reserve, either in the accounts of the claimant Government itself or in the accounts of the claimant country's central bank or other monetary authority at home or abroad." According to a British study "this definition was intentionally narrow, and aimed at excluding any private claims for restitution, partly because in some countries it had been illegal for private individuals to hold gold, but also because 'an examination of the problem shewed generally that on the one hand the total values of the possible "private claims" provable by documentary evidence, would be small in comparison with governmental claims for the restitution of looted national gold reserves, and on the other hand, that the total number of "private claims" likely to be presented to the Commission, if allowed at all, might run into many thousands. This would render it impossible in practice for the Commission to do the essential work required.' A preliminary examination of the returns received by the Commission confirmed this view." Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command's History Notes; Nazi Gold: Information from the British Archives (Historians, LRD No. 11 September 1996). [Back to text]

22. Born, Eugenio Pacelli, Piux II was elected Pope in March 1939, having previously served as papal nuncio in Germany from 1917 to 1930 and as Vatican secretary of state from 1930. Researchers may find useful Saul Friedlander, Pius XII and the Third Reich (New York: Octagon, 1986); Carlo Falconi, The Silence of Pius XII (London: Faber & Faber, 1970); Saul Friedlander, Pius XII and the Third Reich (London: Chatto & Windus, 1966); Nazareno Padallaro, Portrait of Pius XII (London: J. M. Dent, 1956); Alexander Ramati, While the Pope Kept Silent (London: Allen & Unwin, 1978); John Pollard, The Vatican and Italian Facism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and Soviet Intelligence (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991); Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and Swiss Banks. New and rev. ed. (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1998); David Alvarez and Robert A. Graham, SJ, Nothing Sacred: Nazi Espionage Against the Vatican 1939-1945 (London and Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1997). [Back to text]

23. Names without the number of pages indicates that the interrogation records is contained in the boxes but was not microfilmed. The interrogations in Box 4 are indicated as Box 4. [Back to text]

24. Field Marshal, former Reich War Minister and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. [Back to text]

25. Reich Minister for Food and Agriculture and Reich Peasant Leader. [Back to text]

26. Ambassador to Spain 1943-1944. [Back to text]

27. Grand Admiral who was Commander-in-Chief of the German Navy after 1943 and subsequently Hitler's designated successor. [Back to text]

28. Secretary to August Finke in Sweden 1943-1945. [Back to text]

29. First Secretary at German Legation Stockholm November 1943-May 1945. [Back to text]

30. In the Foreign Office 1938-1942 and Sturmbannfuehrer in SS after 1942. [Back to text]

31. In 1943 was Undersecretary of State and Chief of Political Division. [Back to text]

32. Press Office, German Legation, Stockholm January 1944-May 1945. [Back to text]

33. Lieutenant in German Army 1941-1945. [Back to text]

34. Minister in Lisbon, Portugal 1934-September 1944. [Back to text]

35. Chief of the Operations Staff of the High Command of the Armed Forces (OKW) from 1939 to 1945. [Back to text]

36. Field Marshal, Chief of the Wehrmacht High Command OKW, 1938-1945. [Back to text]

37. Minister to Ecuador 1936-1942. [Back to text]

38. Minister to Tokyo 1942-1945. [Back to text]

39. Chief of the Office of the Reichs President 1924-1945. [Back to text]

40. In Charge of cultural affairs of the German Embassy in Brussels, Belgium, 1940-September 1941. [Back to text]

41. State Secretary in the Reich Post Ministry. [Back to text]

42. Special Envoy to Rumania, Greece and Southwestern Europe 1941-1945. [Back to text]

43. Naval Attache, Buenos Aires 1936-1942. [Back to text]

44. Ambassador-at-Large for Economic and Trade Negotiations. [Back to text]

45. Nazi Youth Leader from 1933 until July 1941 when he was sent to Vienna to serve as district leader for the Nazi Party. [Back to text]

46. Deals with Dr. Franz Alfred Six, RSHA Amt VII. [Back to text]

47. OKW Liaison with the Foreign Office 1940-1942. [Back to text]

48. Chief of the Commercial Division of the Auswaetiges Amt 1943-1945. [Back to text]

49. Former chief of the Wehrwirtschaftsamt of the OKW. [Back to text]

50. Minister to Sweden 1943-1945. [Back to text]

51. Attache and Vice-Consul in the German Conulate at Geneva 1939-1945. [Back to text]

52. Military Attache in Chile and later Military, Naval, and Air Attache in Argentina. [Back to text]

53. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 128-129. [Back to text]

54. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1944, Volume II, p. 220. [Back to text]

55. ibid. pp. 243-247. [Back to text]

56. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945, Volume II, pp. 852-859. [Back to text]

57. Argentine "Blue Book," Consultation Among the American Republics With Respect to the Argentine Situation, February 1946. [Back to text]

58. Researchers may find useful two special issues of Patterns of Prejudice (Vol 30 No. 4 October 1996 and Vol. 31 No.3 July 1997) that contain papers about Argentina during the World War Two-era that were presented at a conference held at the University of Buenos Aires, November 23-25, 1994. [Back to text]

59. Researchers may find useful Gordon Brook-Shepherd, The Anschluss: The Rape of Austria (New York: Lippincott, 1963). [Back to text]

60. Department of State Bulletin, July 28, 1946, pp. 175-178. [Back to text]

61. Researchers may find useful Werener Warmbrunn, The German Occupation of Belgium, 1940-1944 (New York: Lang, 1993); John Gillingham, Belgian Business in the Nazi New Order (Ghent: Jan Dhondt Foundation, 1977); Martin Conway, Collaboration in Belgium, Leon Degrelle and the Rexist Movement, 1940-1944 (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993) [Back to text]

62. Researchers may find useful Marshall L. Miller, Bulgaria during the Second World War (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1975); Frederick B. Chary, The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940-1944 (Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg, 1972); Stephane Groueff, Crown of Thorns (Lanham, Maryland: Madison Books, 1987). [Back to text]

63. Researchers may find useful Vojtech Mastny, The Czechs under Nazi Rule: The Failure of National Resistance, 1939-1942 (New York: Colombia University Press, 1971); Avigdor Dagan, ed., The Jews of Czechoslovakia. 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1984); Josef Korbel, The Communist Subversion of Czechoslovakia, 1938-1948 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1959); Eduard Benes, Memoirs: From Munich to New War and New Victory (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954). [Back to text]

64. Researchers may find useful Richard Petrow, The Bitter Years: The Invasion and Occupation of Denmark and Norway (New York: Morrow, 1974); Leo Goldberger, ed., The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress (New York: New York University Press. 1987); Leni Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969); Harold Flender, Rescue in Denmark (New York: Holocaust Library, 1963); Henrik S. Nissen, ed., Scandinavia During the Second World War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983). [Back to text]

65. Researchers may find useful John H. Wourinen, ed., Finland and World War II (New York: Ronald Press, 1948); Hannu Rautkallio, Finland and the Holocaust (New York: Holocaust Library, 1987); Henrik S. Nissen, ed., Scandinavia During the Second World War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983). [Back to text]

66. Researchers may find useful Edouard Daladier, Prison Journal, 1940-1945 (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1995). [Back to text]

67. Researchers may find useful Charles de Gaulle, War Memoirs (3 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955); Betram M. Gordon, Collaborationism in France during the Second World War (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1980); Gerhard Hirshfeld and Patrick Marsh, eds., Collaboration in France. Politics and Culture during the Nazi Occupation, 1940-1944 (Oxford: Berg, 1989); Michael R. Marcus and Robert Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews (New York: Basic Books, 1981); Alan S. Milward, The New Order and the French Economy (Oxford: Clarendon, 1970): Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982); John Sweets, Choices in Vichy France. The French under Nazi Occupation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Jacques Adler, The Jews of Paris and the Final Solution: Communal Response and Internal Conflicts, 1940-1944 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Milton Dank, The French against the French: Collaboration and Resistance (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1974); William L. Langer, Our Vichy Gamble (New York: Knopf, 1947); Robert D. Murphy, Diplomat Among Warriors (New York: Doubleday, 1964); Ian Ousby, Occupation: The Ordeal of Frane 1940-1944 (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1998); David Pryce-Jones, Paris in the Third Reich (London: Collins, 1981); Ted Morgan, An Uncertain Hour: The French, The Gemans, The Jews, The Barbie Trial and the City of Lyon, 1940-1945 (London: Bodley Head, 1990); Ninetta Jucker, Curfew in Paris: A Record of the German Occupation (London: Hogarth Press, 1960); Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper, Paris After Liberation, 1945-1949 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1994); Herbert R. Lottmann, The People's Anger: Justice and Revenge in Post-Liberation France (London: Hutchinson, 1986). [Back to text]

68. Christoph M. Kimmich, German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1984); Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, eds., Nazism 1919-1945. Vol. 3, Foreign Policy, War and Racial Extermination. A Documentary Reader (Exeter, United Kingdom: University of Exeter, 1988); Edward R. Zilbert, Albert Speer and the Nazi Ministry of Arms: Economic Institutions and Industrial Production in the German War Economy (London: Associated University Presses, 1981); R. J. Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994); Berenice A. Carroll, Design for Total War, Arms and Economics in the Third Reich (The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton, 1968); David Kahn, Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1978); Martin Kitchen, Nazi Germany at War (New York: Longman, 1995); Detlev Peukert, Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1987); Saul Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews. Vol. 1: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939 (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997); James Pool, Hitler and His Secret Partners: Contributions, Loot and Rewards, 1933-1945 (New York: Pocket Books, 1997); Klaus P. Fischer, Nazi Germany: A New History (New York: Continuum, 1997); Norman Rich, Hitler's War Aims. 2 vols. (New York: Norton, 1973-1974); Klaus, Hildbrand, The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich, trans. Anthony Fothergill (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970); Arthur Schweitzer, Big Business in the Third Reich (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964). [Back to text]

69. Sidney Aster, comp. and ed. British Foreign Policy, 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials. Rev. ed. (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1991); Llewellyn Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War. 5 vols. (London: HMSO, 1970-1976); John D. Cantwell, The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: HMSO, 1972); Winston Churchill, The Second World War, 6 vols. (London and Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948-1953); Anthony Eden, The Eden Memoirs, 3 vols. (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1960, 1965; London: Cassell, 1965); Bernard Wasserstein, Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979); Owen Chadwick, Britain and the Vatican during the Second World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); Bernard Wasserstein, Britain and the Jews of Europe 1939-1945 (London: Clarendon, 1979); Francis L.oewenheim, Harold D. Langley, and Manfred Jonas, eds., Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (New York: Saturday Review Press/E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1976); Herbert Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin: The Way They Waged War and the Peace They Sought (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957); Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes, British Policy Towards Enemy Property during and after the Second World War, No. 13 (April 1998). [Back to text]

70. For information about the organizational structure and records of The Ministry of Economic Warfare (MEW) please see John D. Cantwell, The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: HMSO, 1993) pp. 70-73. Useful for understanding the British economic warfare role and activities is W. N. Medlicott, The Economic Blockade (London: HMSO and Longmans, Green, and Co. 2 vols. 1952, 1959). [Back to text]

71. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," p. 106. The division was headed first by Winfield Riefler and then by William T. Stone, both of the Foreign Economic Administration (FEA), and it was staffed by FEA, State Department, and Office of Strategic Services personnel. ibid., p. 106n.65. [Back to text]

72. According to Margaret Clarke "Since the preclusive files were later to yield rich clues to Germany's post-war penetration plans, the work of the committee with regard to preclusion was of considerable long-range significance." Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 107-108. [Back to text]

73. Besides a blockade the British took measures to restrict the flow of good into Germany by means of control at the source. Exports from the Commonwealth and Empire were subject to licensing control from early in the war and in January 1940 the United Kingdom Commercial Corporation was established to make pre-emptive purchases of strategic goods to prevent them from falling into enemy hands and this practice was greatly extended from the summer of 1940. The United Kingdom Commercial Corporation handled the purchase and sale of goods from neutral countries, particularly Turkey, Spain, and Portugal. The United States Government would take similar measure once it entered the war, with the United States Commercial Company and other companies. [Back to text]

74. Nelson D. Lankford, ed., OSS Agent Against the Reich: The World War II Diaries of Colonel David K.E. Bruce (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1991). [Back to text]

75. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 108-109. [Back to text]

76. John L. Hondor, Occupation and Resistance. The Greek Agony 1941-1944 (New York: Pella, 1983); Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler's Greece: The Experience of Occupation 1941-1944 (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1994). [Back to text]

77. In mid- January 1945, Wallenberg went to the Russian headquarters near Budapest to discuss the plight of the Jews. He disappeared without a trace and the Russians have maintained that he died of natural causes in Russia in July 1947. Other evidence indicates that it is possible he was executed on July 17, 1947, at Lubianka prison. Researchers may find useful Per Anger, With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: Memoirs of the War Years in Hungary (New York: Holocaust Library 1981); Kati Marton, Wallenberg (New York: Random House, 1982); Frederick E. Werbell and Thurston Clarke, Lost Hero: The Mystery of Raoul Wallenberg (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982); Elenore Lester, Wallenberg, the Man in the Iron Web (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1982). [Back to text]

78. Researchers may find useful Nicholas Kallay, Hungarian Premier: A Personal Account of a Nation's Struggle in the Second World War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954); M. D. Fenyo, Hitler, Horthy and Hungary: German-Hungarian Relations, 1941-1944 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972); Andrew Handler, ed., The Holocaust in Hungary (University: University of Alabama Press, 1982); Randolph L. Branham, ed., The Destruction of Hungarian Jewry. 2 vols. (New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews, 1963); Randolph L. Branham, The Hungarian Jewish Catastrophe (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984); Randolph Braham, The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). For information on OSS activities in Hungary, see Florimond Duke with Charles Swaart, Name, Rank, and Serial Number (New York: Meredith Press, 1969). [Back to text]

79. Department of State Bulletin, August 6, 1944, pp. 137-138. [Back to text]

80. Researchers may find useful Meir Michaelis, Mussolini and the Jews (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978); Leon Poliakov and Jacques Sabille, Jews under the Italian Occupation (New York: Fertig, 1983); Susan Zucotti, The Italians and the Holocaust (New York: Basic Books, 1987); Peter Tompkins, A Spy in Rome, preface by Donald Downes (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1962); Max Corvo, The OSS in Italy, 1942-1945 (New York: Praeger, 1990); Eugen Dollmann. Call Me Coward (London: Kimber, 1956); Allen W. Dulles, The Secret Surrender (New York: Harper & Row, 1966); F. W. Deakin, The Brutal Friendship: Mussolini, Hitler, and the Fall of Italian Fascism (New York: Harper & Row, 1962); Elizabeth Wiskemann, The Rome-Berlin Axis (London: Collins, 1966); James Edward Miller, The United States and Italy, 1940-1950: The Politics and Diplomacy of Stabilization (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986); Bradley F. Smith and Elena Agarossi, Operation Sunrise: The Secret Surrender (New York: Basic books, 1979). [Back to text]

81. Department of State Bulletin, February 16, 1945, p. 287. [Back to text]

82. Department of State Bulletin, June 1, 1947, pp. 1076-1080. [Back to text]

83. Researchers interested in the looting, recovery, and resitution of Italian may find useful Cesare Fasola, The Florence Galleries and the War: History and Records, with a List of Missing Works of Art (Florence: Casa Editrice Monsalvato, 1945); British Committee on the Preservation and Restitution of Works of Art, Archives, and Other Material in Enemy Hands, Works of Art in Italy: Losses and Survivals in the War-Compiled from War Office Reports, 2 vols. (London: HMSO, 1945-1946). [Back to text]

84. Researchers may find useful Willard Allen Fletcher, "The German Administration in Luxemburg 1940-1942: Toward a 'de facto' Annexation." The Historical Journal 8 (1970): 533-544 [Back to text]

85. Researchers may find useful Louis de Jong, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1990); Jan G. Colijn and Marcia S. Littell, eds., The Netherlands and Nazi Genocide (Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen, 1992); Jacob Presser, The Destruction of the Dutch Jews (New York: Dutton, 1969); Werner Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation, 1940-1945 (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967); Etty Hillesum, Letters from Westerbork (New York: Pantheon, 1986). [Back to text]

86. Researchers may find useful Alan S. Milward, The Fascist Economy in Norway (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972); Richard Petrow, The Bitter Years: The Invasion and Occupation of Denmark and Norway (New York: Morrow, 1974); Samuel Abrahamsen, Norway's Response to the Holocaust (New York: Holocaust Library, 1991); Henrik S. Nissen, ed., Scandinavia During the Second World War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983); The Reisel/Bruland report on the Confiscation of Jewish Property in Norway during World War II: Part of the Official Norwegian Report 1997: 22 (June 1997). [Back to text]

87. Researchers may find useful Jan T. Gross, Polish Society under German Occupation: The General Government 1939-1944 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979); Israel Gutman, The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982); Keith Sword, Deportation and Exile: Poles in the Soviet Union, 1939-1948 (London: St. Martin's, 1994); Lucjan Dobroszycki. ed., The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto, 1941-1944 (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1984); Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides, eds., Lodz Ghetto (New York: Viking, 1989). [Back to text]

88. Researchers may find useful Antonio de Figueiredo, Portugal: Fifty Years of Dictatorship (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1976); Peter Fryer and Patricia McGowan, Oldest Ally: A Portrait of Salazar's Portugal (London: Dennis Dobson, 1961); Hugh Kay, Salazar and Modern Portugal: A Biography (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1970); Stanley G. Payne, A History of Spain & Portugal (vol. II) (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973); Richard A.H. Robinson, Contemporary Portugal (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979); Jerrold M. Packard, Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992); Annette Baker Fox, The Power of Small States: Diplomacy in World War II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); Christopher Hollis, ed., Neutral War Aims (London: Burns & Oates, 1940); Roderick Ogley, The Theory and Practice of Neutrality in the Twentieth Century (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970); Arnold Toynbee and Veronica M. Toynbee, eds. The War & the Neutrals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956). [Back to text]

89. Researchers may find useful Jean Ancel, Documents concerning the Fate of Romanian Jewry during the Holocaust. 12 vols. (New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1986); I. C. Butnaru, The Silent Holocaust: Romania and Its Jews (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1992); I. C. Butnaru, Waiting for Jerusalem: Surviving the Holocaust in Romania (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1993). [Back to text]

90. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 185-187. Researchers on these issues should consult these Foreign Relations of the United States volumes: FRUS, 1944, Vol. II, pp. 213-251. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Inception of the Safehaven Program" and FRUS, 1945, Vol. II, pp. 852-932. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Implementation of the Safehaven Program." Researchers will find some interesting perspectives about the Spanish-American relationship during the war in Acheson, Present At The Creation, op. cit., pp. 53-55, 59-61and in Wartime Mission in Spain 1942-1945 by Carlton J.H. Hayes, who served as the American ambassador to Spain. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1945). Researchers may wish also to consult Haim Avni, Spain, the Jews, and Franco (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1982); Willard L. Beaulac, Franco: Silent Ally in World War II (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986); Charles B. Burdick, Germany's Military Strategy and Spain in World War II (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1968); James W. Cortada, United States-Spanish Relations, Wolfram and World War II (Barcelona, Spain: Manuel Pareja, 1971); Brian Crozier, Franco (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1967): Juan Dura, U.S. Policy Toward Dictatorship and Democracy in Spain 1931-1953 (Seville, Spain: Arrayan Ediciones, 1985); Herbert Feis, The Spanish Story: Franco and the Nations at War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948); Juan Pablo Fusi, Franco: A Biography (New York: Harper & Row, 1987); Max Gallo, Spain Under Franco: A History (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1974); Thomas J. Hamilton, Appeasement's Child: The Franco Regime in Spain (New York: Alfred A. Knopft, 1943); George Hill, Franco: The Main and His Nation (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1967); Sir Samuel Hoare, Ambassador on a Special Mission (London: Collins, 1946); Emmet John Hughes, Report from Spain (Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1947); Stanley G. Payne, Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961); Stanley G. Payne, Franco's Spain (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1967); Stanley G. Payne, A History of Spain & Portugal (vol. II) (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973); Stanley G. Payne, The Franco Regime 1936-1975 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987); Paul Preston, Franco (New York: Basic Books/Harper Collins, 1994); Dennis Smyth, Diplomacy and Strategy of Survival: British Policy and Franco's Spain, 1940-1941 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); J.W.D. Tryhall, El Caudillo: A Political Biography of Franco (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970); Jerrold M. Packard, Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992); Annette Baker Fox, The Power of Small States: Diplomacy in World War II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); Christopher Hollis, ed., Neutral War Aims (London: Burns & Oates, 1940); Roderick Ogley, The Theory and Practice of Neutrality in the Twentieth Century (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970); Arnold Toynbee and Veronica M. Toynbee, eds. The War & the Neutrals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956). [Back to text]

91. Researchers may find useful Seymour Rubin "Allied-Swedish Accord on German External Assets, Looted Gold, and Related Matters," Department of State Bulletin, July 27, 1947, pp. 155-161. [Back to text]

92. Researchers will find some interesting perspectives about the Swedish-American relationship during the war in Acheson, Present At The Creation, op. cit., pp. 50-52, 58-59. Also useful are Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 162-165, 171-172. Researchers on these issues should consult these to Foreign Relations of the United States volumes: FRUS, 1944, Vol. II, pp. 213-251. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Inception of the Safehaven Program" and FRUS, 1945, Vol. II, pp. 852-932. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Implementation of the Safehaven Program;" W.M. Carlgren, Swedish Foreign Policy During the Second World War (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1973); Marquis W. Childs, Sweden: The Middle Way (New York: Penguin Books, 1948); Henry Denham, Inside the Nazi Ring: A Naval Attache in Sweden 1940-1945 (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984); Joachim Joesten, Stalwart Sweden (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1943); M. Lorimer Moe, Sweden and the War (New York: The American-Swedish News Exchange, Inc., 1942); Jerrold M. Packard, Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992); Henrik S. Nissen, ed., Scandinavia During the Second World War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983); Annette Baker Fox, The Power of Small States: Diplomacy in World War II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); Christopher Hollis, ed., Neutral War Aims (London: Burns & Oates, 1940); Roderick Ogley, The Theory and Practice of Neutrality in the Twentieth Century (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970); Arnold Toynbee and Veronica M. Toynbee, eds. The War & the Neutrals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956); The Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War, The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: Interim Report, (Stockholm, July 1998 (translated into English August 1998); Sven Fredrik Hedin and Goran Elgemyr, Sweden and the Shoa. The Untold Chapters. Policy Study No. 11 (Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997). [Back to text]

93. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," p. 137. [Back to text]

94. Researchers should find useful Jozef Garlinski, The Swiss Corridor: Espionage Networks in Switzerland During World War II (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1981); Jon Kimche, Spying for Peace: General Guisan and Swiss Neutrality (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1961); Mary Bancroft, Autobiography of a Spy (New York: Morrow, 1983); Elizabeth Wiskemann, The Europe I Saw (London: Collins, 1968); Anthony Read and David Fisher, Colonel Z: The Secret Life of a Master of Spies (New York: Viking: 1985); Neal H. Petersemn, ed with commentary, From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945 (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996). [Back to text]

95. Researchers should find useful Alfred Haesler, The Lifeboat Is Full: Switzerland and the Refugees, 1933-1945, trans., Charles Lam Markmann (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1969); Sybil Milton, Rescue to Switzerland (New York: Garland, 1982); Ruth Rhoduner, "Paul Grueninger," in Mitya New, ed. Switzerland Unwrapped: Exposing the Myths (London and New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers, 1997) pp. 4-14; Jacques Picard, "Switzerland and the Jews," in ibid, pp. 15-26 [Back to text]

96. Clarke, "Safehaven Study," pp. 141-144. Researchers on these issues should consult these to Foreign Relations of the United States volumes: FRUS, 1944, Vol. II, pp. 213-251. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Inception of the Safehaven Program" and FRUS, 1945, Vol. II, pp. 852-932. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries; Implementation of the Safehaven Program." Researchers should find some interesting perspectives about the Swiss-American relationship during the war in Acheson, Present At The Creation, op. cit., pp. 52-53. Researchers may also find useful Adam LeBor, Hitler's Secret Bankers: The Myth of Swiss Neutrality During the Holocaust (Secaucus, New Jersey: Birch Lane Press Book, 1997); Jean Ziegler, The Swiss, The Gold, and the Dead: How Swiss Bankers Helped Finance the Nazi War Machine, trans. by John Brownjohn (New York, Sand Diego, London: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998); Isabel Vincent, Hitler's Silent Partners: Swiss Banks, Nazi Gold, and the Pursuit of Justice (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. 1997); Tom Bower, Nazi Gold: The Full Story of the Fifty-Year Swiss-Nazi Conspiracy to Steal Billions from Europe's Jews and Holocaust Survivors (New York: Harper Collins Publishers,1997); Don Arthur Waters, Hitler's Secret Ally, Switzerland (La Mesa, California: Pertinent Publications, 1992); Christopher Hughes, Switzerland (London: Ernest Benn, 1975); Heinz K. Meier, Friendship Under Stress: U.S./Swiss Relations 1900-1950 (Bern, Switzerland: Herbert Lang & Co., 1970); Urs Schwarz, The Eye of the Hurricane: Switzerland in World War Two (Boulder: Westview Press, 1980); George Soloveytchik, Switzerland in Perspective (London: Oxford University Press, 1954); Nicholas Faith, Safety in Numbers: The Mysterious World of Swiss Banking, rev. ed. (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1982); Jerrold M. Packard, Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992); Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and Swiss Banks. New and rev. ed. (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1998); Stephen P. Halbrook, Target Switzerland: Swiss Armed Neutrality in World War II (Rockville Centre, New York: Sarpedon, 1998); Edgar Bonjour, Swiss Neutrality: Its History and Meaning. 2nd Ed., trans. Mary Hottinger (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1952); Marko Milivojevic and Pierre Maurer, eds., Swiss Neutrality and Security: Armed Forces, National Defence and Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990); William E. Rappard, Collective Security in Swiss Experience, 1291-1948 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1948); Hugh R. Wilson, Switzerland: Neutrality as a Foreign Policy (Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1974); Annette Baker Fox, The Power of Small States: Diplomacy in World War II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); Christopher Hollis, ed., Neutral War Aims (London: Burns & Oates, 1940); Roderick Ogley, The Theory and Practice of Neutrality in the Twentieth Century (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970); Arnold Toynbee and Veronica M. Toynbee, eds. The War & the Neutrals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956); Jacques Picard, "Holocaust Money and Swiss Banks," in Mitya New, ed. Switzerland Unwrapped: Exposing the Myths (London and New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers, 1997), pp. 30-38; Paul Rechsteiner, "Switzerland and Capital Flight," in ibid., pp. 39-47; Robert Studer, "The Swiss Banker," in ibid., pp. 48-56; Ernst Schneeberger, "Property and War, In Particular the Swiss-American-German Conditions," Georgetown Law Journal Vol. 34 (March 1946): 265-287. Also useful are Swiss Federal Archives, Flight Funds, Looted Property and Dormant Assets: Status of Research and Its Perspectives, Bundesarchiv Dossier 6 (Bern, Switzerland, 1997); Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland-Second World War, Switzerland and Gold Transactions in the Second World War. Interim Report (Bern, Switzerland, 1998). [Back to text]

97. Max Petitpierre was a Member of the Swiss Council and Chief of the Federal Political Department (Foreign Minister), 1945-1950, and subsequently President of the Swiss Confederation. [Back to text]

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