Holocaust-Era Assets

Civilian Agency Records

State Department and Foreign Affairs Records

Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84)

Italy

Italy, under Benito Mussolini, declared war on Great Britain and France and June 10, 1940, and sent military forces into southern France.  In September 1940, Italy joined with Germany and Japan in a three-power pact, and in October 1940, Italian forces attacked Greece.  In June 1941, Italy joined with Germany in declaring war against Russia, and in December in declaring war against the United States.  Italy during November 1942 Italy joined with Germany in occupying Vichy France.

Despite Italy enacting a law in October 1942 that prevented purchases by foreigners of large tracts of land and industrial plants, Germans penetrated the Italian commercial and financial systems.  Besides outright penetration there were a number of cases of "collaboration" with German firms, but the Italians were usually not more than junior partners in such enterprises.  The extensive German-Italian collaboration in the insurance business culminated in the establishment of a European insurance cartel called "Association for the Coverage of Large Risks."  Practically the entire reinsurance business was handled on the German side by the Munich Reinsurance Company and on the Italian side by the Assicurazioni Generali and the Riunione Adriatica.  In 1942, a German-Italian tobacco company was established in Trieste and Rome.  Fifty-one percent of the capital was held by Italians and 49 percent by Germans, among them the prominent cigarette manufacturer and leading Nazi, Reemtsma.  I.G. Farben became involved in the Italian sulphur industry.

These German encroachments on Italian business and Italian military setbacks, including the Allied invasion of Sicily on July 10, 1943, resulted two weeks later in the Fascist Grand Council and King Emmanuel forcing Mussolini to resignation.  On July 25, 1943, a new government was established under the leadership of Marshal Pietro.  Within days he dissolved the Fascist Party and placed Mussolini under arrest.  Early in September 1943, the Italians signed an armistice with the Allies.  The armistice provided for a Control Commission to regulate and execute the terms of the armistice under the direction of the Supreme Allied Commander.  On November 10, 1943, General Eisenhower announced the establishment of the Allied Control Commission for Italy. (Note 79)

The Germans rescued Mussolini and established him in charge in northern Italy of a National Fascist Government (Italian Social Republic), though under the control of German military forces and a military governor and two plenipotentiaries, one of whom as SS General Karl Wolff.

In October 1943 the 40,000 Jews that remained after German occupation became subject to deportation and in November to the confiscation of their property.  Some 8,000 Jews were sent to their deaths at Auschwitz and Birkenau and in Italian prisons. (Note 80)

In late April 1945, Mussolini was captured and executed and the German forces in Italy surrendered in early May.

In October 1944 the United States decided to renew diplomatic relations with Italy. (Note 81)  Italy joined the war against Germany as a co-belligerent.  A peace treaty was concluded on February 10, 1947, and it entered into force on September 15, 1947. (Note 82)

Records of the Political Advisor to the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean

     Classified General Records 1943-1947 (Entry 2789)

          Boxes 1-127 location:350/62/8/01
          1943
          Box #  File #  File Title or Subject
          2      800  Italy-Banks location:350/62/8/01
          4      800  Italy-Pillaging
                 800  Italy-Foreign Relations   location:350/62/8/02
          5      800  Italy(Vatican)
                 800  Italy-Treasury
                 879.6   Italian Airways    location:350/62/8/02
          1944
          Box #  File #  File Title or Subject
          8      350  Claims
                 350  Property-General
                 350  Papal Property    location:350/62/8/02
          10-11       500     War Refugee Board    location:350/62/8/03
          11     701  French Representation in Switzerland
                 701  Argentina
                 701  Portugal
                 701  Spain
                 701  Switzerland   location:350/62/8/03
          12     701  Neutral Pouch  location:350/62/8/03
          13     707  Swiss   location:350/62/8/03
          14     711.1   Neutrality
                 711.1   Spain
                 711.10 Jews   location:350/62/8/03
          15     711.2   Neutral Shipping
                 711.3   Enemy Property
                 711.3   Trading With Enemy   location:350/62/8/03
          18     711.6   War Crimes   location:350/62/8/04
          19     711.9   Displaced Persons   location:350/62/8/04
          20     711.9   Restitution, Reparations, Property Rights
                 711.9   Restitution
                 720.01 Black List  location:350/62/8/04
          24     800  Germany   location:350/62/8/04
          27     800  Portugal
                 800  Spain   location:350/62/8/05
          28     800  Turkey   location:350/62/8/05
          34     801.2   Spain and Portugal   location:350/62/8/06
          35     814.2   International Red Cross   location:350/62/8/06
          36     820.02 Axis    location:350/62/8/06
          37-38       820.02 French Intelligence    location:350/62/8/06
          40     820.1   OSS (2 folders covering Sept. 1943-Sept.1944)
                 820.1   OSS-Economic and Political Reports  location:350/62/8/07
          46     840.1   Jews
                 840.3   Fine Arts (Note 83)    location:350/62/8/07
          47     840.4   Vatican Communications
                 840.4   Vatican Shipping
                 840.4   Vatican    location:350/62/9/01
          47-49       848     Relief, UNRRA   location:350/62/9/01
          50     850.6   Insurance   location:350/62/9/01
          52     851  Assets
                 851  Assets-Argentina
                 851.51 Exchange
                 851.6   Banks and Banking
                 851.7   Transfer of Funds   location:350/62/9/01
          53     863.4   Gold
                 871  Censorship  location:350/62/9/01
          54     871  Swiss Mail   location:350/62/9/02
                 879.6   German Airlines-Lufthansa
                 879.6   Iberian Airlines   location:350/62/9/02
          1945
          Box #  File #  File Title or Subject
          61     350  Property Rights   location:350/62/9/03
          66     711.2   War Booty
                 711.2   Neutral Traffic and Shipping
                 711.3   [unlabeled folder-Trading With Enemy]
                 711.3   Enemy Documents
                 711.3   Trading With Enemy
                 711.3   Enemy Property
                 711.1   Neutrality   location:350/62/9/03
          72     711.6   War Criminals   location:350/62/9/04
          79     710.10 General and Refugee Camps
                 711.101 Displaced Persons   location:350/62/9/05
          83     800  Portugal
                 800  Spain
                 800  Turkey
          89     814.2   International Red Cross 
          90     820.1   OSS   location: 350/62/9/07
          91     820.02 Axis  
          96     840.1   Jews
          97     840.4   Vatican
                 844  Public Men [includes Hitler and Mussolini] loc: 350/62/10/01
          98-99       848     UNRRA  
          99     850.6   Insurance   location: 350/62/10/01
          100    851  Germany
                 851.51 Exchange
                 851.6   Banking 
          101    851.7   Transfer of Funds
                 871  Censorship  
          1946
          Box #  File #  File Title or Subject
          105    350  Property Rights (4 folders)
                 350  Missing Tapestry
                 350  Removal of Italian Property from Pola  loc: 350/62/10/02
          106    710.10 Displaced Persons
                 710.10 Austrians
                 710.10 Czechs
                 710.10 Evacuees
                 710.10 Italians
                 710.10 Jews
                 710.10 Poles
                 710.10 Refugee Camps, General
                 710.10 Russians
                 710.10 Yugoslavians  
          107    710.101 Displaced Persons-General
                 711.2   War Booty
                 711.3   Enemy Documents
                 711.3   R.U.K. Files 
          109    711.6   War Criminals
                 711.6   War Crimes (3 folders)
                 711.6   War Criminals Lists
                 711.5   War Criminals-Yugoslavia (2 folders) loc: 350/62/10/03
          122    840.04 Vatican
                 840.3   Monuments
                 848  UNRRA (2 folders)
                 850.6   Insurance
                 851.6   Banking  
          1947
          Box #  File #  File Title or Subject
          127    841.4   Italian State Archives  

     Top Secret File 1944-1947 (Entry 2790)

          Boxes 1-6
          Box# File # File Title or Subject
          1    711.2  War Booty
               711.3  Documents
               711.3  Enemy Property
               711.5  War Criminals
               711.6  War Crimes
               711.101   Displaced Persons  
          2    711.10 Jews  
          5    840.4  Vatican  

Records of the U.S. Embassy, Rome, Italy

     General Records 1936-1942, 1943-1955 (Entry 2779)
 
          Boxes 1-254
          1940
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          74   840.1     Jewish Refugees
               840.4     Vatican 
          1941
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          88   840.1     Treatment of Jews in Rumania
               848  Jewish Refugees  
          1944
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          104  711  War Crimes
               711.3     General
               711.3     Banca di Roma
               711.3     Italy
               711.3     UN Property
               711.5     German Concentration Camps
               711.5     Hungarian Jews
               711.6     Atrocities  
          113  840.1     Jewish Committee
               840.3     AC Fine Arts Subcommittee
               840.3     Goering
               840.3     Italy
               840.4     Vatican  
          116  850.6     Fascist Insurance
               850.6     Neo-Fascist Insurance
               851.51 Exchange-Vatican
               851.51 Exchange-Switzerland
               851.51 Exchange-Italy  
          1945
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          125  350  Property Rights-Jews  
          126  400  Reparations
               400  Italian Property in Germany 
          135  711  War Booty Committee
               711  War Crimes  
          136  711.1     Neutrals-Spain
               711.1     Neutrals-Switzerland
               711.3     Austrian Property in Italy
               711.3     Banks
               711.3     German Property in Italy
               711.3     German-Japanese Property in Italy
               711.3     Italy-Proclaimed List
               711.3     Japanese Property and Archives in Italy
               711.3     Proclaimed List
               711.3     Switzerland  
          137  711.3     Industial Firms
               711.3     Archives (German-Japanese)
               711.5     Yugoslavia-Concentration Camps  location: 350/62/2/05
          154  840.1     Jewish Committee
               840.1     Jews in Hungary
               840.3     General-Works of Art
               840.3     Axis-Owned and Looted Art
               840.3     di Sermometa
               840.3     Frampton
               840.3     Italy
               840.3     Rolfo
               840.4     Jews in Italy
               840.4     Vatican
               841.4     Italy-Fascist Archives 
          155-158 848 Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees; Stateless Persons;
                    Swiss Relief; UNRRA; War Refugee Board; Jewish Refugees
                   
          161  850.6     Insurance Companies
               850.6     Assicuerazione General Reunionne Adriatica
               850.6     Fascist Insurance
          163  851  Safehaven Reports
          164  851.5     Exchange-Swiss Francs
               851.6     American Assets in Italy
               851.6     Bank of Italy  
          1946
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          175  400  Italian Claims Against Germany
               400  Italian Claims Against Germany-Bank Accounts
               400  Italian Claims Against Germany-Works of Art
               400  Albanian Claims Against Germany-Gold 
          176  400  Reparations  
          180  711.3     General
               711.3     I. G. Farben Industries
               711.3     German Property in Italy
               711.3     German Property in Italy-Villa Lolkonsky
               711.3     German Ruestung und Kriegsproduktion Files
               711.3     German Ruestung  und Kriegsprouktion Archives
               711.3     German Property in Italy-Archives
               711.3     Proclaimed List
               711.3     Pirelli
               711.3     Hans Wendland
               711.3     Zapp Company 
          181  711.6     Czechoslovakia-War Criminals
               711.6     Italy-War Criminals
               711.6     Germany-War Criminals
               711.6     Yugoslavia-War Criminals   location: 350/62/3/04
          187  840.1     Jews
               840.1     Italian Jews
               840.3     General-Works of Art
               840.3     Frampton
               840.3     Italy-Works of Art in Albania
               840.4     Vatican
               841.4     Italian Fascist Archives   location: 350/62/3/05
          188  848  General
               848  Displaced Persons
               848  Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees
               848  Jewish Refugees  
          189  848  UNRRA 
          190  850.6     Fascist Insurance
               850.6     Assicurazione Generale
               850.6     Assicurazione Generale-Bank Accounts
               850.6     Italy-Insurance Companies
               850.6     Italian Insurance Companies in Hungary 
          191  851.51 Exchange-Switzerland
               851.6     Banks and Banking  
          1947
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          198  400  Reparations
               400  Italian Claims Against Germany-Bank Accounts
               400  Italian Claims Against Germany-Works of Art  loc: 350/62/3/06
          201  711.3     Austrian Paintings in Italy
               711.3     German Ruestung  und Kriegsprouktion Files
               711.3     Proclaimed List
               711.3     Italiana Prodotti, Schering
               711.3     German Property in Italy
               711.3     German Property in Italy-Villa Volkonsy
               711.6     War Criminals 
          207  840.1     Jews-Hungary
               840.1     Jews-Italy
               840.3     Italy-Caserta Palace
               840.3     Works of Art-Looted   location: 350/62/4/01
          212  850.6     Insurance Companies
          1948
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          221  400  Reparations
               400  Israel-Claims Against Italy
               400  Italian Claims Against Germany-Works of Art

     Classified General Records 1946-1952 (Entry 2780)

          Boxes 1-88 
          1946
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          1    400  Property Claims
               400  Reparations 
          4    711.3     German Ruestung  und Kriegsprouktion Files
               711.3     German Property in Italy
               711.3     German Property in Italy-Villa Volkonsky
                        
          5    711.3     Hans Wendland
               711.5     Italy-Concentration Camps
               711.6     Czechoslovakia-War Criminals
               711.6     Germany-War Criminals
               711.6     Italy-War Criminals
               711.6     Yugoslavia-War Criminals  location: 350/62/5/03
          10   840.1     Jews
               840.3     Art Looting
               848  Displaced Persons
               848  UNRRA 
          11   850.6     Assicurazione Generale and Riunione Adriatica
               850.6     Assicurazione Generale
               850.6     Italy-Fascist Insurance
               850.6     Italy-Insurance Companies
               850.6     Italy-Insurance Companies in Greece
               850.6     Italy-Insurance Companies in Hungary
               850.6     Riunione Adriatica
               851  Italy-Foreign Assets
               851  Italy-Gold
               851  Italy-Gold Stocks
               851  Italy-Swiss Loan
               851  Italy-Switzerland
               851  Safehaven Reports  
          1947
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          14   400  Property Claims
               400  Reparations
               400  Italy-Claims Against Germany-Gold
               400  Italy-Claims Against Germany-Works of Art 
          16   711.3     German Property in Italy
               711.3     German Ruestung  und Kriegsprouktion Files
               711.6     Italy-War Criminals
               711.6     Albania-War Criminals
               711.6     Czechoslovakia-War Criminals
               711.6     Germany-War Criminals
               711.6     Hungary-War Criminals   location: 350/62/5/05
          20   840.3     Restitution of Italian Works of Art Now in Germany
               848  Displaced Persons
               848  UNRRA
               848  Jewish Refugees
               848  Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees 
          21   848  Displaced Persons
               850.6     Italy-Insurance Companies in Austria
               851  Safehaven
               851  Safehaven-Mussolini File
               851  Italy-Gold
               851  Germany-Gold 
          22   851  German Assets in Italy    location: 350/62/5/06
          1948
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          25   400  Property Claims
               400  Reparations
               400  Italy-Claims Against Germany-Gold
               400  Italy-Claims Against Germany-Works of Art 
          28   711.3     German Ruestung  und Kriegsprouktion Files
               711.6     Germany-War Criminals
               711.6     Italy-War Criminals
               711.6     Yugoslavia-War Criminas   
          29   840.3     United States-National Gallery of Art
               840.3     Works of Art    location: 350/62/5/07
          36   851  German Assets in Italy (3 files)   location: 350/62/6/01
          37   851.6     Bank for International Settlements  
          1949
          Box # File #   File Title or Subject
          43-44     321.3     German Assets in Italy 
          44   321.3     German Assets in Italy-Libraries
               321.6     War Criminals (2 files)   location: 350/62/6/02

     Records Pertaining to German Assets in Italy 1945-1957 (Entry 2784)
 
          Boxes 1-19
          Box # File Title or Subject
          1    German Assets in Italy 1950-1952 (3 files)
               German Assets in Italy-Individuals 1950-1952 (2 files)
               German Assets in Italy-Miscellaneous 
          2    Folders A-B (includes Bemberg) 
          3    Folders B-C 
          4    Folders C-D 
          5    Folders D-F 
          6    Folders F (includes foreign currencies)  location: 350/62/7/05
          7    Folders G (includes German insurance companies; German libraries)
                   
          8    Folders G-H (includes German libraries; German-owned securities)
                   
          9    Folders H-I 
          10   Folders I-K (includes Institute of the History of Art, Florence)
                   
          11   Folders K-M 
          12   Folders M-N (includes Non-Enemy Nationals)  location: 350/62/7/06
          13   Folders O-P (includes Osram Company) 
          14   Folders P-R 
          15   Folders S 
          16   Folders S (includes Italiana Prodotti Schering S.A.; Siemens S.A.; and
                    Siemens and Halske S.A.) 
          17   Folders S-V (includes Telefunken Italiana; Union of International Institute
                    of Archaeology, Art and History of Art in Rome) loc: 350/62/7/07
          18   Folders V 
          19   Folders W-Z 

     Records Pertaining to German Assets in Italy 1947-1957 (Entry 2784A)

          Boxes 1-3

     Classified Records Pertaining to German Assets in Italy 1947-1957 (Entry 2785)

          Boxes 1-2
          Box # File Title or Subject
          1    Folders A-C (includes "Art Objects")
          2    Folders D-P

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