Educator Resources

Post Civil War: Freedmen and Civil Rights

Court Documents Related to Segregation in Public Facilities and Schools

In the twentieth century, the modern civil rights movement put pressure on the courts to address discriminative practices, especially segregation in public facilities and in the nation's public schools.

Refer to Caption Complaint in the case of Morgan v. Hennigan

Morgan v. Hennigan

In 1972, a number of African-American students brought a major discrimination case against Boston public schools. Read about this case in U.S. District Court for Massachusetts: Morgan v. Hennigan.

Ella Fitzgerald

En route to a concert from Honolulu to Australia, Ella Fitzgerald was denied the right to board a Pan American flight. Fitzgerald was an international singing sensation. The refusal to allow her on board the plane was seen as discriminatory. Examine the official complaint and judgement in the case Ella Fitzgerald vs Pan American Airways, INC, 1954.

Refer to CaptionComplaint in the case of Fitzgerald v. Pan American Airways
Refer to CaptionJudgment in the case of Fitzgerald v. Pan American World Airways
Refer to CaptionSatisfaction of Judgement in the case of Fitzgerald v. Pan American Airways

Questions for Discussion

  1. In the 1954 case involving the airlines, how was Ella Fitzgerald's civil right violated?

  2. Discuss how discrimination cases in the 1950s led to the major civil rights movement of the 1960s.