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First page of "Resolution by Mr. Clark to expel certain Senators from the Senate," July 10, 1861
Ten senators from the 11 seceding states ignored the call to reconvene and take their seats for the start of the 37th Congress. Only Senator Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a staunch Unionist, returned. On July 10, 1861, Senator Daniel Clark of New Hampshire moved that the senators who had not appeared should be expelled because they were "engaged" in a "conspiracy for the destruction of the Union." The next day an amendment was offered to soften Clarks resolution by simply declaring the seats vacant, but this motion failed and the Southern senators were expelled.