Prologue Magazine

War in an Age of Wonders, Part 2

Civil War Arms and Equipment

Winter 1995, Vol. 27, No. 4

By Michael P. Musick


The records in RG 156 which have been identified here are only a small fraction of the 1,701 series in the inventory, but for the period of the Civil War they are by far the most significant.  Hundreds of entries are concerned only with World War I and later, and these can be readily dispensed with for our purposes.  This does not mean, however, that the inventory should be put on the shelf at this point.  Careful perusal will disclose a number of small series devoted to quite restricted subjects that can be of great value if they happen to correspond to your interests.  A few such are "correspondence and reports relating to the proposals of H. F. Mann, and Horatio Ames to supply arms, 1862 - 68" (entry 989; "correspondence relating to the inventions of Clifford Arrick [Stafford and Ward artillery projectiles], 1862 - 70" (entry 999), and "records relating to the Mont Storm case [breech-loading small arms and alterations], 1858 - 75" (entry 997).

One example can illustrate the potential benefit of searching for these small series.  Entry 215 is described as "Abstracts of Army Officers' Reports on Small Arms and on Accoutrements and Horse Equipments, 1863 - 64."  These abstracts consist of two volumes, but the one that deals with accoutrements and horse equipment is almost entirely blank.  The second volume contains a wealth of observations on the efficiency of many types of small arms, including the Starr carbine.  Page 145 names eleven officers of the First and Second Regiments, Colorado Cavalry, in the second quarter of 1864, who say: "These officers agree that [Starr carbines] carry well, get out of order very easily, the locks break most often, prefer large Cal., and that they are not sure fire, and are poorly made."  Other reports offer a wide spectrum of opinion.  A somewhat similar volume, containing additional comments on carbines, is in an entirely different record group.  RG 108, Records of the Headquarters of the Army, includes records of the Cavalry Bureau, within which are "Abstracts of reports received relating to the Efficiency of Carbines and Rifles ('Reports of Arms'), 1863 - 65" (entry 75).  This volume has extracts from eleven reports on the Starr, with an additional complete report tipped in.  This summary of sources should suggest how scattered and wide-ranging are the possibilities for the study of the numerous types of arms.

As we have seen, the inventory to RG 156 is the major tool in army ordnance research and describes almost all the records.  Almost, because at the end of the 1,072 series appearing in volume one of the inventory are a handful of undescribed volumes.  Of particular interest is one series labeled "Summary of the Quarterly Statements of Stores Manufactured at the Principal Arsenals."  This summary gives detailed production figures for places like Springfield, Massachusetts, for the war years, but of course does not cover arms such as the Starr, which were not made by the government.

No amount of searching, no matter how assiduous, will find some things much sought by persons interested in ordnance.  Lists of serial numbers have already been mentioned.  This void also exists for cannon.  The "gun books," which in effect gave a history of each artillery piece, were not preserved.  Another surprising omission exists for a large and discrete series of plans and drawings for army ordnance.  There is such a series for the navy in Record Group 74, Records of the Bureau of Ordnance (the title presupposes that the reader will know from the word "bureau" that the office is a part of the navy), and although it does primarily portray the arms of the sea services, it is so rich that it includes various land weapons as well.  Army records do show some cannon production by gun number (RG 156, entry 210 for the years 1826-1846, for example) but do not tell what happened to the guns once they entered service.  Textual records of the navy in RG 74 furnish much more data on specific guns.  Private researchers have endeavored to compile data on all extant Civil War - era cannon, but such information is not available from the federal government.

Various sources are useful in filling in the gaps in the records.  Bvt. Maj.. Alfred Mordecai's two-volume publication Artillery for the U.S. Land Service, with Plates (1848 - 1849), though predating the war, includes a volume of plates with detailed, measured plans for all types of artillery and equipment (reproduced as National Archives Microfilm Publication T1104).  This work can be supplemented by some plans for heavy artillery produced in the war period in RG 77, filed with the oversized cartographic records.  Indexes to the correspondence of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance in RG 156, 1894 - 1903 (entries 22 and 23) and 1904 - 1911 (entry 26) generally lead to letters that show which arsenals supplied the outdated cannon given to Grand Army of the Republic posts and local governments for war memorials around the country.  Part of the correspondence on the subject is in "Letters of Applications for Condemned Cannon, 1895 - 1901" (entry 990).  Finally, at this writing, The Artilleryman magazine, formerly The Muzzle-loading Artilleryman (Route 1, Monarch Hill Road, Box 36, Tunbridge, VT 05077) functions as a clearinghouse of information for those interested in firing, reproducing, or making models of cannon of the war period.  A useful publication is Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War (1983) by James C. Hazlett, Edwin Olmstead, and M. Hume Parks.

The records for Confederate ordnance are much less voluminous than their Union equivalent, but they are nonetheless filled with detailed information on almost all aspects of the subject, and they have been underused.  Record Group 109, the War Department Collection of Confederate Records, should be the focal point of research in this field.  A number of differences in addition to the amount of material available distinguish these records from those of the Federals.  There is no single source conveniently showing types of arms and ordnance equipment issued to troops comparable to microfilm publication M1281.  Instead, several sources can be searched.  The official "papers" of Lt. (later Major) Edwin Taliaferro, ordnance officer for McLaw's Division of the Army of Northern Virginia, document small arms, artillery, and other equipment in that command (these are not shown in the inventory to RG 109 but are an addendum to entry 134, Gen. C. L. Stevenson Papers).  Additional records relating to the armament of McLaw's troops are in Taliaferro's Compiled Service Record (filed under "Tallaferro, E.") in the series for Compiled Service Records of Confederate Generals and Staff Officers and Non-regimental Enlisted Men (National Archives Microfilm Publication M331).  Compiled Service Records (CSRS) are arguably the best single source for information on the types of arms issued to all Confederate units.  Arms of outfits in the Army of Tennessee are specified in "Papers Relating to the Ammunition Supply" (entry 40).

The division of ordnance into classes is of less importance in researching Confederate records than for Federal.  Canteens and knapsacks were classed as ordnance equipment by secessionist forces rather than as quartermaster stores, as with their opponents.  The peculiar arrangement of Record Group 109 puts all ordnance volumes within "chapter 4," and those volumes are well described in Beers's Confederate Guide on pages 220 - 232.  Of course, few great compilations are flawless, and Beers does not appear to mention a volume of letters and telegrams sent by Capt. L. R. Evans, ordnance officer for Gens. Earl Van Dorn and W. W. Loring, September 21, 1862 - June 23, 1863, from Oxford, Holly Springs, Grenada, and Jackson, Mississippi.  The volume was donated to the National Archives in 1942.  (Beers identifies other records of Captain Evans on page 263 as in RG 36, Records of the Bureau of Customs, and he is represented on M331.)  The bound records of chapter 4 are specially noteworthy for their extensive coverage of the several Confederate ordnance facilities at Macon, Georgia.

Particularly significant in the Confederate records, both for ordnance and quartermaster supplies, is the mammoth series of Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms, National Archives Microfilm Publication M346, 1,153 rolls of microfilm (entry 180, "Citizens File" in the inventory).  Once referred to as the "voucher file" because of the many receipts it contains, this series is made up of files documenting the sale of goods or services to the Confederate central government.  In addition to receipts, a wide variety of other records may be included in a file, such as correspondence, reports, contracts, and statistical compilations.  No drawings or plans have been noted in the series, but engraved stationery depicting factories and wares turns up now and then.  The files are arranged alphabetically, by the name of the company or individual involved.  Cross-references to other Confederate War Department records are included.  A valuable listing of selected larger files, compiled by Edwin O. Stokes, will be found in the pamphlet to accompany M346.  It is important to remember that this listing gives only a small fraction of the total number of persons and firms for whom files are available on this microfilm.  One instance of the potential treasure buried here is the extensive file on Spiller and Burr, a company that made pistols in Georgia.  It is replete with letters and reports describing the factory's operation and its problems, inspection reports detailing production and defects in the products, and material on the effort to sell the plant to the Confederate States government.

As with so many other records, names matter.  The names of manufacturers, suppliers, or ordnance officers represent pathways that lead to records.  After the names of many Confederate arsenals, the listings in the Beers Guide state, "No records of this arsenal have been found."  This notation refers to records created and maintained at those sites but does not cover records about them.  Since Beers usually supplies the names of arsenal heads, one can generally find large and fruitful files for them in the series for "Generals and Staff Officers" on M331.  The inspection reports on National Archives Microfilm Publication M935 also furnish the names of personnel at ordnance and quartermaster establishments. 9  Other documents are indicated in the Confederate Subject File, entry 453, under such headings as "arms," "ordnance," and "ordnance department."  Last, but by no means least, the microfilmed series of letters received by the Secretary of War (Letters Received by the Confederate Quartermaster General, 1861 - 1865, M437) contains many letters from or about inventors, manufacturers, and ordnance personnel.

Uniforms are another subject of considerable interest to many researchers.  While archives can provide useful documentation for the advanced student, this is an area of much greater difficulty than imagined by most persons who first turn to it.  No immediately usable clothing patterns dating from the period have been found.  There are no files by unit detailing everything worn or carried by its members.  Indeed, there are no comprehensive files on uniforms at all.  Some organizations left little or no trace of their appearance.  Even the term "uniform" is something of an anachronism since most military records of the period refer only to "clothing."

Information on uniforms worn by specific troops must be carefully and painstakingly pieced together from often elusive and occasionally virtually nonexistent sources such as photographs, newspaper articles, and artifacts as well as archives.  Fortunately, much work has already been accomplished.  The Company of Military Historians (North Main Street, Westbrook, CT 06498), established in 1949, has been the leading organization in this field.  It has sponsored a series of uniform plates, of varying quality, many of which fall within the war period and frequently bear evidence of considerable research, if not always of great artistic accomplishment.  Many of these, with accompanying text, have been collected in Military Uniforms in America, volume 3, Long Endure: The Civil War Period, 1852 - 1867 (1982), edited by John R. Elting and Michael J. McAfee.  The Company's Journal should also be consulted.  Photographs of Union and Confederate soldiers, with particular attention to uniform variants, are the staple of another periodical, Military Images (R.R. 1, Box 99A, Lesoine Drive, Henryville, PA 18332).

A starting point in the study of Federal uniforms is the U.S. Army Regulations, published in 1857, 1861, and 1863.  Article LI of the Regulations, "Uniform, Dress, and Horse Equipments," prescribes what the regular army was to wear (an edition of this was published by the Smithsonian Institution as Uniform Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, Illustrated with Contemporary Official War Department Photographs, [1961].  Changes in these pronouncements appeared in issuances that can be traced under the headings "uniform" and "clothing" in the Subject Index to the General Orders and Circulars of the War Department and the Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, from January 1, 1860, to December 31, 1880 (1913).  Unfortunately, these do not provide answers to all questions, especially in the case of volunteer and militia garb.

Further research on Federal uniforms and equipment can be undertaken in numerous series in Record Group 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General.  Volume 1 of the inventory, under "clothing and equipage," on pages 118 - 122, describes the main series of correspondence of the army's Office of Clothing and Equipage (entries 999, 1002, 1003, 1004).  Several large volumes for the early years of the war list clothing, camp, and garrison equipage distributed to various units (entries 1027, 1022, and 1028 at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C., and 2249 in the National Archives-Mid Atlantic Region in Philadelphia) in a format that shows quantities under numerous headings such as hats, uniform coats or jackets (thereunder by rank), leggings (pairs), gaiters (pairs), drawers, sashes, great coats, talmas, ponchos, knapsacks and straps, and so forth.  Significant records of the main clothing manufacturing, procurement, and storage facility (entries 2166 - 2337), particularly the Schuylkill Arsenal, are at the regional archives in Philadelphia.

Quartermaster contracts can sometimes be profitable as sources for uniform and other research.  From time to time their descriptions of goods will be detailed.  Registers of contracts are in RG 92 (entry 1238) as are related correspondence (entries 1220, 1224, 1225), abstracts (entry 1239), and a large but partial and poorly arranged series of contracts themselves (entry 1246).  The most complete series of contracts, however, is in RG 217, Records of the General Accounting Office (entry 236, as noted above).  Standard language in the contracts stipulates that articles will be "like and equal in all respects ... as to shade of color, quality of material, workmanship, finish, &c., to the sealed standard samples, deposited in the Office of Army Clothing and Equipage."  A few of these "sealed standard samples" are now in the Division of Armed Forces History at the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

A smattering of other sources have proven particularly worthwhile for uniform and equipment data.  These include the bound and unbound records of Union volunteer regiments (RG 94, entries 112 - 115, and entry 57), which now and then yield gems; inspection reports in RG 159 (addendum to entry 1A); and inventories of the effects of deceased soldiers (often in Compiled Service Records but also scattered in many other series).  Finally, there is the astonishing Consolidated Correspondence File (entry 225) of RG 92, which merits special consideration.

The massive Consolidated Correspondence File is one of those series whose existence seems to mock the basic tenets of archival theory and arrangement.  It overshadows in importance the other 2,479 series in RG 92, though this is not immediately apparent from the inventory.  According to the late Detmar Finke, formerly of the army's Office of the Chief of Military History, who watched them, this series was created by less-than-sober employees of the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s at the stables of Fort Myer, Virginia.  These men plucked unbound records from many series of quartermaster files and arranged them by arbitrarily chosen names and subjects into what was supposed to be alphabetical order.  Perhaps the bottle of whiskey that they passed around to ward off the winter chill accounted for the occasional lapses in alphabetical order.  There is something in this series filed under almost any name or subject, but among those most favored were ones relating to particular quartermaster officers; each post, camp, or station; the terms associated with supply and temporary structures; and of course, uniforms.  These records are not exclusively for 1861 - 1865 and in fact cover the entire period of 1790 - 1890.

There are thousands of categories in the series.  Some contain only one or two documents, others many hundreds.  A random sampling includes:

  • ambulances; bed (iron);
  • carts, Army, 1861;
  • Durkee, Abraham (for services rendered as carpenter at Fort Drum, California, 1864 - 1872);
  • epitaphs;
  • flag, Custer's;
  • government freight, 1861;
  • handcuffs, 1864, Virginia;
  • insignia;
  • Jordan, Capt. Thomas, 1861 (later general, C.S.A.);
  • Key West, Florida, property confiscated, 1863;
  • Leavenworth, Kansas, Fort;
  • mills, portable, 1865;
  • New York pilots, 1862;
  • Old Capitol Prison;
  • plans for hospital, railroad, 1863;
  • Quartermaster Volunteers, 1864;
  • Rutger, Teal & Co., Washington, D.C. 1865 (regarding collusion between that firm and the Quartermaster's Office);
  • Sabine Crossroads, Louisiana, property lost, 1864;
  • transportation 1861, of sick and wounded soldiers;
  • Union Hotel Hospital, Georgetown, D.C., 1862;
  • Valverde, Camp, 1862, relative to 1st Regt. Colorado Vol. 's wagons;
  • York, Pennsylvania;
  • Zimmerman, C. M., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, contracts for drums and musical instruments, 1859 - 1862.

At the end are some "letters of claims, contracts, correspondence, all unclassified."  Presumably the WPA workers at that point had either lost interest or subsided into a stupor.

Throughout the alphabetical arrangement of the Consolidated Correspondence File are categories that include documents about United States uniforms.  "Cloth," "clothing," the names of contractors, the names of states (such as "Connecticut Vols."), unit names ("Excelsior Brigade," "Irish Brigade" [23d Illinois]), even the word "uniforms" yield pertinent records in the invaluable but frustrating compilation.  This entry in the inventory serves also as a prime example of the perils of citing sources by box number.  For decades the series consisted of some 1,250 boxes, but at this writing it is being reboxed, a process that will change all the numbers and considerably augment the total number.

The records of the Office of the Quartermaster General (RG 92) offer much more than are discussed in these pages.  The full range becomes apparent from an examination of the letters sent by the quartermaster general himself, in chronological order and with name indexes to correspondents (reproduced on microfilm as M745). 10  This is the record group within which fall the numerous series of records created and maintained by the U.S. Military Railroads.  Voluminous files on cemeterial affairs and army waterborne transportation are also here.  Even lesser subjects, such as sutlers and their wares, have their own series.

Beyond this record group, specialized equipment is documented in the separate record group for the appropriate offices.  Therefore, medical equipment falls within RG 112, Records of the Surgeon General's Office, for example, 11 and signal apparatus within RG 111, Records of the Chief Signal Officer.  Lower-level staff officers sometimes have their own records in RG 393 (Records of the United States Army Continental Commands, 1821 - 1920) that shed light on the things in their custody.  Thus the ordnance officer of the Department of the Gulf, Capt. Francis J. Shunk, has a discrete body of records that have been preserved (part I, entry 1837), and the office of the quartermaster of the Department of the Cumberland and Division and Department of the Tennessee has twenty-nine series (part I, entries 1102 - 1130).  The inventories for the other commands in RG 393 are additional possible sources.

Even records of the civilian offices of the U.S. government offer some research opportunities on arms and equipment.  Records of contracts have already been mentioned.  Further sources, though rarely used, are worthy of consideration.  State claims records in RG 217, Records of the General Accounting Office, include many receipts for articles supplied to state troops, usually in 1861 before federal authorities took over the job.  They also contain much on subsistence stores, transportation, rent of buildings, and all the other aspects of raising and caring for soldiers.  Drawings and case files of the Patent Office are prime sources on objects.

Confederate uniforms, camp, and garrison equipage present an even greater challenge than do those of the Federals.  The Uniform and Dress of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States of America (1861; RG 109, chapter 8, Vol. 286, four copies with differing items tipped in; reprinted 1952, 1960), 12 with handsome accompanying plates, prescribes garments that bear scant resemblance to what was in fact worn.  The records created and maintained by the Clothing Bureau (an office not mentioned by Beers) apparently did not survive.  Documentation that does remain would make a substantial account of the workings of the bureau possible (none exists at this writing), but it furnishes only occasional clues to the appearance of specific units.  Nevertheless, much digging can yield a surprising amount of information.

The best source on clothing of the Southern armies is the Compiled Military Service Records (see p. 364), but some other records may produce otherwise elusive data.  Clothing rolls (RG 109, carded records in entry 49, uncarded in entry 50) show the issuance at specified times of articles such as caps, hats, jackets, coats, or drawers to individuals by unit, who then signed their names or made their marks to attest to receipt.  Pay rolls of seamstresses (RG 109, scattered though entries 56 and 183, which have inadequate indexes) give the number and type of article produced beside the name of the person making them as well as the amount paid.  A few volumes (such as RG 109, chapter 5, volume 244, "Abstracts of articles purchased, received, issued, sold, and expended by Capt. Richard P. Waller, Assistant Quartermaster") indicate the names of suppliers of goods.  A small number of contracts are available (RG 365, Treasury Department Collection of Confederate Records, entry 59), with clothing agreements mixed in with those for the hire of steamboats, the procurement of commissary stores, and the supply of a surprising amount of whiskey.  With names obtained from such records, the series of Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms (M346) leads to further information.  Stray and difficult records to locate, such as inventories of the effects of deceased soldiers (e.g., in chapter 6, Vol. 15, and in CSRs), often prove remarkably illuminating.

Perhaps yet another reminder of the assistance provided by printed sources is not without value.  City directories for cities of both North and South (available on microform at the Library of Congress and elsewhere) frequently indicate dates of operation, places of business, and— for a few fortunate establishments— examples of illustrated advertising.  And of course, the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, although focusing on campaigns, battles, and skirmishes, ought not to be ignored. 13  The indexing terms employed are helpful in varying degrees.  "Munitions of War," which includes subjects such as clothing, is rather too broad to aid most persons.  "Ordnance Department, U.S.A." (or C.S.A.) is more useful, and "Quartermaster General's Office" (also divided into C.S.A. and U.S.A.) is similarly more precise.  Other terms should be considered.  "Uniforms," "wagons," and the names of particular officers involved with material were all words deemed worthy of inclusion in the Official Records index. Series III and series IV, for Union and Confederate authorities respectively, are particularly relevant.  The three plates in the Official Records Atlas, illustrating arms and equipment (plates 172, uniforms, badges of rank, buttons; plate 173, ordnance and ordnance equipment; plate 174, transportation of sick and wounded, medical supplies, six-mule wagon) are worthwhile but will only whet the appetites of avid researchers.  They will soon find that the Confederate uniforms illustrated are taken from the wartime Uniform and Dress publication and that the Union version does not cover any types beyond standard issues, and they will want to probe more deeply.  This article is an attempt to point them in the right direction.

It is true that the artifacts themselves must be sought in places other than archives.  Yet the records are so vast that even with this fact firmly stated, once in a very great while there will be exceptions, as there always seem to be when the subject reflects the human factor.  And so, in a secure vault in the National Archives there is a melancholic collection from Treasury Department records of nearly two dozen billfolds, wallets, and money belts once the property of wounded Confederates who died in enemy hands, of Union deserters, and of other flotsam of war.  In a box of records of the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot is a woolen mitten designed for infantrymen, with the trigger finger formed separately so as to move freely.  In another vault is a metal die bearing the mysterious seal of the shadowy Copperhead conspiracy known as the Knights of the Golden Circle, seized from its hapless leader George Bickley.  And in the same vault, alongside samples of cloth offered to the clothing bureau in Washington, is a minature pair of polished cotton pantaloons, sent in by John A. Campbell, of Milo, Maine, on May 23, 1862, featuring a rear flap to accommodate the demands of nature on the march.  No cross reference to the original file location is provided.

Nothing better illustrates the sheer strangeness of the Consolidated Correspondence File from which the pantaloons were withdrawn, or of archives in general, than the placement of the letter that accompanied Campbell's invention.  It surpasses in unlikeliness even the flights of fancy of old Edward D. Tippett (he of the four-thousand-dollar war balloon).  It is not filed under any appropriate possibility such as "pantaloons" or the maker's name.  It is filed near "Leona, Teas," and "Ft. Lincoln," under the heading "Leamless clothing."  "Leamless" is a misreading of the handwriting on a document relating to seamless clothing manufacturing samples.  Since the letter contained an artifact that was a sample, it was filed with various other cloth samples, including those which were "leamless."  When logic has fled, an act of divine intercession may be called for to find a document.

See also these related articles:

War in an Age of Wonders, Part 1

Michael P. Musick parlayed a childhood fascination with the Civil War into a rewarding career.  A former student of Bell I. Wiley at Emory University, he has worked at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C., since 1969.  Mr. Musick was an adviser to Ken Burns's PBS series The Civil War and is the author of 6th Virginia Cavalry (1990), a regimental history and annotated roster, among other publications.


The author would like to thank Earl J. Coates and Ross Kelbaugh for comments on the manuscript of this article.

1. Edward D. Tippett to "Honored Sir," May 11, May 25, 1861, entry 994, file In-Misc.-177, Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Record Group 156, National Archives, Washington, DC (hereinafter, records in the National Archives will be cited as RG ___ NA).  The subject of Union inventors is masterfully covered by Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Robert V. Bruce in Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956; reprint 1973).  Tippett appears in Bruce's book on pp. 131 - 132, with a citation to other letters from him in the John G. Nicolay and Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress.  Bruce notes that Lincoln labeled one of Tippett's letters to him "Tippett. Crazy-man."

2. File 1455 W.D. 1861, Letters Received by the Confederate Quartermaster General, 1861 - 1865 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M437), War Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 109, NA.  Observation balloons were in fact used extensively in the conflict.

3. Union flags at the brigade level and above are illustrated in Flags of the Army of the United States carried During the War of the Rebellion 1861 - 1865 . . . (1887), compiled under the direction of the Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army. See Michael P. Musick, "Honorable Reports: Battles, Campaigns, and Skirmishes— Civil War Records and Research," Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives 27 (Fall 1995): 264, for a discussion of Medal of Honor files often associated with capture of a Confederate flag.

4. Extensive documentation of the controversy is in file 157 AGO 1888 on Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General (Main Series), 1881 - 1889 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M689, rolls 580-581), Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780's - 1917, RG 94, NA.

5. The Ordnance Manual for the Officers of the U.S. Army (3rd ed., Philadelphia, 1862) (National Archives Microfilm Publication T1117, 1 roll), RG 94, NA.

6. Exec. Doc. No. 99, 40th Cong., 2d sess., serial 1338, pp. 698-996.

7. H.Rept. 2, 37th Cong., 2d sess., serials 1142 and 1143.

8. Kenneth W. Munden and Henry Putney Beers, The Union: A Guide to Federal Archives Relating to the Civil War (1962; reprint 1986), and Henry Putney Beers, The Confederacy: A Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America (1968; reprint 1986).

9. Inspection Reports and Related Records Received by the Inspection Branch in the Confederate Adjutant and Inspector General's Office (National Archives Microfilm Publication M935), RG 109, NA.

10. Letters Sent by the Office of the Quartermaster General, Main Series, 1818 - 1842 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M745), Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, RG 92, NA.

11. Additional records on medical equipment are in RG 94, entries 622 and 629, because many records of the Surgeon General were transferred to the Adjutant General's Office.

12. See also the Confederate Army Regulations, Article 47.

13. U.S. Department of War, War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 128 vols. (1880 - 1901).

Articles published in Prologue do not necessarily represent the views of NARA or of any other agency of the United States Government.