Holocaust-Era Assets

Civilian Agency Records

State Department and Foreign Affairs Records

Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84)

Switzerland

The Swiss Federal Council, concerned about a general European war, proclaimed the neutrality of the Swiss Federation on March 21, 1938, shortly after Germany's violation of Austrian territory. In December 1938, fearful of the results of the Munich pact, the Swiss passed a law for the defense of  the Republic and the Constitution, conferring extraordinary powers on the Swiss Federal Council. In August 1939, the Swiss made a firm declaration of neutrality, and alerted its frontier troops.  On August 30, the Swiss Federal Assembly elected General Henri Guisan as commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army.  Within days of the Germany invasion of Poland the Swiss Federal Council provided for a general mobilization and called-up 450,000 men.  Guisan then set about erecting a defensive system to protect Swiss borders and letting it be known that any invasion of Switzerland would be more expensive than its occupation warranted.

When the war began the Germans already had broad economic dealings with the Swiss. And these economic relations increased during most of the war.  German penetration into Swiss industry for cartel, tax evasion or Safehaven purposes, was accomplished principally through the establishment in Switzerland of subsidiary companies of powerful German firms.  By war's end there were about 350 direct subsidiaries of German firms established in Switzerland.  In addition, German participation in Swiss firms, particularly in chemicals, electricity, and fuel was considerable. German capital was invested in manufacturing and sales plants in Switzerland, but the greatest portion of German capital was in Swiss companies, which held German patents and the shares of nominally Swiss, but actually German-dominated subsidiaries.  These companies also controled the international networks of the parent German companies.  Over half of the total German capital in Switzerland was invested in holding companies for I.G. Farben, Merck, Siemens, Osram, and Henkel companies.

I.G. Farben and Henkel had their major holding companies for foreign subsidiary control located in Switzerland.  I.G. Chemie controlled the intricate dummy and cloak network of I.G. Farben firms in Switzerland, Norway, and the United States. Merck, I.G. Farben, and Henkel had chemical and electro-chemical factories in Switzerland. German investments were also made in the iron, steel, and coal industries and in commercial trade, as well as in the paper and publishing trade.

Surrounded on all sides by the Axis powers, Switzerland attempted to hold on to its traditional policy of neutrality.  This was quite difficult, for numerous reasons including the basic fact that much of Switzerland's food and all their fuel had to be imported, as well as raw materials. Additionally, the Swiss were reliant on Italy for use of its ports.  Thus, on August 9, 1940, Germany and Switzerland signed a trade agreement that provided that Germany supply Switzerland with raw materials, including coal and iron.  In return, the Swiss agreed to allow the Germans to transit across its territories to bring in goods from Italy.

Switzerland, during 1941 and 1942, was drawn more even more completely into Germany's trade orbit than the other neutrals, and by 1943, Germany absorbed nearly a third of all Swiss exports- primarily manufactured items that required small amounts of raw materials, large amounts of capital, and highly skilled labor.  These included items, for which Swiss watch and machine tool industries were famous, that could not be produced at all in Germany or not in sufficient quantities to meet wartime needs.  Switzerland provided Germany with arms, ammunition, and machinery, including locomotives as well as agricultural products.  Allied bombing campaigns eventually forced Germany to move some of its arms factories to the safety of Swiss territory.

In addition, Switzerland annually exported to Germany one-half billion kilowatts of electricity, or about 40 percent of the total power supply of southern Germany, and Swiss hydroelectric power annually produced 16,000 tons of aluminum and aluminum products for Germany during the war. Moreover, the unprecedented use by Germany of the Swiss railway to transport goods to and from Italy (apart from the transit of actual materials which Switzerland banned) allowed large quantities of raw materials, foodstuffs, chemicals, and other materials to be transported to Italy and permitted Germany to mitigate some of the effects of the Allied control of the Mediterranean Sea.

It should be noted that despite the Allies establishing a black list of Swiss firms who traded with the Axis, the Swiss sold to the Axis and the Allies alike; its factories producing precision instruments, fuses, clocks and watches, and many other items.  In fact Swiss trade with the Allies was great.  The United State received from Switzeland during the war a number of Swiss products vital to its own wartime economy, most particularly watches and jewel bearings.  In 1943 and 1944, a third of all Swiss watches were exported to the United States (nearly nine million altogether); with the result being that a number of American watch factories could convert to more critical manufacturing.  The United States even acquired a considerable amount of gold from Switzerland.

Switzerland, more than any other European country, served as a refuge and center for Nazi financial operations.  The leading Swiss banks served as international bankers to the Germans, and as links with Germany's network of foreign holdings and interests.  Swiss francs were made available to Germany by Swiss banks' purchase of German gold.  Other foreign currencies necessary for German war efforts and trade outside Germany were also made available to Germany.   According to one historian, by the end of 1944, "it was estimated that German investments and accounts in Switzerland amounted to $600,000,000.  It was also believed that considerable amounts of German assets were represented in securities, currencies, jewels, works of art, etc., held in Swiss safety deposit boxes.  German real estate holdings in Switzerland were thought to be worth $62,500,000..." "Privately owned German accounts were reported to be in excess of 500 million Swiss francs.  These," Margaret Clarke wrote, "were easy to cloak since the Secrecy Act permitted Swiss banks to hide ownership under numbered accounts." (Note 93)

Despite its assistance to the Axis, Germany and Italy often complained about the delay the Swiss took in filling their orders and the pro-Allied sentiments of the Swiss population, press and radio. The Germans were also displeased that Switzerland was a haven for spies, plotters against Hitler and the Reich, as well as a haven for Jewish and other refugees.

Switzerland was indeed a major operational center for both Allied and Axis intelligence services. During the war Switzerland was the center of intelligence battles among the Axis and Allies intelligence units.  Swiss counterintelligence arrested 387 spies, mostly Swiss, but including 100 Germans were brought to trial of whom 17 were executed.  Allen Dulles, the OSS Station Chief in Bern, from 1942 to 1945 (with OSS posts at Geneva, Zurich, Basel, and Lugano), British Intelligence operatives, and intelligence sources from many Axis and Allied countries used Switzerland as major place of operations during the war. (Note 94)

Switzerland, with a long humanitarian history and surrounded by Axis powers or Axis-dominated territory, still was a haven for refugees during the war.  By May 1945, there were 115,000 refugees, interned military personnel, and escaped prisoners of war in Swiss camps.  Altogether some 400,000 refugees and emigrants reached or passed through the country. (Note 95)

On December 19, 1943, after intense Allied pressure, an Allied-Swiss agreement was reached whereby the Swiss agreed to directly and indirectly limit their exports to Germany.  In return, the Allies loosened their economic blockade, lifting an embargo on all navicerts and export licenses, including food, which the Allies instituted in March 1943, and promised to quit blacklisting suspected Swiss firms unless specific proof of violations arose.

German defeats and Allied pressure resulted in Switzerland, on October 1, 1944, agreeing to stop the export of all arms and ammunition, as well as airplane aprts and other military supplies.  Not long afterwards the Swiss closed the Simplon tunnel to transit traffic, through it continued to keep open the St. Gotthard route for the Germans.

The American Government in late 1944 and early 1945, as part of the Safehaven Program, attempted to have Switzerland adhere to the Bretton Woods Resolution VI and to refrain from dealings with Germany.  As a result of U.S.-U.K. negotiations with the Swiss in August 1944, Switzerland drastically reduced its exports of strategic items such as ammunition, locomotives, automobiles, diesel engines, and machinery to Germany.  The Swiss also agreed to a ban on the transit of all war materials between Italy and Germany, including various categories of loot. In addition, the Swiss Government in February 1945 froze German assets and on March 2, the Swiss put a prohibition on importing and exporting foreign currencies.

In February 1945 an Allied negotiation team, led by Lauchlin Currie, Assistant to President Roosevelt, arrived in Bern to discuss Swiss trade with Germany and Safehaven issues.  A month of difficult negotiations culminated in an exchange of letters on March 8, between the Allied delegation and the Swiss setting out a list of blocking measures the Swiss had taken or would take againt Germany and its Axis partners.  The Swiss Government agreed to freeze all German assets in Switzerland, including those held through Swiss nationals; undertake a census of German assets; prohibit the importation, exportation, and dealing in all foreign currencies; and restrict Swiss purchase of gold from Germany.  The Swiss also undertook to prevent their territory from being used for the disposal or concealment of assets taken illegally or under duress during the war.  Further, the Swiss affirmed that, within the framework of Swiss (present and future), every facility would be accorded to dispossessed owners to claim their assets found in Switzerland.

The Swiss did, however, object to adhering to Resolution VI.  Further, the Swiss were not persuaded to reveal the facts of the census of German assets, nor were they willing to reveal all the facts regarding future transactions with the Germans, make Swiss governmental machinery available to Allied inspectors and prosecutors, and allow their nationals to act as Allied agents against German interests.  The Swiss regarded the Allies demands as contrary to their interests and position as a neutral.

Tensions over the interpretation and fulfillment of that agreement soon emerged and continued through the remainder of 1945.  The U.S. Legation in Bern reported in May 1945 that subsequent to the Currie Mission, the Swiss purchased 3,000 kilograms of gold from Germany. It had arrived in Bern on the morning of April 6, 1945. Worse still for American authorities was the Swiss assertion that the purchase was not looted gold, despite the clear Allied policy since February 1944 to regard all gold coming from Germany as looted gold.

Early in 1946, the United States, Great Britain, and France invited Switzerland to send representatives to Washington D.C. to discuss the issues flowing from the Paris Reparations Conference of November-December 1945.  The urgent desire on the part of Britain and France to revive commerce with Switzerland after the war made them reluctant to join in tough economic measures against Switzerland and caused serious policy differences with the United States.  For its part, Switzerland held to its own interpretation of international law and would not accept Allied claims to German assets and monetary gold in Switzerland.

Negotiations began in early March 1946.  On the eve of these negotiations the United States estimated that up to $579 million of monetary gold had been looted in Europe by the Nazis and that Germany shipped around $400 million in gold (estimated that $289 million had been looted) to Switzerland, mostly to the Swiss National Bank, during the war. Of that $400 million, Americn officials estimated that some $138 million had been "washed" through Switzerland and reexported to Portugal and Spain.  But the Allies were not certain how much German and Nazi looted gold remained in Switzerland at the end of the war.  Their estimates ranged from $200 million to as much as $398 million.

The Allied negotiators, in the face of Swiss intransignece and Allied interest in resuming commercial relations with Switzerland, as well as a new postwar United States emphasis on rebuilding war-torn Europe, reduced their negotiating postion first to $130 million, the amount of the Allied estimate of the looted Belgian central bank gold.  In late April 1946, the Allies sought to break the stalemate with a proposal calling for Switzerland to provide $130 million in monetary gold and giving the Allies two-thirds of the revenues from the liquidation of German assets in Switzeland.  Walter Stucki, head of the Swiss delegation, responded by breking off the negotiations.  The amount the Allies sought was the reduced to $88 million, the amount of looted Belgian gold ultimately acknowledged by the Swiss.

The negotiations resumed in early May 1946 with a two-fold Swiss proposal.  One part provided for a Swiss payment of $58.1 for the monetary gold in Switzeland.  The United States Government decided to accept this $58 million figure.  The second part of the agreement was to divide the results of the liquidation of German assets on a 50-50 basis.  United States estimates of German external assets in Switzeland ranged from $250 million to $750 million, compared to $250,000 conceded by the Swiss.  No total amount of assets was agreed to, nor would the Swiss give the Allies control over the identification of the assets.

After consulting the Secretary of Treasury Vinson, Secretary of War Patterson, Senior Asistant Secretary of State Clayton, and with Senator Harley Kilgore, Randolph Paul and his negotiators decided that the United States was not willing to resort to economic sanctions to achieve better agreement. Thus, after the British and French governments agreed, the Allied-Swiss Accord was signed in Washington, D.C. on May 26, 1946 in the form of a text with a number of side notes, including a commitment by the Swiss to look "sympathetically" at assisting stateless victims through the recovery of heirless assets for their benefit.

Almost immediately after signing the Washington Accord, the United States Government began the process of unblocking frozen Swiss assets in the United States.  At the same time, serious problems arose between the Allies and Switerland over Swiss implementation, primarily relating to a fair Reichsmark-Swiss franc rate of exchange.  Because of this problem, it was not until 1952 an agreement was reached on the terms and procedures for the liquidation of German external assets.  The Swiss, however, immediately turned over $58 million in gold to the Tripartite Gold Commission.

The Allied-Swiss agreement of August 1952 called for a lump-sum settlement of $28 million for liquidating German assets in Switzerland.  This figure was far less than that forseen in the 1946 Washington Accord.  This final lump settlement was reduced by $4.7 million that the Swiss had advanced in settlement in 1948. (Note 96)

Records of the U.S. Legation in Bern, Switzerland

     General Records 1936-1946, 1949-1952 (Entry 3207)

          Boxes 1-150 & 24A
          1941
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          66   800       Political Reports
               802.1          Swiss Foreign Office
          69   848       Relief Measures
               850       Economic Matters-Germany
               850       Economic Matters-Switzerland
               850.101   Census-Switzerland
               850.101   Census-United States
               851       Foreign Funds Control
               851.51    Blocked Dollars, General
               851.6          Banks, Banking
               851.6          Freezing of Foreign Assets
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
               851.6          Swiss Bank Corporation
               854       Intellectual and Industrial Property
          70   891       Press location: 350/68/17/04
          1942
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          71   121       Dulles, Allen, W.
          73   350       Property Rights
               631       France-Switzerland
                         Germany-Switzerland
               710       Vatican State-Relations with various countries
                             
          74   711       American Republics-Axis Powers
               711       American Republics-Pope's Message
               711       Post War Problems
               711.2          Board of Economic Warfare
               711.2          Black List
               711.2          Diamonds
               711.2          Preemptive Purchases
          75   800       Political Reports
               800       Basel-Political Reports
               800       Geneva-Political Reports location: 350/68/17/04
          76   800       Political Reports
               800.1          Hitler location: 350/68/17/05
          77   814.2          International Red Cross
               840.1          Jews
               840.1          Jews in France
               848       Relief
          78   850       Economic Matters
               850       Post War Problems
               851       German Securities
               851       Securities
               851       Switzerland-Gold
          79   851.511   Switzerland-Gold
               851.51    Switzerland-Gold
               851.51    Foreign Funds Control
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Banks, Banking
               851.6          Bank of France
               851.6          Germany
               851.6          German Banks
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
               852       Aryanization of Commercial Properties owned by Jews in
                              Occupied France
               854       Intellectual and Industrial Property
          81   885       Neutral Vessels
               891       Swiss Press
          82   891       Axis Press
               891       German Press (3 folders)
               891       Hungarian Press
               891       Italian Press
          83   891       Yugoslav Press location: 350/68/17/06
          1943
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          85   124.66    Economic Warfare
          86   350       Property Rights
               710       Political Relations-Treaties
               711       Postwar Problems
          87   711       War Criminals
               711.1          Swiss Neutrality
          88   711.5          Dachau
          88-89     800       Political Reports
          90   800.1          Hitler
               800.1          Mussolini
               8002.          Goering
               800.2          Pilet Golaz
               800.2          Schacht, H.
               840.1          French Refugees
               840.1          Jews
               840.1          Jews in Bulgaria
               840.1          Jews in Croatia
               840.1          Jews in Denmark
               840.1          Jews in Europe
               840.1          Jews in France
               840.1          Jews in Germany
               840.1          Jews in Greece
               840.1          Jews in Hungary
               840.1          Jews in Italy
               840.1          Jews in the Netherlands
               840.1          Jews in Poland
               840.1          Jews in Rumania
               840.1          Jews in Slovakia
               840.1          Jews in Switzerland
               840.1          Switzerland
               840.1          Refugees
               840.3          Looted Art
               848       Refugees in Switzerland
               848       UNRRA
          92   850       Economic Matters
               850.31    Property Census
               851       Financial Conditions
               851       Vatican Financial Interest in Hungarian-Italian Bank
               851.51    Exchange
               851.51    Foreign Funds Control
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements-McKittrick
               851.6          German Bank Directors
          93   852       Property [includes information on the distribution of Jewish-
                              owned land in Hungary]
               854       Intellectual and Industrial Property
          94   877       Railways
               891       Swiss Press
          1944
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          96   350       Property Rights
               500       Bretton Woods
               631       American Swiss Negotiations location: 350/68/17/07
          97   701.1          Italy-Financial (6 folders)
               701       Italian Representation in Switzerland
          98   702.1          Germans in Switzerland
          99   711       Postwar Problems
               711       Postwar Planning
               711       American Air Attacks on Switzerland
               711       War Criminals
               711.1          Swiss Neutrality
               711.2          Neutral Commerce
               711.2          Neutral Commerce-Blockade
               711.3          Enemy Property-Trading With Enemy  loc: 350/68/18/01
          100-102 800         Political Reports
          103  800.1          Hitler
               800.2          Count Ciano
               800.2          Mussolini
               800.2          Pilet Golaz
               802.1          Swiss Foreign Office
               814.2          International Red Cross
               820       Military Affairs
               822       Axis Troops-Switzerland
               822       German Soldiers-Switzerland location: 350/68/18/01
          104  840.3          Art Treasures
               840.3          Looted Italian Art
               848       Refugee Camps
               848       Relief
               848       Refugees in Switzerland location: 350/68/18/02
          105  848       UNRRA
               848       War Refugee Board
               848       Refugees in Switzerland
               850.31    Property Census
               851.6          Germany
               851.6          Italy
               851.6          Japan
               851.6          Exchange
               851.6          Bank of Albania
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Swiss Bank Corporation
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
               851.6          Switzerland
          106  852       Land-Jewish Property-France
               877       Germany-Italy Traffic
               877       Railways (2 folders)
               879.6          Lufthansa
               885       Neutral Shipping
          107  891       Swiss Press location: 350/68/18/02
          1945
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          108  124.6          War History Report
          110  631       Currie Mission
               701.1/702.1    Germany-Public Officials and Employees in Switzerland
                             
          111  702.1          Germans in Switzerland
               710       Germany/Switzerland
               711       War Criminals
               711       War Criminals-Goering
               711       War Criminals-Nuremberg Trial
               711       War Criminals-Von Gutenberg
               711       War Criminals-Von Neurath
               711.2          Black List
               711.2          Proclaimed List
               711.3          Germany-Assets in the United States
          112  715       Dachau
          113  800       Political Reports
               800.1          Hitler
               800.2          Mussolini
               800.2          M. Pilet-Golaz
               800.2          Stucki, W.
               800.2          Pelitpierre (Note 97)
          114  802.1          Swiss Foreign Office
               814.2          International Red Cross
               820       Germany
          115  840.1          Yugoslavian Refugees in Switzerland
               840.1          Jews in Europe
               840.1          Jews in Germany
               840.1          Jews in Switzerland
               840.1          Switzerland, Refugees In
          116  848       UNRRA
               850.3          Safehaven
               850.51    Foreign Funds Control
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Banks, Banking
               851.6          National Bank of Albania
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
               851.6          Switzerland-Assets of Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania
                             
          117  879.6          Swiss Air
          118  885       Neutral Shipping location: 350/68/18/04
          119  891       Swiss Press location: 350/68/18/04
          1946
          Box# File #         File Title or Subject
          123  802.1          Swiss Federal Political Department
               802.1          Swiss Foreign Office
          124  814.2          International Red Cross
               711.1          Swiss Neutrality
          126  840.1          Jewish Refugees
               840.1          Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry
               840.1          Austrian Jews
               840.1          Bulgarian Jews
               840.1          Jews in Czechoslovakia
               840.1          Jews in Germany
               840.1          Switzerland, Refugees In
          127  848       Joint Distribution Committee
               848       UNRRA
          128  850.3          Germany-Official Assets in Switzerland
               850.3          Enemy Assets, Mobilization of, In Neutral Countries
               851       German Safehaven Operations in Switzerland
               851       Securities in Germany
               851.5          Switzerland-Spain-Portugal Gold Shipments
               851.51    Foreign Funds Control
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
          129  879.6          Swiss Air
          130  891       Swiss Press location: 350/68/18/05
          1949
          Box# File #         Subject
          131  300       Japanese Government: Archives and Property
                             
          133  321.3          Enemy Property, Trading With the Enemy
                             
          1950-1952
          141  321.3          Neutrality
               321.3          Interhandel
               321.3          Swiss Assets in United States
               321.3          Swiss Bankers Association
               321.3          Trading With the Enemy Act

     General Records 1953-1963 (Entry 3209A)

          Boxes 1-24
          1953-1955
          Box# File #         Subject
          1    321.3          Economic Warfare-Enemy Property; much information on
                              the Swiss-Allied Accord
               321.3          Interhandel
          1956-1958
          Box# File #         Subject
          4    321.3          Alien Property
               321.3          Foreign Assets Control
               321.3          German Assets  
          4-5  321.3          Interhandel
          7    501.6          Swiss Banking
               501.6          Swiss National Bank
          1959-1961
          Box# File #         Subject
          13   321.3          Interhandel
               321.3          Heirless Assets in Switzerland and Washington Accords
               501.6          Swiss Banking
          1962-1963
          Box# File #         Subject
          24   321.3          Interhandel

     Classified General Records 1940-1952 (Entry 3208)

          Boxes 1-111 location: 350/68/19/01
          1940-1941
          Box# File #         Subject
          1-2            Various
          1942
          Box# File #         Subject
          3    350       American Property-Italy
               600       Export Reports
               610.1          Portugal-Switzerland
               631       France-Switzerland
               631       Italy-Switzerland
               631       Switzerland-United States location: 350/68/19/02
          4    705       Foreign Interests-Switzerland
               705       Foreign Interests-Switzerland-Funds
               710/811.1 Germany-Vichy
               710       Italy-Switzerland
               711       Europe
               711       France-Germany
               711       Italy
               711.2          Neutral Commerce-Blockade
               800       Balkans
               800       Belgium
               800       Bulgaria
               800       Croatia
               800       Czechoslovakia
               800       Europe
               800       Greece
               800       Hungary
               800       Japan
               800       Liechtenstein
               800       Netherlands
               800       Poland
               800       Portugal
               800       Spain
               800       Turkey
               800       Vatican City
               800       France (2 folders)
               800       Basel Political Reports
               800       Geneva Political Reports
          5    800       Germany (3 folders)
               800       Switzerland
               800       Italy-Germany
               800       Italy
               800       Italy-Switzerland
               800       Rumania
          6    800       Italy
               800.1          Mussolini
               800.2          Germany
               814.2          International Red Cross
               820       Germany
               820.02    Belgium
               820.02    Europe
               820.02    German Nationals-Switzerland
               820.02    German Propaganda
               820.02    Germans in Switzerland
               820.02    Germany
               820.02    Nazi Officials in Switzerland
               820.02    Switzerland
               821       Switzerland
               822       Germans in Switzerland
               824.2          Germany
               824.2          Italy
               824.2          Krupp
               824.2          Skoda
               824.8          Austria
               824.8          Germany
               824.8          Switzerland-German Planes
               824.8          Switzerland
               824.8          Slovakia  
          7    840.1          Jews
               840.1          Jewish Europe
               840.1          Jews in France
               840.1          Jews in Europe
               840.1/811.11   German-Occupied Countries
               840.1          Jews-Ransoming Procedures
               840.1          Jews in Czechoslovakia
               840.1          France-Children
               840.1          Jews in Latvia
               840.1          Jewish Children-France
               840.1          Jews in Germany
               840.1          Jews in Holland
               840.1          Jews in Rumania
               840.1          Jews in Unoccupied France
               840.1          Ransoming Procedure
               840.4          Germany
               850       France
               850       Germany
               850       Italy
               851       Switzerland-United States
               851       Belgium
               851       Switzerland
               851.5          Switzerland-Gold
               851.5          Switzerland-Gold Shipments
               851.5          Turkey
               851.5          Foreign Funds Control
               851.6          German Reichsbank
               851.7          Germany
               851.6          Bank For International Settlements
               860       Germany
               861.3          Germany
               863.6          Germany-Italy
               863.6          Germany
               863.6          Italy
               871       Censorship
               877       Germany
               877       Germany-Italy
               877       Italy
               879.6          Switzerland
               879.6          North Africa-Switzerland
          1943
          Box# File #         Subject
          8    350       American Property-Italy
               631       Germany-Switzerland
               631       Spain-Switzerland
               631       Switzerland-Turkey
               631       Switzerland-US
               702.1          German Diplomatic and Consular Personnel in Switzerland
               710       Germany-Switzerland
               711/820.02     Germans in Switzerland
               711       Germany
          9    711       Switzerland
               711.2          Diamonds-Bulova Watches
               711.5          Dachau
               711.6          Atrocity Stories
               800       Austria
               800       Balkans
               800       Belgium
               800       Bulgaria
               800       Bosnia
               800       Croatia
               800       Egypt
               800       France (4 folders)
               800       Finland
               800       Greece
               800       Japan
               800       Netherlands
               800       Portugal
               800       Russia
               800       Slovakia
               800       Spain
               800       Turkey
               800       Yugoslavia
               800       France North Africa
          10   800       France
               800       France-Algiers
               800       Germany (5 folders)
          11   800       Germany
               800       Germany-Braun-Wirth
               800       Himmler
               800       Hungary
               800       Italy (4 folders)
          12   800       Italy
               800       Italy-Officials
               800       Switzerland
               800.1          Hitler
               800.2          Daladier
               800.2          Goering
               800.2          Mussolini
               800.2          Ribbentrop
               800.2          Schacht
               801.2          Fraudulent Passports
               802.1          France
               802.1          Germany
               820       Germany
               820       Switzerland
               820.02    German Propaganda
               820.02    Germans in Switzerland
          13   820.02    Germany
               820.02    Italians in Switzerland
               820.02    Japanese in Switzerland
               820.02    Switzerland-Espionage
               820.02    Switzerland
               820.02    Germans in Switzerland
               840.1          French Refugees Relief
               840.1          Jews in France
               850       Germany
               850       Italy
               851       Axis Countries-War Expenditures
               851       Axis Countries-War Funds
               851       Germany
               851       Hungary
               851       Italy
               851       Liechtenstein
               851       Switzerland
               851       Turkey
               851.5          Germany
               851.5          Liechtenstein
               851.5          Switzerland
               851.5          Rumania-Switzerland
               851.51    Balkans
               851.51    France
               851.51    French Francs
               851.51    German Marks
               851.51    Italian Lire
               851.51    Jews in Italy
               851.51    Liechtenstein
               851.6          German Bank Director
               851.6          Italian Banks
               851.6          Kurzmeyer [Alfred]
               851.6          Portugal
               851.6          Societe De Banque Suisse
               851.6          Sweden
               851.6          Switzerland location: 350/68/19/03
          14   863.6          Germany-Switzerland
               863.6          Germany
               863.6          Italy
               863.6          Turkey
               877       Germany
               877       Germany-Italy
               877       Hungary
               879.6          Switzerland location: 350/68/19/03
          1944
          Box# File #         Subject
          15   800       Germany (2 folders)
               800       France, Algiers   location: 350/68/19/03
          16   800       Germany
               800       Hungary (2 folders)
               800       Italy (2 folders)
          17   800       Yugoslavia
               800       Switzerland
               820.02    Argentina
               820.02    Fascists Agents
               820.02    Fascists in Switzerland
               820.02    German Agents
               820.02    German Propaganda
               820.02    Germans in Switzerland
               820.02    Gestapo
          18   820.02    Opel
               820.02    Von Der Heydt
               820.02    Spain
               820.02    Switzerland
               840.1          French Refugees-Switzeland
               840.1          Germany
               840.1          Jews
               840.1          Jews in Europe
               840.1          France, Children
               840.1          Hungary
               840.1          Jews in Germany
               840.1          Jews in Hungary
               840.1          Jews in Italy
               840.1          Jews in Rumania
               840.1          Jews in Lithuania
               840.1          Jews in Slovakia
               840.1          Jews in Poland
               840.1          Luxembourg
               840.1          Netherlands
               840.1          Norway
               840.1          Refugees in Switzerland
               840.1          Russia
               840.1          Switzerland
               840.1          Poland
               840.1          Refugees in Europe
               824.8          US Aircraft in Switzerland
          1945
          Box# File #         Subject
          19   631       Currie Mission
               631       US-Portugal-Post Hostilities Agreement
               701.1          German Legation in Portugal
               701.1          Italy-Financial (3 folders)
               701.1/702.1    Germany-Public Officials and Employees in Spain
                             
          20   701.1/702.1    Germany-Public Officials and Employees in Switzerland
               711       War Criminals-Schact
               711       War Criminals-Nuremberg Trials
               711.2          Neutral Countries
               711       Switzerland-Bombing of by US Planes
               711       Switzerland-Bombing of by US Planes-Claims
                             
          21   800       Germany
               800       German Colony-Basel
               800       German Colony-Geneva
               800       German Colony-Zurich
               800       German-Swiss Border
               800       Germany-Subversive Movement
               800       German Government-Archives and Public Property in
                              Switzerland
          22   800       Japanese Government-Archives and Public Property in
                              Switzerland
               800.1          Hitler
               800.2          Himmler
               800.2          Stucki [Walter]
               801.2          Fraudulent Passports
               801.2          Passports for Germans
               811.1          Agentine Legation, Bern 
          23   820.02    Axis Nationals
               820.02    Fascists in Switzerland
               820.02    German Propaganda
               820.02    German Agents
               820.02    Germans Expelled from Switzerland
               820.02    German Intelligence Service
               820.02    Germany-Nazi Party-Geneva 
          24   820.02    Nazi Agents
               820.02    Nazi Hotels in Switzerland
               820.02    Nazi Underground Movement
               820.02    Nazi Propaganda
               820.02    Nazis in Switzerland
               820.02    Opel
               820.02    Spain-Movements of Germans
               820.02    Pan German Propaganda
               820.02    Portugal, Spain, Nazi Assets in
               820.02    Spain-Nazi Activities
               820.02    Spain-Movement of Germans
               820.02    Swiss Business Concerns, Suspected
               820.02    Sweden, Nazi Activities in
               820.02    Swiss Attorneys
               820.02    Swiss-Espionange 
          1946
          Box# File #         Subject
          26   500       Paris Conference on Reparations
               701.1/702.1    German Interests in Switzerland
          27   124.6       War History Report; Contains a 52-page history of the
                           legation during World War II.  The history, dated
                           February 8, 1946, was edited by First Secretary
                           Donald F. Bigelow.  It contains sections entitled:
                           Introduction; Organization; Economic, Military, and
                           Political Reports; Protection of American Interests;
                           Economic Warfare; Procurement of Strategic Materials;
                           War Publicity; Relations with Resistance Movements;
                           and, Assistance to the United States Army Air Force.
               711       Nuremberg Trials
               711       War Criminals
               711       War Criminals (Schact, Hjalmar)
               711       Switzerland-Bombing of by US Planes
               711       Switzerland-Bombing of by US Planes-Claims for Damages
               800       German Government-Archives and Public Property
                             
          28   800       Japanese Government-Archives and Public Property
                              (5 folders) 
          29   800       Japanese Government-Archives and Public Property
                              (3 folders)
               800       US Foreign Policy Toward Switzerland
               802.1          Swiss Foreign Office  
          30   820.02         Censorhsip Intercepts
               820.02    Enemy Activity in Switzerland
               820.02    Fascists in Switzerland
               820.02    German Agents in Switzerland
               820.02    Nazi Agents
               820.02    Nazi Agents in Switzerland
               820.02    Nazi Party Membership Records
               820.02    Nazis in Germany
               820.02    Nazis in Sweden
               820.02    Nazis in Switzerland
               820.02    Schellenberg, Walter
               820.02    Spain-Movements of Germans in
               820.02    Western Hemisphere-Dangerous Germans in
                             
          31   820.02    Censorship Intercepts
               820.02    Nazis in Switzerland
               820.02    Nazis in Portugal
               850.3          Nazi Agents-Expulsion from Switzerland
               850.3          Gold in Switzerland
               850.3          Enemy Assets, Mobilization of in Neutral Countries
               850.3          German Assets in Switzerland
               850.3          Kilgore Committee
               850.3          Union Reinsurance Company
               851.6          Switzerland-Gold Policy  
          32   879.6          Swiss Air  
          1947
          Box# File #         Subject
          35   350       Restoration of Property in Germany Taken Under Duress
                             
          38   711       Bormann, Martin
               711       Nuremberg Trials
               711       War Crimes
               711       Switzerland, Bombing of by United States Planes
               711       Schacht, Hjalmar
               711       War Damage, Switzerland
               800       Eva Braun's Diary [photostat] location: 350/68/19/07
          39   800       German Government-Archives and Public Property
               800       German Government-Archives and Public Property in Spain
               800       Germany-Reparations
          40   800       Japanese Government-Archives and Public Propety
                              (3 folders)
          42   804.4          Dachau  
          45   820.02    Censorship Intercepts
               820.02    Latin America-Flight of Germans to
               820.02    Nazi Party Membership-Switzerland
               820.02    Nazi Party Membership Records-Switzerland
               820.02    Von Der Heydt, Baron Eduard
               820.02    Western Hemisphere-Dangerous Germans in
                             
          49   850.03    Safehaven Project
               850.03    German Official Assets in Switzerland
               850.03    Enemy Assets, Mobilization of in Neutral Countries
               851.51    Unblocking Swiss Assets in US
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Swiss Bank Corporation
               851.6          Swiss National Bank
          50   879.6          Swiss Air
          1948
          Box# File #         Subject
          57   350       Restoration of Property in Germany Taken Under Duress
               350       Schellenberg, Walter
               350       American Property-Italy
               350       Looted Jewels-Goering
          59   711       Switzerland-Bombing of by United States Planes
               711       War Criminals-Nuremberg Trials location: 350/68/20/03
          62   800       German Government Archives
          63   800       Japanese Government, Archives and Public Property
                             
          64   801.2          Stateless Persons
               804.44    Inheritance Laws, Swiss
          68   820.02    Nazi Party Membership
               820.02    Latin America-Flight of Germans to
          71   850.03    IG Chemi-Basel
               850.03    Unblocking of Swiss Assets in United States
               850.03    Swiss Compensation Office
               850.31    Census of American-Owned Property Abroad
               850.3          Japanese Assets in Neutral Countries
               850.3          Petitpierre Opinion
               850.3          Unblocking Swiss Assets in United States
               850.3          Washington Accord
               850.7          Enemy Assets, Mobilization of in Neutral Countries
               850.3          German Assets in Switzerland
               851.6          Bank for International Settlements
               851.6          Swiss Assets  
          72   879.6          Swiss Air
          1949
          Box# File #         Subject
          76   321.3          Fischer, Theodor
          79   501       Gold Sales
               501       Russian Gold
               501/511.2 Russian Gold
               501.6          Bulgarian Gold
               501.6          Hungarian Gold
               501.6          Liechtenstein Gold
               501.6          Rumanian Gold
               501.6          Yugoslav Gold
               501.8          German Assets
               501.8          Japanese Assets in Neutral Countries
          1950-1952
          86   321.1          Swiss Neutrality
               321.3          Enemy Assets/Swiss Allied Agreement
               321.3          Bosch, Hermann
               321.3          Foreign Assets Control
               321.3          Swiss Bankers Association
               321.3          Trading With the Enemy Act
               321.3          Washington Accords-Renegotiations (2 folders)
                             
          87   321.3          Washington Accords-Renegotiations (3 folders)
               321.3          German Assets Files
               321.3          IG Chemie location: 350/68/20/07
          91   501.6          Bank of France
               501.6          Bank for International Settlements
               501.6          Liechtenstein Gold
 
     Classified General Records 1953-1961 (Entry 3209B)
 
          Boxes 1-17 location: 350/68/30/04
          1953-1955
          Box# File #         Subject
          1    321.3          Foreign Assets Control
               321.3          Swiss-Allied Agreement
          2    321.3          Interhandel
          1956-1958
          Box# File #         Subject
          7    321.3          Economic Warfare (German Assets)
               321.3          Interhandel (3 folders)

Top of Page

Holocaust-Era Assets >

The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
1-86-NARA-NARA or 1-866-272-6272

.