Record Groups 54 through 96
- Alphabetical List of Record Groups
- Numerical List of Record Groups
- Record Groups 4 through 49
- Record Groups 54 through 96
- Record Groups 101 through 196
- Record Groups 202 through 295
- Record Groups 310 through Donated Materials
Record Group 54
Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering
The Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering was established on February 13, 1943, in the Agricultural Research Administration of the Department of Agriculture. Government procurement, propagation, and distribution of seeds and plants began in the agricultural section established in the Patent Office in 1839. These activities were transferred to the Department of Agriculture's Division of Gardens and Ground in 1862 and to the Division of Seeds in 1868.
As plant work became more specialized, Divisions of Botany, Pomology, Vegetable Physiology, Pathology, and Agrostology were established in the Department from 1869 to 1895. To coordinate and develop plant investigations conducted by these divisions, the Bureau of Plant Industry was established in 1901. In 1938, soil investigations were transferred to the bureau. These investigations had originated in the Division of Soils, established in 1894, and had expanded in the Bureau of Soils, and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, established in 1901 and 1927, respectively. In 1943, engineering research was transferred from the Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering to the newly designated Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering.
The Bureau was abolished by the Secretary of Agriculture on November 2, 1953, and its functions transferred to the Agricultural Research Service.
Volume: 15 cubic feet
Records of the Flax Investigation Project headquartered at the University of Minnesota and administered chiefly by agronomist A. C. Dillman. The records document extensive research into flax cultivation, improvement, and genetics conducted in the States of California, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, and related research of experiment stations located in other States and countries. The records consist chiefly of correspondence, data files, research reports, and study reports. Nontextual records include photographs.
Records of the Division of Forest Pathology. The records relate to the work of George Hedgecock in plant pathology at the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the Mississippi Valley Laboratory, and the work of Hermann von Schrenk in timber preservation at the Mississippi Valley Laboratory.
Harold T. Pinkett, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, PI 66 (1954).
Record Group 57
Records of the U.S. Geological Survey
The Geological Survey was established in the Department of the Interior by an act of March 3, 1879, providing for the "classification of the public lands and the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the public domain." An act of September 5, 1962, expanded this authorization to examinations outside the public domain, while topographical mapping and chemical and physical research were authorized by an act of October 2, 1888. The Survey's chief functions are to survey, investigate, and conduct research on the Nation's topography, geology, and mineral and water resources; classify land according to mineral composition and water power resources; furnish engineering supervision for power permits and Federal Power Commission licenses; supervise naval petroleum reserves and mineral leasing operations on public and Indian lands; and disseminate data relating to these activities.
Rolla, Missouri, has served as a field office for the Survey's topographic activities in the central United States since the late 19th century. It is currently the Mid-Continent Mapping Center of the Survey's Central Region.
Volume: 68 cubic feet
Records of the Mid-Continent Mapping Center. The records document systematic topographic surveys of public and private land in:
- Dakota Territory
- Indian Territory
- New Mexico
- North Dakota
- Oklahoma Territory
- South Dakota
Records of non-Federal activities in support of Mid-Continent Mapping Center field work. They relate to field surveys of Arizona, Florida, and Washington conducted at the Washington University Observatory, St. Louis (1882-92). They are astronomical observations.
List of field notebooks.
Record Group 58
Records of the Internal Revenue Service
The Office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue was established in the Treasury Department by an act of July 1, 1862, to help finance the Civil War. Within the Office the agency that collected funds was known as the Bureau of Internal Revenue until 1953 when it was designated the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The taxes levied during the Civil War were gradually abolished until only taxes on liquor and tobacco remained in 1883. In addition to the taxes on these commodities, the Bureau began collecting a corporation income tax after 1909. With the adoption of the 16th amendment in 1913, the collection of income taxes became one of the Bureau's principal functions. It is now responsible for the administration, assessment, and collection of all internal revenue taxes.
Dates: 1863-1974 (Most collectors' records do not cover the entire date span.)
Volume: 218 cubic feet
Records of IRS collectors in:
- Kansas (including occasional entries for Oklahoma);
- North Dakota;
- South Dakota.
Records of the First and Sixth Collection District of Missouri. The records document the divisional and departmental structure of the districts. They are organization charts and rosters of employees.
Records of the Economic Stablization Program, St. Louis. The records consist primarily of case files but include administrative files. The case files document investigations of possible violations of price, wage, and rent regulations by businesses, banks, landlords, and local authorities. Nontextual records include photographs.
Record Group 70
Records of the U.S. Bureau of Mines
The Bureau of Mines was established in the Department of the Interior by an act of May 16, 1910. In 1925, the Division of Mineral resources of the Geological Survey and the Coal Division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce were transferred to the Bureau of Mines, which became part of the Department of Commerce. The Bureau was returned to the Department of the Interior in 1934. Its functions include inspecting mines, smelters and mills; testing fuels for Government use; issuing licenses that control production and use of nonmilitary explosives; collecting information regarding production and consumption of mineral resources, and employment and accidents in mines; conducting research on mining methods, production of minerals, and improvement of mining conditions; and operating experimental plants.
Volume: 70 cubic feet
Records of the North Central Experiment Station (established in 1915) at the University of Minnesota, which was combined with the Minneapolis branch of the Division of Mining (redesignated the Twin Cities Research Center in 1972). The records document several of the bureau's major programs, including strategic minerals investigation and ore beneficiation research in cooperation with experiment stations in Rolla, Missouri, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During World War II the station supervised the development of pilot plants for the beneficiation of manganese ore deposits near Chamberlain, South Dakota, and at Dearborn, Michigan. The records include published project reports and technical studies, monthly summaries of mining and metallurgical experiments, and reports of strategic minerals investigations. Nontextual records include aerial photographs of the Chamberlain, South Dakota, area.
Records of the Synthetic Fuels Demonstration Plant, Louisiana, Missouri. The records document coal gasification, and research and development activities at the gas-synthesis and hydrogenation plants. Included are correspondence, memorandums, technical and other reports.
Record Group 75
Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
An Office of Indian Affairs was established in 1824 within the War Department, which had exercised jurisdiction over relations with Indian tribes since the formation of the Federal Government. The Office operated informally within the War Department until Congress authorized the appointment of a Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1832. The Office was transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1849. Although commonly called the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), it was not officially designated that until 1947.
The Bureau is responsible for most of the Federal Government's relations with the tribes of Indians that it recognizes. Some groups of Indians, particularly in the Eastern States, have never received official recognition, and other groups ceased to function as cohesive tribes before the establishment of the Federal Government in 1789. The Bureau has only exercised responsibility for Indians living on a recognized reservation or who maintained an affiliation with a recognized tribe. Many persons of Indian descent are not mentioned in any of the Bureau's records because they severed all connection with any tribe.
The Bureau's programs have had an impact on virtually every phase of tribal development and individual Indian life including education, health, land ownership, financial affairs, employment, and legal rights. In 1931, the Bureau assumed jurisdiction over the Indians and Eskimos of Alaska from the Alaska Division of the Office of Education, which had been established in 1885 to administer education and health programs for the natives of Alaska. In 1955, most of the Bureau's health activities, including the operation of Indian Hospitals, were transferred to the Public Health Service.
When it was created in 1824, the Bureau inherited a well- established system of agencies, each of which was responsible for all relations with one or more tribes. Many of these agencies were subordinate to a superintendency which had general responsibility for Indian affairs in a territory or other geographical area.
Although there were numerous changes in agency designations and jurisdictions, this basic organizational structure remained unchanged until superintendencies were abolished in the 1870's and all agents began reporting directly to the Bureau headquarters in Washington, DC. In 1947, area offices were established to exercise supervisory control over agencies and other administrative units (such as schools or irrigation districts) within specific geographic regions.
In addition to the agents who were responsible for the day- to-day implementation of Indian policy, the Bureau often sent officials into the field for special purposes. These included treaty commissioners, inspectors, purchasing and disbursing agents, enrolling and allotting agents, and education specialists. Many of the schools that operated on Indian reservations were under the control of a superintendent who was often independent of the agent and sometimes exercised the functions of an agent. There were also a number of nonreservation schools, such as the Chilocco Indian School in Oklahoma, which accepted students from all over the country and were not under the control of any local agent.
Volume: 5,453 cubic feet
Records of the following area offices, agencies, and schools:
- Aberdeen Area Office, South Dakota, 1949-71. Established in 1949, supervises the Cheyenne River, Crow Creek, Fort Berthold, Fort Totten, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Sisseton, Standing Rock, Turtle Mountain, Winnebago, and Yankton Agencies and Subagencies and the Flandreau and Wahpeton Schools. Birch Cooley (Coulee) Day School, New Mexico. See Pipestone Indian School.
- Bismarck Indian School, North Dakota, 1904-38. Originally to be known as the Mandan Indian School, it was authorized in 1901 but not opened until 1908. In 1922, it was changed from a coeducational to a girls' nonreservation boarding school, and was closed permanently in 1937.
- The Canton Asylum for Insane Indians, South Dakota, 1901-34. Authorized in 1899 but not opened until January 1903. During the asylum's 31 years of operation 374 patients were treated. The facility was closed in February, 1934; the 71 patients receiving treatment were transferred to St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C., and the property and records transferred to the Pipestone Indian School. Five patient clinical case files are present; the remaining patient files were either destroyed or transferred to St. Elizabeths Hospital.
- Chamberlain Indian School, South Dakota, 1897-1909. Cheyenne River Agency, South Dakota, 1869-1976. Established in 1869 for the Blackfeet (Sihasapa), Sans Arcs, Miniconjou, and Two Kettles bands of Sioux Indians. It was known as the Forest City Agency from 1892 to 1894. The records include minutes, transcripts, correspondence, and reports of tribal councils.
- Consolidated Chippewa Agency, Minnesota, 1881-1969. Established in 1922 for Chippewa Indians living on the White Earth, Leech Lake, Nett Lake, Grand Portage, Fond du Lac and Mille Lac reservations. The Red Lake Agency continued to be responsible for the Red Lake Chippewa but not for the Indians of the Nett Lake, Grand Portage, and Fond du Lac Agencies who had been assigned to the Red Lake Agency since 1920. In December 1954, the Consolidated Chippewa Agency and the Red Lake Agency were merged to form the Minnesota Agency. Red Lake was reestablished as an independent unit in 1964, but the name Minnesota Agency was retained for the former Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Crow Creek Agency, Fort Thompson, South Dakota, 1861-1955. Formally established in 1874 as the successor to the Upper Missouri Agency, although the predecessor agency had been commonly known as Crow Creek as early as 1866. The jurisdiction of the Upper Missouri Agency had been gradually reduced by the establishment of new agencies; by 1871 it was responsible only for the Lower Yanktonai and Lower Brule Sioux. In 1875, a separate agency was established for the Lower Brule. From 1882 to 1896, the Crow Creek and Lower Brule Agencies were consolidated. They were again separated until 1924, when Lower Brule was made a subagency of Crow Creek. In 1954, Crow Creek and its subagency were merged with the Pierre School to form the Pierre Agency.
- Flandreau School and Agency, South Dakota, 1892-1957. Established as an agency in 1873 for the Santee Sioux living at Flandreau, Dakota Territory. From 1879 until 1902, the Flandreau Agency was consolidated with the Santee Agency. The Flandreau Indian School, now known as the Flandreau Indian Vocational High School, was opened as a nonreservation boarding school in 1893. From 1901 until 1906, it was called Riggs Institute. In 1902, the school superintendent was assigned duties as agent for the Flandreau Agency. During 1948 and 1949 the Pipestone Indian School was under Flandreau.
- Fond Du Lac Agency, Minnesota. See Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Fort Berthold Agency, New Town, North Dakota, 1877-1968. Established in 1864 when the Upper Missouri Agency was divided. A new agent was assigned to the Arikara, Grosventre, Mandan, Assiniboin, and Crow Indians living along the Missouri River near Fort Berthold. During 1869 and 1870 the Assiniboin, the Crow, and some of the Grosventree were assigned to other agencies. The Fort Berthold Reservation was established in 1870, and an agent was first specifically assigned to the Fort Berthold Agency in 1871.
- Fort Totten School and Agency, North Dakota, 1890-1950. The Devil's Lake Agency was established for the Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Cut Head (Pabaksa) Sioux living on the Devil's Lake Reservation in Dakota Territory. Beginning in 1884 it also had charge of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. In 1903, the agency was merged with the Fort Totten School, which had been established in 1890. In 1910, a separate agency was established for the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. From 1947 to 1949, Fort Totten was part of the Turtle Mountain Consolidated Agency; thereafter, it was again independent.
- Grand Portage Agency, Minnesota. See Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Great Nemaha Agency, Nebraska. See Potawatomi Agency.
- Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence, Kansas, 1884- 1954. Opened as a nonreservation Indian industrial boarding school in 1884. Opened as a nonreservation Indian industrial boarding school in 1884, it became Haskell Institute in 1890. The curriculum stressed vocational training including farming, mechanics, ranching, and domestic science, in addition to standard academic studies. From 1927 to 1935, the Potawatomi Agency was a subagency of the Haskell Institute. In 1970, Haskell Institute became officially designated Haskell Indian Junior College when its curriculum was upgraded and the school received accreditation to operate as a junior college. In 1994, it became Haskell Indian Nations University.
- Horton Agency, Kansas. See Potawatomi Agency.
- Kickapoo Agency, Kansas. See Potawatomi Agency.
- Leech Lake Agency, Minnesota. See Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Lower Brule Agency, South Dakota. See Crow Creek Agency.
- Minneapolis Area Office, Minnesota, 1909-71. Established to exercise jurisdiction over the Consolidated Chippewa, Red Lake, and Great Lakes Agencies and the Sac and Fox Area Office.
- The Great Lakes Consolidated Agency was made an area field office of the Minneapolis Area Office in 1952 but was returned to agency status in 1956.
- Minnesota Agency. See Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Nett Lake Agency. See Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Omaha Agency, Nebraska, 1867-1946. Established in 1856 for the Omaha Indians, it was located on the west bank of the Missouri River, north of Decatur in eastern Nebraska. In 1879, the Omaha and Winnebago Agencies were consolidated to form the Omaha and Winnebago Agency. They were separated in 1903, but from 1910 to 1914 the Omaha Agency was put under the Winnebago. In 1925, the Omaha Agency was discontinued and its duties assigned to the Winnebago Agency.
- Pierre School and Agency, South Dakota, 1911-71. The Pierre Indian School was authorized in 1888 and in 1891 opened as a nonreservation boarding school. In 1954, it was consolidated with the Crow Creek Agency to form the Pierre Agency, which supervised members of the Lower Yanktonai, Lower Brule, Miniconjou, and Two Kettles bands on the Crow Creek reservation, and the Lower Brule and Lower Yanktonai bands on the Lower Brule reservation.
- Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, 1867-1967. Established as the Red Cloud Agency in 1871, and located on the North Platte River near Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In 1873, the agency moved to the White River near Camp Robinson in northwestern Nebraska. During 1877-78 the agency moved to a series of sites on the Missouri River, finally settling at its present location near White Clay Creek in southwestern South Dakota. The agency was renamed the Pine Ridge Agency in 1878. It was primarily responsible for the Oglala Sioux, but at one time had charge of Cheyenne Indians and members of other tribes of Sioux. Pine Ridge had one of the earliest reservation police forces, established in 1879 and later augmented by Indian judges.
- Pipestone Indian School, Minnesota, 1895-1952. Opened as a nonreservation boarding school in 1893. It supervised the Birch Cooley (Coulee) Day School from 1899 until the day school closed in 1920. Beginning about 1914 the Pipestone Indian School had agency responsibilities for Indians, mostly Mdewakanton Sioux, living in various parts of southern Minnesota. The school acquired records from the Canton Asylum for Insane Indians when the asylum closed in 1934. During 1948 and 1949, the Flandreau Indian School supervised Pipestone, which was closed in 1954.
- Ponca Agency, Nebraska, 1860-1947. Established in 1859, located between the Niobrara and Missouri Rivers in Nebraska. From 1861 until its removal in 1877 the agency was considered to be in Dakota Territory. The agency was removed in 1877 to the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory. The following year some Ponca returned to Nebraska, and were attached to the Santee Sioux Agency. From 1879 until 1903, the Santee Sioux Agency was also responsible for a group of Santee Sioux who had settled at Flandreau, South Dakota, and from 1895 until 1902 it was in charge of the Hope School. In 1917, the Santee Sioux and Ponca Indians were transferred to the Winnebago Agency.
- Potawatomi Agency, Mayetta, Kansas, 1851-1968. Established in 1851 for the Potawatomi and until 1855, the Kanza Indians of Kansas. By 1871 the only Potawatomi remaining in Kansas were members of the Prairie Band. In 1874, the Kickapoo Agency was consolidated with the Potawatomi Agency, making it the only agency in Kansas; it was sometimes called the Kansas Agency. By 1876 the Chippewa and Munsee, who for some years had not had an agency, were assigned to the Potawatomi Agency. In 1882, the Potawatomi Agency and the Great Nemaha Agency for the Sac (Sauk) and Fox of Missouri and the Iowa of Nebraska were merged to form the Potawatomi and Great Nemaha Agency. In 1903, the agency was divided into the Potawatomi Agency for the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo Agency for the Kickapoo, Sac (Sauk) and Fox, and Iowa. They were combined again in 1919 as the Kickapoo Agency, but in 1921 the name was changed to Potawatomi. From 1927 until 1935, the agency was consolidated with Haskell Institute. In 1950, the agency was renamed the Potawatomi Area Field Office and in 1964 the name was changed to the Horton Agency.
- Rapid City Indian School, South Dakota, 1903-33. Opened as a nonreservation boarding school in 1898. For the school year 1929-1930, it was converted to a sanatorium school for children with tuberculosis. In 1930, it was returned to a regular boarding school but it was closed in 1934.
- Red Cloud Agency, South Dakota. See Pine Ridge Agency.
- Red Lake Agency, Minnesota, 1894-1965. For the Red Lake and Pembina Chippewa of the Red Lake Reservation; was separated from the Leech Lake Agency in 1906. (There had been an earlier Red Lake Agency from 1873 to 1879.) From 1920 to 1922, the Red Lake Agency also was in charge of the Chippewa Indians of the Fond du Lac, Nett Lake, and Grand Portage reservations, who previously had been attached to the Fond du Lac Agency. In 1922, they were transferred to the Consolidated Chippewa Agency. The Red Lake Agency and the Consolidated Chippewa Agency were merged as the Minnesota Agency in 1954, but Red Lake was separated again in 1964.
- Rosebud Agency, South Dakota, 1869-1966. The last in a series of agencies set up primarily for the band of Brule Sioux led by Chief Spotted Tail. The Upper Platte Agency was moved in 1868 from the Platte River area to the mouth of Whetstone Creek on the Missouri River in present South Dakota, and the following year it was renamed the Whetstone Agency. In 1871, it was moved twice again, the second time to the White River near the Dakota-Nebraska boundary. In 1874, the name was changed to the Spotted Tail Agency. After three more moves from 1875 to 1878, the agency was located on Rosebud Creek near its junction with the South Fork of the White River, and thereafter was called the Rosebud Agency. From 1933 to 1967, the Rosebud Agency was also in charge of the Yankton Sioux
- Santee Sioux Agency, Nebraska, 1861-1947. Evolved from the St. Peters Agency, established in 1819. In 1866, the agency and some of the Santee Sioux were moved from Dakota and Minnesota to northeastern Nebraska. In 1878, in addition to the Santee Sioux, there were a few Ponca Indians attached to the agency. In 1879, the Flandreau Agency, established in 1873 for a group of Santee Sioux who had left the Santee Sioux Agency, was consolidated with the latter. From 1895 until 1902, the Santee Sioux Agency was in charge of the Hope School. In 1917, the Santee Sioux Agency was consolidated with the Yankton Agency. In 1933, the Santee Sioux and Ponca Indians were transferred to the Winnebago Agency.
- Sioux Sanatorium, Rapid City, South Dakota, 1938-51. Opened in 1938 for the care of tubercular Indians. In 1952, the sanatorium was transferred to the Public Health Service.
- Sisseton Agency, South Dakota, 1888-1955. Established in 1867 for the Sisseton and Wahpeton Sioux on the Lake Traverse (now Sisseton) and Devil's Lake Reservations in Dakota Territory. A separate Devil's Lake Agency was established in 1871.
- Springfield Indian School, South Dakota, 1901-20. Before 1895, Springfield had been a contract mission school. From 1895 until 1902, it was attached to the Santee Agency and known as the Hope School. In 1902, it became an independent boarding school for girls. In 1919 it was again named the Hope School. The school was discontinued on June 30, 1920, but reopened from 1921 until 1923.
- Standing Rock Agency, North Dakota, 1870-1966. Succeeded the Grand River Agency, established in 1869 for several bands of Sioux Indians. The agency was moved to Standing Rock in 1873 and was renamed Standing Rock Agency in 1874. The agency had charge of the Upper and Lower Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, and Blackfeet Sioux.
- Spotted Tail Agency, South Dakota. See Rosebud Agency. Turtle Mountain Agency, North Dakota, 1889-1950. Established in 1910. Previously the Turtle Mountain Chippewa of North Dakota had been assigned to the Fort Totten Agency. Fort Totten was merged with Turtle Mountain in 1947 to form the Turtle Mountain Consolidated Agency but the merged agencies were separated again in 1949.
- Wahpeton Indian School, North Dakota, 1910-66. The last nonreservation boarding school to be established, was opened in 1908. The location of the school, 30 miles from the Sisseton reservation, resulted in large enrollments from that agency. Other reservations providing students include Fort Berthold, Fort Totten, Standing Rock, and Turtle Mountain agencies in North Dakota, and the Leech Lake, Red Lake, and White Earth agencies in Minnesota. Originally established as an agricultural school, Wahpeton operated as an elementary school and, beginning in 1911, because of its close proximity to the North Dakota State School of Science, was able to provide advanced vocational course work for older students.
- White Earth Agency, Minnesota. see Consolidated Chippewa Agency.
- Winnebago Agency, Nebraska, 1861-1955. Evolved from the Prairie du Chien Agency, which was established in 1807. The Winnebago Agency took over duties and records from agencies for the Omaha, Ponca, and Santee Sioux Indians. A full agency was established for the Winnebago Indians in 1848. In 1879, the Winnebago Agency was consolidated with the Omaha Agency to form the Omaha and Winnebago Agency. They were separated in 1903, but from 1910 to 1914 the Omaha Agency was put under the Winnebago Agency. In 1925, the Omaha Agency was discontinued, and its duties were assigned to the Winnebago Agency.
- Yankton Agency, South Dakota, 1892-1965. Established for Yankton Sioux in 1859 on the Missouri River near Greenwood, South Dakota. The Yankton agent was put in charge of the Santee Sioux Agency from 1877 until 1878 and the Santee Sioux and Ponca Indians of Nebraska from 1917 until 1933. When the Yankton Agency was abolished in 1933, the Yankton Sioux were transferred to the Rosebud Agency and the Santee Sioux and Ponca to the Winnebago Agency. The Yankton Agency was reestablished as an independent jurisdiction in 1967.
Records submitted by the agent and other field employees document tribal economic, political, and social life; the daily relations between the BIA and the Indians, an agent and his superiors, and officials of other Federal and local government agencies; and the agent's perceptions about the Indians and his duties. Osage Agency records document oil production on the reservation. Included are annual narrative and statistical reports and correspondence.
The records document Indians' financial affairs such as annuity payments and disbursements of other funds to tribal members as a result of treaties or congressional legislation. They contain the Indian's name and the amount of money or type of goods received. With tribal censuses and other enrollment records, they document genealogy and tribal demographics. Included are cash reports, ledgers of receipts and disbursements, property returns, and vouchers.
The records document the financial affairs of restricted Indians, considered incompetent because of their age, degree of Indian blood, or other factors. They concern the collection and disbursement of funds; requests by Indians for money to buy automobiles, clothing, farming equipment, furniture, groceries, livestock, pianos, and many other items; and the determination of heirs and distribution of the estates. Included are probate files, application forms, and related correspondence.
The records document land allotment to individual tribal members, names of eligible tribe members, contested allotments, the dispersal of the tribal domain, protests against the allotment process, sale or leasing of land, and use of tribal resources. Included are lists of eligible members, applications for specific tracts of land, plat maps, hearings, and letters (many in the native language) from Indians to their agents.
Records document the operation of schools on reservations, and nonreservation and public schools that Indians attended; school enrollments; and planning and implementation of educational programs. Included are correspondence, narrative and statistical reports, and individual student files that contain applications for admission, correspondence, and grades.
The records document the impact of changing social and economic conditions as reflected in activities of the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division and other emergency relief programs conducted in the 1930's; agricultural extension projects; health care programs; construction of homes and roads; home demonstration programs; housing; income; irrigation and land management activities; liquor control, suppression of peyote, and other law enforcement activities on reservations; living conditions; and recreation. Included are project files and reports.
The records document tribal governments and provide insight into tribal politics and Indian reaction to various Federal programs and policies. Included are agendas, minutes, and resolutions of tribal business committees or other elected groups.
Nontextual records include building plans, maps, and photographs.
Edward E. Hill, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, PI 163 (2 vols., 1965).
Edward E. Hill, comp., Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians, Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1981.
Related Microfilm Publications
M21, Letters Sent by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881;
M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881;
M595, Indian Census Rolls, 1884-1940;
M1011, Superintendent's Annual Narrative and Statistical Reports From Field Jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1907-1938;
M1070, Reports of Inspections of the Field Jurisdictions of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1873-1900;
M1229, Miscellaneous Letters Sent by the Agent at the Pine Ridge Indian Agency, 1876-1914;
M1282, Letters Sent to the Office of Indian Affairs by the Pine Ridge Agency, 1875-1914.
Access to case files on individual Indians is restricted because of personal privacy concerns.
Record Group 77
Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers
The Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, with headquarters at Washington, DC, was a result of orders of April 3, 1818. The military responsibilities of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (OCE) have included producing and distributing Army maps, building roads, planning camps, and constructing and repairing fortifications and other installations.
Its civil duties have included maintaining and improving inland waterways and harbors, formulating and executing plans for flood control, operating dams and locks, and approving plans for construction of bridges, wharves, piers, and other works over navigable waters. Expansion of the OCE's river and harbor improvement work after the Civil War necessitated the establishment of district offices throughout the United States. The engineer officer in charge of each district reported directly to the Chief of Engineers until 1888 when engineer divisions were created with administrative jurisdiction over the district offices.
Dates: 1870-1980 (Records of most divisions/districts do not cover the entire date span.)
Volume: 3770 cubic feet
Records of the upper Mississippi division, 1929-40, the western division, 1914-29, and the following districts:
- Duluth, Minnesota District, 1927-41.
- Kansas City, Missouri District, 1884-1980. Among the records are a contingency plan to repulse an invasion from Canada developed shortly after World War I, electric power surveys undertaken in the 1920s, national military road network feasibility studies, reports of flooding on the Missouri River, and steamboat wreck reports.
- Mississippi River Commission, 1871-1942.
- Missouri River Commission, 1900-02.
- Missouri River Division, 1903-78. The records document the main stem and tributaries of the Missouri River, and its dams and reservoirs.
- Omaha, Nebraska District, 1878-1980. Among the records are a photographic and narrative report of the upper Missouri River used in a July 1926 National Geographic article.
- Sioux City, Iowa District, 1903-06.
- St. Louis, Missouri District, 1895-1975. Included are numerous records relating to the construction, maintenance, and operation of locks and dams on the Mississippi River.
- St. Paul, Minnesota District, 1873-1943. Among the records are procurement and provisioning files for the Panama Canal Zone (1917-1932) and numerous files relating to the construction, maintenance, and operation of locks and dams on the Mississippi River.
- Upper Mississippi Valley Division, 1929-54.
- Western Division, 1914-29.
Related Microfilm Publications
M66, Letters Sent by the Topographical Bureau of the War Department and by Successor Divisions in the Office of the Chief of Engineers, 1829-1870.
Record Group 79
Records of the National Park Service
The National Park Service was established in the Department of the Interior by an act of August 25, 1916. It supervises national parks, monuments, historic parks, memorials, parkways, recreation areas, and seashores and is responsible for the promotion and regulation of their use. It establishes and enforces regulations for use, protects parks from fire, regulates concession operators, investigates and recommends proposed new areas, acquires land, and constructs and maintains roads, trails, and buildings. It also engages in research and educational work such as managing guided tours and lectures, marking nature trails, maintaining museums and libraries, and preparing publications and studies in history, archeology, natural history, and wildlife.
Dates: 1922-69 (Records of most sites do not cover the entire date span.)
Volume: 312 cubic feet
Records of the following parks and monuments administered by the Midwest regional office:
- Badlands National Monument, South Dakota;
- Big Hole Battlefield National Monument, Montana;
- Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, Colorado;
- Colorado National Monument, Colorado;
- Custer Battlefield National Monument, Montana;
- Devil's Tower National Monument, Wyoming;
- Dinosaur National Monument, Utah;
- Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa;
- Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming;
- George Washington Carver Birthplace National Monument, Missouri;
- Glacier National Park, Montana;
- Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming;
- Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado;
- Holy Cross National Monument, Colorado;
- Homestead National Monument, Nebraska;
- Isle Royale National Park, Michigan;
- Jackson Hole National Monument, Wyoming;
- Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Historic Site, Missouri;
- Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota;
- Mount Rushmore National Memorial, North Dakota;
- Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota;
- Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado;
- Scottsbluff National Monument, Nebraska;
- Shoshone Caverns National Monument, Wyoming;
- Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, North Dakota;
- Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota;
- Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
Edward E. Hill, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the National Park Service, PI 166 (1966).
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics was established in the Department of Agriculture on July 1, 1922. Until 1939, it conducted studies and disseminated information relating to agricultural production, crop estimates, marketing, finance, labor, and other agricultural problems, and administered several regulatory statutes. In 1939, its marketing functions were transferred to the Agricultural Marketing Service and most land-utilization work was transferred to the Soil Conservation Service. In 1953, it was abolished, and its functions were transferred to the Agricultural Research Service and the Agricultural Marketing Service.
The regional offices of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics were an outgrowth of those of the Farm Security Administration. When the overall planning functions of the Department of Agriculture were consolidated in the Bureau in 1938, personnel who had been engaged in land use planning work in the Farm Security Administration were transferred to the Bureau, and regional offices were established. In some cases, records of regional offices of the Farm Security Administration, the National Resources Committee, or the Land Utilization Division of the Resettlement Administration were interfiled with those of the Bureau's regional offices. The regional offices were abolished on June 30, 1946.
Among the Bureau's regional offices was the Northern Great Plains regional office in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Volume: less than 1 cubic foot
Records of the Northern Great Plains Regional Office and, prior to 1938, of the Resettlement Administration. The records relate to land use planning and water utilization. They consist of correspondence.
Entry 272 in Vivian Wiser, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, PI 104 (1958).
Record Group 87
Records of the U.S. Secret Service
The Secret Service was organized in 1865 within the Treasury Department. Its primary responsibilities have been to combat counterfeiting, alteration, and forgery of the currency, and to protect the President and Vice President, their family members, and presidential and vice presidential candidates. Until 1908, the Secret Service also conducted special investigations for other Government agencies, both within and outside the Treasury Department.
The district offices operated by the Secret Service included one in Omaha.
Volume: less than 1 cubic foot
Records of the Omaha District Office. The records relate to investigations, complaints by citizens, and administration. They consist of correspondence.
Record Group 92
Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General
In 1818, Congress created a Quartermaster's Department under a single Quartermaster General to ensure an efficient system of supply and accountability of Army officers charged with monies or supplies. At various times, the Quartermaster has been responsible for procurement and distribution of supplies, pay, transportation, and construction. After a number of changes in functions and command relationships, Congress authorized a Quartermaster Corps in 1912 and designated its chief the Quartermaster General in 1914. The Corps was responsible for the operation of a number of general supply depots and subdepots throughout the United States. The Office of the Quartermaster General was abolished in 1962.
Volume: 28 cubic feet
- National Cemetery, Fort McPherson, Nebraska, 1874-1921;
- National Cemetery, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, 1806-1963;
- National Cemetery, Jefferson City, Missouri, 1861-1966;
- National Cemetery, Mound City, Illinois, 1862-1963;
- Quartermaster Depot, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1917-1920;
- Quartermaster Depot, Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 1919-1945;
- Post engineer, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1899-1985.
Records of the Quartermaster Depot, Kansas City, Missouri, 1941-1948. The records document most aspects of the wartime mission of the depot in acquiring, storing, and shipping supplies, as well as work such as overseeing shoe rebuilding plants, distributing the property of dead soldiers, and reconditioning clothing for chemical warfare. The records consist of activity summaries, circulars, correspondence, the decimal file, historical reports, logbooks, and memorandums. Nontextual records include photographs.
Record Group 95
Records of the Forest Service
In 1881, a Division of Forestry was established in the Department of Agriculture. It became the Forest Service in 1905 when it assumed responsibility for the administration of forest reserves from the Department of the Interior. From 1933 to 1942, the Service supervised a large part of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work program.
The Service is responsible for promoting the conservation and best use of national forests and grasslands through development of the National Forest System, cooperating with administrators of State and private forests, and conducting forest and range research programs.
Volume: 78 cubic feet
Records of the following sites:
- Black Hills Regional Forest, South Dakota;
- Central Plains Forestry Office, Lincoln, Nebraska;
- Clark National Forest, Rolla, Missouri;
- Mark Twain National Forest, Rolla, Missouri;
- Nebraska National Forest, Chandron, Nebraska;
- North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Harold T. Pinkett and Terry W. Good, comps., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Forest Service, PI 18 (1969).
Record Group 96
Records of the Farmers Home Administration
The Farmers Home Administration (FHA) was established in the Department of Agriculture by an act of August 14, 1946, to succeed the Farm Security Administration (FSA), which had been established in 1937. The FSA succeeded the Resettlement Administration, which had been established in 1935 to administer rural rehabilitation and land programs begun in 1933 under the Subsistence Homesteads Division of the Department of the Interior and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
The FHA provides small farmers with credit to construct or repair homes, improve farming operations, or become farm owners, and gives individual guidance in farm and home management.
Volume: 109 cubic feet
Records of regional offices and selected county offices of the Rural Rehabilitation Division, 1934-47, for Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri. The records relate to loans to farmers and "paid-in- full rural rehabilitation loans". The latter include "Farm and Home Management Plans," submitted by the loan applicant, which contain information in great detail about the farm family's production, assets, income, expenses, and even consumption of food. The records consist of correspondence files of the regional director and farm ownership case files. Nontextual records include photographs.
Stanley W. Brown and Virgil E. Baugh, comps., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Farmers Home Administration, PI 118 (1959).