Frederick C. Murphy, Our Facility's Namesake
Frederick Coleman Murphy served his country as a medic during World War II. He was killed in action in Germany in 1945 and was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The National Archives facility in Waltham, MA, is named the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center to honor Murphy’s service, heroism, and sacrifice.
Frederick C. Murphy was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 27, 1918, and lived in Quincy, MA. He was a 1939 graduate of Thayer Academy, a private school in Braintree, MA.
Murphy married his high school sweetheart Virginia Maxwell and enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania in the fall of 1939. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Murphy applied to the U.S. Army but failed two physicals and was classified 4-F. After corrective back surgery, he entered the service in November 1943, enlisiting from Weymouth, MA, where he lived. He became a medic in the U.S. Army 259th, Infantry 65th, Infantry Division.
Murphy received his basic training at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, and his medical and surgical technician training from Fitzsimons General Hospital at Denver, Colorado.
As a medic with E Company, the 259th In March, the division took on its first major combat assignment near Saarlautern, Germany: to break through the reputedly invincible defenses of the Siegfried Line. Infantry 65th Division, Murphy landed in France in January, 1945.
The Battle: Assault on the Siegfried Line
The Siegfried Line was the major German defense at the French border and consisted of a series of pill box-shaped fortifications. General Patton’s Third Army, which included Private Murphy's 65th Division, opened an attack on that line in early March, 1945. On March 18, after 12 days of fighting, the Americans commenced a frontal assault in the Saarlautern sector. By March 21, the 65th had accomplished its goal and broken through the Siegfried Line.
Frederick C. Murphy lost his life while aiding fallen companions in the attack at Saarlautern. For his valor, the United States Congress posthumously awarded Murphy its highest military commendation, the Congressional Medal of Honor. He was the only man in his division to receive this honor.
For his valor, the United States Congress posthumously awarded Murphy its highest military commendation, the Congressional Medal of Honor. He was the only man in his division to receive this honor.
The citation describes Murphy’s heroic actions:
MURPHY, FREDERICK C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army,
Medical Detachment, 259th
Place and Date: Siegfried Line at Saarlautern, Germany, March 18, 1945
Entered service at: Weymouth, MA
Birth: Boston, MA
G.O. No.: 21, Feb. 26, 1946
An aid man, he was wounded in the right shoulder soon after his comrades had jumped off in a dawn attack 18 March 1945, against the Siegfried Line at Saarlautern, Germany. He refused to withdraw for treatment and continued forward, administering first aid under heavy machine-gun, mortar, and artillery fire. When the company ran into a thickly sown antipersonnel minefield and began to suffer more and more casualties, he continued to disregard his own wound and unhesitatingly braved the danger of exploding mines, moving about through heavy fire and helping the injured until he stepped on a mine which severed one of his feet. In spite of his grievous wounds, he struggled on with his work, refusing to be evacuated and crawling from man to man administering to them while in great pain and bleeding profusely. He was killed by the blast of another mine which he had dragged himself across in an effort to reach still another casualty. With indomitable courage, and unquenchable spirit of self-sacrifice and supreme devotion to duty which made it possible for him to continue performing his tasks while barely able to move, Pfc. Murphy saved many of his fellow soldiers at the cost of his own life.
In addition to the Medal of Honor, Murphy was also awarded a Purple Heart, a Bronze Star, a Good Conduct Medal, an American Campaign Medal, a European Campaign Medal, and a World War II Victory Medal.
At just 27, Frederick Murphy was killed in action. He left behind his wife, Virginia, who would give birth to their daughter just weeks later.
An additional honor posthumously bestowed upon Murphy was the dedication of a hospital for World War II veterans returning from overseas service.
Murphy General Hospital in Waltham, MA, was first designated as the Boston Area Station Hospital. It was activated in February 1944, officially opened in July 1944, and designated the Waltham Regional Hospital in September 1944. The Hospital was built on a 93-acre plot of land, and consisted of 44 individual buildings all connected by enclosed heated corridors.
The Surgeon General and War Department recommended the hospital be renamed in honor of Pfc. Frederick C. Murphy, and it was so designated in June, 1946.
In 1956, the Secretary of the Army and Surgeon General directed that the Murphy Army Hospital be discontinued as of December 31, 1957, and it was taken over by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The National Archives building was later added to the property known as the Waltham Federal Center. The Murphy name fell into obscurity for almost 30 years.
A grassroots campaign to bring back Murphy’s name was initiated in 1984 when Edward A. Cloonan, a fellow World War II veteran and former Waltham fire chief, encountered Murphy’s grave on a tour of the Lorraine American Military Cemetery and Memorial in St. Avold, France.
Cloonan began his mission to restore Murphy’s name to the Waltham Federal Center with a letter-writing campaign by fellow WWII soldiers of the 65th included Alan B. Wade, U.S. Rep. Edward J. Markey, U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy, and Senator John Kerry. Congressman Edward Markey filed a bill in the House of Representatives to mandate the name restoration. It was enacted on April 14, 1994, and signed by President Bill Clinton.
With the completion of the legislation, the National Archives and Records Administration facility at Waltham, MA, was officially renamed The Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center. As the legislation proceeded, the National Archives and Records Administration, Alan Wade, Edwin Waite, Edward Cloonan, and the administrator of the National Archives in Waltham Diane Leblanc worked to prepare a dedication ceremony that would complete and dignify the renaming of the facility.
The dedication took place on Patriots' Day, April 18,1994, and was attended by Frederick Murphy's widow Virginia Bresnahan, their daughter Susan Campbell, Murphy’s grandchildren Michael, Michelle and Melisa Campbell, and Murphy’s sister Sally Young. Rep. Edward J. Markey and Sen. Edward M. Kennedy spoke at the ceremony to an audience that included veterans from various World War II army divisions and members of Murphy's own 65th Infantry Division.
With the dedication of the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center, the Murphy name will continue to maintain his legacy in his community.
Frederick C. Murphy’s name and sacrifice have been remembered in other ways as well:
- In 1947, the U.S. Army named a Victory Ship of World War II the USAT "Pvt. Frederick C. Murphy." It worked as a cargo vessel with the U.S. Army Transportation Corps.
- The former Homestead Primary School in Weymouth, MA, was renamed The Frederick C. Murphy School in 1989, and was re-dedicated in 1994.
- Murphy’s former high school, Thayer Academy planted a tree and placed a plaque in his honor.
- Murphy’s picture and citation hang in the Selectman’s chambers at the Weymouth, MA, Town Hall along with three other local Medal of Honor Heroes.