The National Archives Catalog


Process Authority List

The Process Authority List provides data values for the Process element. The processes have been listed by category: album/scrapbook, artwork, coloring, document copying, hand, magnetic media/optical disk, microform, mixed media, paint, photographic, photomechanical, photoreproduction, printing, and typed.


Album/Scrapbook
scope note: Unpublished sets of pages, bound or loose-leaf, either intended to have, or assembled after having, material affixed to them or writing or other images made on them.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Artwork: Charcoal
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with charcoal.

Artwork: Color Pencil
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with color pencil.

Artwork: Crayon
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with crayon, the generic term for drawing materials made in stick form.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Artwork: Graphite Pencil
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with graphite pencil.

Artwork: Ink
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with ink, a fluid medium used for drawings or tracings.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Artwork: Pastel/Chalk
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative work with chalk or pastels, which are colored crayons consisting of pigment mixed with just enough of an aqueous binder to hold it together.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Coloring: Hand-coloring
scope note: Applying color by a manual process.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Document Copying: Letterpress
scope note: Often on tissue paper, produced by the transfer of ink through direct contact with the original, using moisture and pressure in a copy press.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Document Copying: Mimeograph
scope note: Produced by a duplicating machine operating on the stencil principle; includes any documents produced by an ink bleed-through stencil.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Document Copying: Photocopy
scope note: Creation of images or quick reproduction made through an electrostatic or other electrophotographic process. Examples are prints from office copiers, such as Xerox machines, or microfilm readers.
source: Library of Congress, Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, 1995; Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Document Copying: Photostats
scope note: Reproduction of any printed or simple black and white material, such as drawings, manuscripts, or photographs made by cameras such as the Photostat, a photographic camera that used photographic paper instead of film.
source: Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photomechanical Processes by Luis Nadeau, 1990

Document Copying: Unknown

Document Copying: Verifax
scope note: Reproduction of an image through the diffusion transfer of silver salts in undeveloped areas onto a receiving paper. Development of the transferred image produces prints with a generalized brown cast on plain, uncoated paper stock.
source: National Gallery of Art Glossary Online, 2009

Hand Drawn
scope note: Generally any drawing made without the use of devices such as t-squares, triangles, or other mechanical means of rendering or tracing. Synonymous with free-hand drawing.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Handwritten
scope note: The formation of letters and words by hand.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Magnetic Media/Optical Disk: Analog

Magnetic Media/Optical Disk: Digital

Microform: Diazo
scope note: Sensitized layers composed of diazonium salts that react with couplers to form dye images. The color of the image is determined by the composition of the diazonium compound as well as the couplers used in the process and may be black, violet, or another color.
source: MARC-AMC, 1985

Microform: Mix
scope note: Use for microform that is a mix of diazo, silver halide, or vesicular processes.
source: MARC-AMC, 1985

Microform: Silver Halide
scope note: A compound of silver and halogens. Silver halide microforms always appear black and transparent. Do not confuse with dry silver film, which does not meet archival standards.
source: MARC-AMC, 1985

Microform: Thermal Processed Silver
scope note: A computer output microfilm (COM) that generates positive-appearing images in either 16mm or 105mm (microfiche) with a blue tinted Estar base.
source: Kodak.com, 2009

Microform: Vesicular
scope note: The light-sensitive component is suspended in a plastic layer. On exposure, the component creates optical vesicules (bubbles) in the layers. These bubbles form the latent image. The latent image becomes visible and fixed by heating the plastic layer and then allowing it to cool. Vesicular films are commonly blue or beige in color. They do not appear to have much contrast until projected in a microform reader.
source: MARC-AMC, 1985

Mixed Media
scope note: Any combination of a variety of materials plus the associated techniques, used in the making of a single work of art. In printmaking, use when more than one technique, such as both etching and engraving, are used in one print.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Paint: Acrylic
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with acrylic paint.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Paint: Gouache
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with gouache, an opaque water-based paint, usually composed of pigment in gum arabic plus a white material that increases opacity.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Paint: Oil
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works in oil paint, which is pigment suspended in vegetal drying oils. It dates from at least the Middle Ages in Europe, and was widely adopted for easel painting by the fifteenth century.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Paint: Unknown

Paint: Watercolor
scope note: The art or practice of producing creative works with watercolors, paints produced by mixing pigments with an aqueous vehicle, often gum arabic.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Albumen
scope note: Use for photographic processes in which albumen is used as the binder. Common for photographic prints and occasionally for lantern slides, but rarely used for negatives on glass. Synonymous with silver albumen process.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Ambrotype
scope note: A variant of the wet collodion process to produce a direct-positive camera original. The collodion is coated on glass, the image underexposed and then underdeveloped, the glass backed with black lacquer or black cloth, and the whole mounted in a case or frame. Occasionally, the image was made on ruby glass.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Carbon/Woodburytype
scope note: A bichromate process to produce photographic prints using a pigment to form the image.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Chromogenic
scope note: Photographic process in which subtractive dyes form from the reaction of the oxidation product of the developing agent (resulting from the development of the latent image) with a coupler, contained either in the film or in the developing solution.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Collodion
scope note: Use for photographic processes in which collodion is the binder. A silver halide is the light-sensitive agent, and the process may be used to produce positives (ambrotypes, tintypes) or negatives.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Collodion-Printing Out
scope note: Photographic processes in which the "image was created entirely by exposure to light" and photographic papers "in which light sensitive silver salts were suspended" in collodion were employed.
source: Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints by James M. Reilly, 1986

Photographic: Cyanotype
scope note: Blue-toned photographic prints produced by the blueprint process, not including reproductive prints of architectural or other technical drawings; for these, use "Photoreproduction: Blueprint."
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Daguerreotype
scope note: An early photographic process producing a direct positive image on a silver-coated copper plate.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Diffusion Transfer
source: Photographic process used primarily for instant or self-developing photographs in which the positive image is formed from undeveloped silver halides in the negative. The negative is placed in contact with a support in the presence of a developing agent, and the unexposed silver diffuses to the support to form the positive image. For making color instant camera photographs, it is dye couplers that are in the negative, in which case use "dye diffusion transfer process" or "internal dye diffusion transfer".
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Direct Duplicate Negative
scope note: A photographic copying process that does not require an intermediary. The direct duplicate negative is distinguished from an interpositive or internegative.
source: Society of American Archivists Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, 2005

Photographic: Gelatin Silver
scope note: Photographic process that uses gelatin as the binder and silver as the final image material.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Gelatin Silver DOP (Developed Out Paper)
scope note: A type of process involving the use of materials with gelatin emulsions that allow a latent image to form after a brief exposure that is "subsequently converted to a visible image by a chemical action of development."
source: ICP Encyclopedia of Photography, 1984

Photographic: Gelatin Silver POP (Printed Out Paper)
scope note: A type of process in which images were produced on papers "solely by the action of exposure, without the need for a chemical solution."
source: ICP Encyclopedia of Photography, 1984

Photographic: Matte Collodion
scope note: Photographic processes in which the "image was created entirely by exposure to light" and photographic papers "in which light sensitive silver salts were suspended" in collodion were employed. The paper was treated with a "combination of gold toning followed by platinum toning ..."
source: Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints by James M. Reilly, 1986

Photographic: Original Negative
scope note: Distinguishes from reproductions or other types of copies.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Platinum/Palladium
scope note: An iron process for making photographic prints in which platinum or palladium is reduced from a salt to form the image.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Polaroid (Dye-Diffusion Transfer)
scope note: Diffusion transfer process from film packets that contain their own developing chemicals and are exposed in a special camera.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Salted Paper
scope note: Photographic process in which the light-sensitive salt is formed in the fibers of the paper rather than in a binder. Paper is impregnated with a solution of salt (sodium chloride) dissolved in water; it is then coated on one side with silver nitrate thus forming light-sensitive silver chloride on the surface. Sometimes designed to be developed out, as in the calotype process, and sometimes printed out, as when making salted paper prints.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photographic: Silver Printing Out
scope note: A process in which images were produced on papers "solely by the action of exposure, without the need for a chemical solution," and in which the binder-gelatin or collodion-cannot be determined.
source: Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints by James M. Reilly, 1986

Photographic: Subtractive Color
scope note: Photographic processes using cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes or inks to produce a full-color image. Each dye permits two of the primary colors to pass, while blocking the third; a combination of two dyes (on separate filters) will allow only a single primary to pass.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photographic: Tintype
scope note: A variant of the wet collodion process producing a direct positive image on a thin sheet of lacquered metal (usually iron, never tin). Synonymous with "Ferrotype" and "Melainotype."
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Photomechanical: Printing
scope note: Involving a photographic process (that is, employing light-sensitivity) to transfer an image, and then using a separate process to produce a print that was never itself light-sensitive.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photoreproduction: Blueprint
scope note: Reproductive prints of architectural and other technical drawings having white images on blue backgrounds, produced by the blueprint process. For blue-toned photographs produced by the blueprint process, use "Photographic: Cyanotype."
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photoreproduction: Brown Line
scope note: Prints made on light-sensitized surfaces that produce brown lines on neutral backgrounds.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2004

Photoreproduction: Brown Print
scope note: Prints made on light-sensitized surfaces that produce white images on brown backgrounds.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photoreproduction: Diazo
scope note: Printing process based on light-sensitive diazonium compounds, most often used to reproduce technical drawings.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online, 2009

Photoreproduction: Unknown

Printing: Color Printing
scope note: Printing processes, generally involving materials such as dyes and inks, to produce a variety of shades of the visible spectrum. Synonymous with "Chromotypography."
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Color Printing-Four Color
scope note: Full-color printing using four-color separation, that is, cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Color Printing-Full Color
scope note: Methods of making photomechanical prints having a full color range. Images are photographed with halftone screens as three- or four-color separations, separate printing plates are made, and these are printed in register with transparent inks.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer
scope note: This process employs a set of ribbons that are coated with a dye that is transferred to the receiver sheet by the application of heat and pressure from a stylus at a discrete point. The dye will sublimate and migrate to the substrate, where it will be chemically bound in a receptor coating.

Printing: Ink Jet
scope note: Nonimpact computer-controlled printing in which tiny droplets of ink are projected from nozzles onto paper.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Intaglio
scope note: Use for printing processes in which the image prints from ink held in the recessed areas of the plate or block, which have been cut or etched away.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Laser
scope note: Nonimpact computer-controlled printing in which the light from a laser commences an electrophotographic process leading to the fusion of toner onto the printing surface.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Linocut
scope note: Use for printing process in which the image is made from a design cut in linoleum blocks.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Manual Print
scope note: Use for printing processes in which image is transferred from an engraved plate, wood block, lithographic stone or other medium.

Printing: Planographic
scope note: Use for printing processes in which the image is printed from a flat surface.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Relief
scope note: Use for printing processes in which the nonprinting areas of the block or plate are carved, engraved, or etched away, leaving the original plane surface as the area to be printed.
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Screenprint
scope note: Printing by forcing ink or dye through a mesh on which a design has been formed by stopping out certain areas. Synonymous with "Serigraphy" and "Silkscreen."
source: Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2000

Printing: Unknown

Typed

Video Recording: High Definition

Video Recording: Standard Definition

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