Motion Picture Film Guidance: Playback and Digitization of Materials
How Can I Play Back and Digitize My Materials?
Proceed with caution when attempting to view old films. Some films may exhibit obvious signs of deterioration and fragility (see Condition Assessment) while others may only appear to be in good condition, when in fact they are too warped or brittle to run through any kind of viewing device. Films shot in the past few decades and stored properly may be safe to run on a projector, but only if you know that the projector has been properly maintained, and only if the film is in good condition. Preservation copies held in archival institutions should never be projected. If you are unsure of a film’s content, consider viewing individual frames with a magnifying glass. This will allow you to safely assess subject matter before attempting projection.
Photochemical duplication of motion picture film is a complicated process requiring the right equipment and expertise. Consult a professional laboratory to create high-quality preservation and access copies of your film. Be sure to retain original materials after duplication, as they may outlast your copy and be required for future reference. Original materials may also be of use for discerning production dates, editing choices, printing techniques, and other valuable information.
Most professional post production houses will be able to scan your film while handling it safely. The National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) website includes a list of vendors in the Washington, DC, area that are approved to handle our motion picture records when patrons request a broadcast-quality transfer. If you would like to find a provider in your area that can perform similar work, do an online search using the terms “film post production facilities” near your location, or visit an online directory. The Laboratories Directory on the Kodak website will direct you to full-service photochemical labs that can make new film copies for preservation purposes.
The Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) also provides the Video and Film Supplier Directory.
- When possible it is always advisable to create a new film copy for preservation purposes (this process is referred to as photochemical preservation). Properly stored, a film copy will last longer than digital files.
- If photochemical preservation is not feasible, film should be digitized at the highest possible resolution to capture the intrinsic qualities of the film. Even home movie material copied for personal use purposes would best be served by being scanned in high definition (HD). As a reference, consult NARA’s Products and Services page to learn about the current NARA internal specifications.
- The purpose of a preservation copy is to create an exact and high quality duplicate of the original record. This way, if the original film deteriorates beyond use, the preservation copy will be able to take its place. A preservation copy should last for years or decades – at least long enough to plan for making subsequent copies once these become outdated.
- The purpose of an access copy is to create a copy of your record that you can play back easily. A new film copy made for preservation purposes is not playable without specialized equipment. An access copy should be a well-supported format that is easy to play back.
Digital preservation copies generally have the following characteristics:
Access copies generally have the following characteristics:
- May be reduced resolutions
- Low bitrate
- Highly compressed
Digital preservation files are typically large in size, and may comprise several hundred gigabytes of data. Access copies are much smaller in size, but may also pose a difficulty when considering a large quantity of files. Some vendors may offer the option of cloud storage or online file delivery, but these are not recommended as the sole file delivery method as data transfer may be slow or costly. Physical storage media, such as hard drives and data tapes, are instead preferred for the delivery of motion picture files. Be prepared to make a backup copy, such as an extra hard drive or cloud storage, to ensure the safety and longevity of your records. Physical media can fail, and will also need to be migrated to new media over time. You must choose the solution that is best for you while also understanding its limitations. More information is in the Digital Preservation section.
You may request that the vendor name your files and organize them in a certain way. Archives sometimes use a unique identifier to name their files; these can be auto-generated or they may be more meaningful identifiers that provide information about the content or creator of the item (similar to a library book’s call number).
Are there any other requirements that I should ask the vendor to meet?
You may also want to ask the vendor to incorporate metadata in your files. Metadata is basically information about your data. You may want to include descriptive information like a title, date, location or occasion in your metadata. You could also request that the vendor include technical metadata about what type of hardware and software was used to digitize your materials. Checksums can also be a valuable tool to ensure that your data does not change over time.
- NARA’s Approach and Specifications for Motion Picture Film Reformatting
- Sustainability of Digital Formats from the Library of Congress
- Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI) Motion Picture Scanning Statement of Work (SOW) Guidelines
- International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) Digital Statement
- Center for Home Movies provides resources related to the care and projection of personal film collections