Holocaust-Era Assets

Banking Bibliography

1. Aalders, Gerard and Cees Wiebes. The art of cloaking ownership: the secret collaboration and protection of the German war industry by the neutrals: the case of Sweden. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press and the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation, 1996. v, 210 pp.
Note: The authors deal with the activities of Swedish businessmen, representing "neutral" banks and corporations, who cooperated with their counterparts in Nazi-Germany; specifically, there is a focus on the Wallenberg family and their Stockholm Enskilda Bank. Cloaking, or hiding the true Nazi business ownership from Allies is noted, as is the way neutral banks, including Enskilda, helped to dispose of assets looted from occupied territory or Jews.

2. Aarons, Mark and John Loftus. Unholy trinity: the Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss banks. Revised ed. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1998. xviii, 392 pp.
Note: This book has caused considerable controversy since it first appeared in 1991 as Ratlines; based on British codebreaking of Swiss bank messages, it tells how western money and stolen Nazi money was laundered through Switzerland and then out through the Vatican Bank, the one bank that could not be audited, to South America and back to Germany. The paradoxical role of the Dulles brothers as members of the US intelligence community with connections to German business leaders and the Vatican is detailed. The authors, reporting on the Vatican's Nazi-smuggling network at the end of the war that sent fugitives mostly to Argentina where they were welcomed by the Perons, conclude that the smuggling venture was primarily for the financial interests of non-German investors, including the Vatican.

3. Ain, Stewart. "Nazi gold stored in NY: Federal Reserve stash may contain fillings pulled from Jewish victims of Holocaust". Jewish Week 209, no.21(September 20, 1996): 1.
Note: According to recently declassified documents, a pile of gold bars, believed to be the largest repository of gold in the world, is stored in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York vaults in lower Manhattan. The declassified State Department documents indicate that the cache includes tons of Nazi gold found at the Merkers salt mine in Germany.
Filed in the Library at A8.

4. Andrews, Edmund L. "Swiss bank's discarded files saved by night watchman". New York Times(January 17, 1997).
Note: Christoph Meili, a night watchman at the Union Bank of Switzerland, found in the bank's shredding room two large bins on wheels filled with books and paper relating to financial data for the 1930s and the 1940s. When Meili made the finding public, the bank noted that it had shredded many documents before his finding and that the materials had been reviewed by their historian.

5. Arsever, Sylvie. "Five key technical points on the issue of unclaimed funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The five key technical points to be considered: legal requirements, proof, anonymous accounts, intermediaries, and fraud.
Filed in Library at A3.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Technique.E.html.

6. Arsever, Sylvie. "The matter of Jewish funds implicitly reveals Switzerland's relationship with its Jewish community". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Repeatedly since 1944, Jewish organizations claimed that possessions stolen from Jewish individuals or communities must be used for Jewish rebuilding. Where no one survived to make claim, the money must be given to Jewish organizations for aiding victims and renewing the Jewish culture. For decades, Swiss Jews, as a small minority, were not heard; in the 1960s, some demands were met. At this time, Switzerland is reconsidering all the orphan fund issues, determined that examining the past will promote democracy.
Filed in Library at A6.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Communaute.E.html.

7. Auboin, Roger. "The Bank for International Settlements, 1930-1955". In Essays in International Finance (Princeton University) no. 22. Princeton: Princeton University Press, May 1955. 38 pp.
Note: The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), although located in Basel, Switzerland, was really a world bank with broad powers, one of which was keeping gold for central banks. The allies believed that the BIS had a definite German bias.

8. Baer, Hans J. "Prepared statement by the Chairman, Bank Julius Baer and Baer Holding, Ltd., and Member, Swiss Bankers Association Executive Board before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate". In Swiss banks and the status of assets of Holocaust survivors of heirs, 47-53. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1996. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., S. Hrg. 104-582, April 23, 1996).
Note: This statement gives an overview of the Swiss Bankers Association, Swiss banks in the US, historical background, the war and its aftermath, the 1962 law addressing the question of victim assets held in Switzerland, and recent developments including the study of the dormant accounts.

Version filed at B2.

9. "Bank balances in the Netherlands East Indies". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 371-374. London: HMSO, 1997.
Note: This paper tells of the Japanese liquidation of Dutch banks in the Netherlands East Indies and how the banks handled claims after the war.
Shelved in the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.

10. The Bank for International Settlements and the Basel meetings. Basle: Bank for International Settlements, 1980. 153 pp. (Published on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary, 1930-1980).

11. Bennett Jones, Owen. "Swiss list points to missing millions". Guardian(April 7, 1997): 8.
Note: Swiss records indicate that bank accounts containing millions of dollars were closed without the knowledge of their holders before WWII. Some of the dormant accounts belonged to Armenians, and the records show that at least one bank added the accounts to the bank's reserves.

12. Berggren, Henrik. "Suppressing the memory of recent events". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: Sweden was a rich post-war country partly due to its wartime actions. In this interview, author-journalist, Maria-Pia Bothius, tells of transit shipments of German troops through Sweden to Norway and Finland, iron ore exports to Germany, Swedish censorship, and other examples showing that Swedish neutrality amounted to support for the Germans.
Filed in Library at B8.

13. "Bern, December 19, 1996: Naming of the Independent Commission of Experts and instructions of the Federal Council: historic and legal research on the fate of assets in Switzerland resulting from National Socialist rule". In Report to the Treasurer of New York State and the Comptroller of New York City, 4-page Section 6A. n.p.: Credit Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.
Note: Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs release on the naming of the Independent Commission of Experts chaired by Jean-Francois Bergier. The Commission is made up of historians including Holocaust specialists, World War II historians and two economic historians knowledgeable about Swiss history of the World War II period. Their assignment is to study the part played by Switzerland and its financial role within the context of World War II.

14. Bloomfield, Douglas M. "Switzerland: Hitler's most valuable ally". Penthouse 28, no.10(June 1997): 38-40, 45-48, 142. (Filed in the library at B5).
Note: The investigative reporter asserts that documents show that Switzerland provided Germany with a number of services: money laundering, raw materials, munitions, high-tech instruments, military intelligence, fencing of valuables, securities exchange and a safe haven for investments.

15. Bower, Tom. Nazi gold: the full story of the fifty-year Swiss-Nazi conspiracy to steal billions from Europe's Jews and Holocaust survivors. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. 381 pp.
Note: This story of Switzerland's painful progress toward dealing with its WWII treatment of Jews explores issues that have had little attention paid to them in the past.
Shelved in library at HG3204.B68 1997.

16. Braun, Stephen. "Bitter secrets and a cache of gold". Los Angeles Times(November 25, 1996 Washington edition): A4.
Filed in Library at B4.

17. Burrin, Philippe. "Accommodations. Part II". In France under the Germans: collaboration and compromise, 175-358. New York: New Press, 1996.
Note: Part II of Burrin's book deals with the compromises the French people made to meet the occupying power and its policies. Trade accommodations made by business leaders and captains of industry are discussed in separate chapters. Banking is covered in a chapter entitled "Money manipulators". Two chapters devoted to Parisian cultural life do not discuss art issues.

18. Campiche, Christian. "Mediators seek a definitive settlement of the Jewish funds affair". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Intermediaries are jostling to reach an agreement with figures ranging from millions to billions of dollars.
Filed in Library at C2.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Deal.E.html.

19. Campiche, Christian. "What goes through a Swiss banker's mind when questioned about Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The author gives an account of how the Swiss banking establishment is handling the matter of orphaned Jewish funds.
Filed in Library at C8.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Banquier.E.html.

20. Castelmur, Linus von. Schweizerisch-alliierte Finanzbeziehungen im šbergang vom Zweiten Weltkrieg zum kalthen Krieg: Die deutschen Guthaben in der Schweiz zwischen Zwangsliquidierung und Freigable (1945-1952)/Swiss-Allied financial relations during the transition from World War II to the Cold War: the German property in Switzerland in between compulsory liquidation and voluntary release (1945-1952). Zurich: Chronos, 1992. 421 pp. (Revised version of author's PhD from the University of Basel, 1991).
Note: The treatment of the German assets in Switzerland was a central issue for the Swiss Foreign Ministry to resolve after the Second World War. It was not only about important material interests, but also about the position of Switzerland within the newly formed system of international relations. From the Allied viewpoint, Switzerland had compromised itself by its cooperation with the German National Socialism. Thus the Allies demanded exptradition of the booty and all other German assets that had made their way to Switzerland. The author reconstructs the negotiations from 1945 to 1952 showing how the Swiss Foreign Ministry overcame its isolation within the world community.

21. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: interim report. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, July 1998.
Note: The interim report deals with the handling by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.

22. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: list of unclaimed bank accounts at Swedish banks. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, May, 1997.
Note: The interim report deals with the handling by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.
Filed in Library at S16.

23. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Disposition of assets deposited in Swiss banks by missing Nazi victims. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. iv, 549 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., Committee Serial No. 104-76, December 11, 1996).
Note: Hearing to consider claims that WWII victim assets are still in Swiss banks in unnumbered accounts opened by Jews lost in the Holocaust as well as Nazi accounts opened to hold funds seized from Jew. The Committee investigation on problems of locating these assets heard from Senator Alfonse D'Amato on the handling of unclaimed assets and other witnesses including: Stuart E. Eizenstat, Thomas Borer, Edgar Bronfman, Paul Volcker, Georg Krayer, Rolf Bloch, Arthur Smith, Jacques Picard, James H. Hutson, Veronica B. Katz and Alice B. Fischer.

24. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. The Eizenstat report and related issues concerning United States and allied efforts to restore gold and other assets looted by Nazis during World War II. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. 313 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., Committee Serial No. 105-18,).

25. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss banks and the shredding of Holocaust era documents. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. 29 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., S. Hrg. 105-152, May 6, 1997).
Note: Hearing on the recent events which related to the inquiry into the assets of Holocaust victims deposited in Swiss banks including the circumstances surrounding the shredding of bank records believed to pertain to business dealings during the Nazi rule in Germany.

26. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss banks and the status of assets of Holocaust survivors or heirs. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1996. iii, 73 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., S. Hrg. 104-582, April 23, 1996).
Note: Hearing on the circumstances surrounding the deposit of assets into Swiss banks by European Jews and others, the methodology utilized by the financial institutions in recording and maintaining these accounts and the response by Swiss banks to claims and inquiries made by Holocaust survivors or heirs regarding these accounts. Witnesses included Edgar m. Bronfman, Greta Beer, Hans J. Baer and Stuart E. Eizenstat.

27. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss banks and attempts to recover assets belonging to the victims of the Holocaust. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997. 625 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., S. Hrg. 105-176, May 15, 1997).
Note: This hearing was held to examine the Preliminary report on the role of Swiss banks during and after WWII. Witnesses included: Stuart E. Eizenstat and William Z. Slany, testifying about the Eizenstat Preliminary Report; Israel Singer, World Jewish Congress; Tom Bower, author of Nazi Gold; Thomas G. Borer, Swiss Foreign Ministry Task Force; Carl Henrik Shihver Lijegren, Ambassador of Sweden. The preliminary report is included, as is Greg Bradsher's finding aid to records at the National Archives, prepared for the Interagency Group on Nazi assets.

28. Coudret, Paul. ""An opportunity for investment managers, if..."". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Prof. Niklaus Blattner, believes that Swiss asset managers can play the Jewish funds affairs to their advantage "by proving their honesty". He believes that the unclaimed Jewish funds issue is tarnishing the image of the Swiss banking community and that they must "highlight the fact that in Switzerland private property is guaranteed virually to eternity." Noting that Switzerland acts as asset manager for 35% of the world's private financial assets placed with investment managers, he points out that asset management is the source of 67% of the country's net income.
Filed in Library at C4.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Fortune.E.html.

29. Cowell, Alan. "Swiss used Nazi victims' money for war payments, files reveal". New York Times(October 24, 1996): A1, A10.
Note: Funds from unclaimed Holocaust victims' accounts were used to compensate Swiss businesses for expropriated assets in Hungary and Poland after the postwar Communist takeover, according to this article. This new finding provides additional evidence that Switzerland drew financial benefit from the Holocaust.
Filed in Library at C1.

30. Die Schweiz und die Goldtransaktionen im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Zwischenbricht (Switzerland and gold transactions in World War II: interim report). Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, May 1998. 286 pp.
Note: This interim report of the Independent Commission of Experts, popularly known as the Bergier Report, provides contextual information on the gold which the Swiss National Bank bought from the German Reichsbank. The report notes that it was clear during 1943 that German Reichsbank transfers might include gold from occupied countries; however, although the report confirms that the Reichsbank deliveries included victim gold, there is no evidence that the responsible Swiss National Bank parties had knowledge of this.

English summary filed in Library at S8.
Online: http://www.uek.ch English summary at http://www.switzerland.taskforce.ch/doc/decl_e.htm.

31. Drosdiak, William. "Swiss forced to face troubled past of wartime dealings with Nazis". Washington Post(October 26, 1996): A1.
Filed in Library at D2.

32. "Eight key people in the battle between the United States and Switzerland over Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: "Eight personalities and eight different approaches to the question of Jewish funds" is the way the journal approaches these descriptions of D'Amato, Bronfman, and Kunin in one camp; Chapuis, Häni, and Cotti in a second; with Volcker and Bloch acting as arbitrators.
Filed in Library at E2.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/People.E.html.

33. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Testimony: on the U.S. Government supplementary report on Nazi assets. Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Testimony for Under Secretary of State Eizenstat for the House Banking Committee on the U.S. Government supplementary report on Nazi assets, June 4, 1998).
Note: Eizenstat notes that the latest report is a follow-up to the first report which focuses on the uses to which the looted gold was put - how it enabled the Nazis to purchase critical war supplies from neutral countries.
Filed in Library at E3.

34. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Holocaust reverberation: the emerging story of Nazi gold. Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Address to the United Jewish Appeal National Young Leadership Conference, Washington, March 23, 1998).
Note: The author led an 11-agency federal effort to establish the facts about the policies and actions of the US in denying Nazi Germany the economic capacity to wage war; and our postwar efforts to recover the assets looted by Nazis during WWII in order to compensate looted countries and individual victims. The report established that the German Reichsbank incorporated into its gold reserves looted monetary gold from governments of countries occupied by the Nazis; that much of the looted gold went on Swiss banks; that neutral countries facilitated the Nazi war efforts through gold exchange and supplies; that some victim gold was included in neutral bank gold; and that the Allies did not make an sufficient effort to recover looted assets from neutral countries. Eizenstat told this group that Switzerland has recently led the international effort to face its past honestly, and suggested goals for sustaining the momentum and moving forward to secure justice for victims and heirs.

35. Faith, Nicholas. Safety in numbers: the mysterious world of Swiss banking. Revised ed. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1982. 384 pp.
Note: In this guide to Swiss banking, the author draws a picture of a Swiss ruling group, insulated from the moral implications of their actions, pursuing their own financial gains.

36. Fehrenbach, T. R. The Swiss banks. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. vi, 280 pp.
Note: This book covers Swiss banking from the period right after WWI when the great flood of gold to Switzerland began. World War I had bankrupted most European nations; Switzerland's money was backed by gold and still sound, whereas the other European currencies were worthless. Switzerland became a financial haven; virtually every German corporation doing business abroad opened up Swiss bank accounts enabling them to get around Allied reparation demands and to create a solid financial basis for German industry. The author goes on to tell of Switzerland's WWII banking schemes during and after WWII when the Swiss invested in Germany when other countries did not believe in the possibility of a German comeback.

37. Finding aid: gold arrangments and transaction files. Ottawa: Bank of Canada. Gold History Project, December 1997. 66 pp.
Note: This finding aid was created as a guide for researchers to Bank of Canada records relating to gold transactions between March 11, 1935 and December 31, 1956. It is an enlarged version of an inventory of gold transactions that was compiled to assist Professor Duncan McDowell, who was commissioned by the Bank in 1997 to carry out an independent investigation of the Bank's handling of foreign gold during WWII.

38. Forsyth, Frederick. "Forsyth proved right". Dagens Nyheter: DN (Sweden)(1996).
Note: In 1971, Forsyth, researching The Odessa File, was informed that the Nazis had exported a huge shipment of gold secretly to Switzerland in the last weeks of WWII as the result of an August 1944 meeting between German miliary and industrial parties and Swiss bankers. The final shipment was to fund a new exiled Nazi party and, one day, a new Fourth Reich; it was planned to spirit top SS out of the Allies' hands and into "safe havens" abroad by setting up the ODESSA to fund the leadership abroad, to fund foreign leaders advocating antiSemitism. Forsyth was shocked as he delved deeper into the events after 1945, to find that the Allies had not scratched the surface of retribution. The Holocaust was not only a human crime, it was the biggest robbery in history: Jewish assets were confiscated, Jewish labor was exploited in slave labor camps.
Filed in Library at F3.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eforsyth.html.

39. Girsberger, Daniel. Das internationale Privatrecht der nachrichtenlosen Verm"gen in der Schweiz (Private international law and unclaimed property in Switzerland). Berne: Helbing & Lichtenhahn with Kluwer Law International, 1997. 80 pp.

40. Haberman, Clyde. "NYC: Bank's gold inspires tales of plunder". New York Times(September 27, 1996 Late edition): 1.
Note: Article on the possibility that two tons of gold stored in the vaults of Federal Reserve Bank of New are actually part of WWII Nazi plunder deposited in Swiss banks.
Filed in Library at H8.

41. Henry, Marilyn. Switzerland, Swiss banks, and the Second World War: the story behind the story. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1997. 42 pp.
Note: This analysis of Switzerland's banking activities during WWII and what happened to Jewish assets in Swiss banks calls for Switzerland to help the remaining Holocaust survivors and to engage in "moral stock-taking" about its business and banking history. The documents of "Operation Safehaven", a US military intelligence operation assigned to identify and track Nazi assets in neutral countires, indicate that besides holding dormant Jewish accounts, Switzerland had stored German assets and allowed Germany to exchange gold for currency thereby enabling the Reich's war effort. Switzerland's behavior since WWII demonstrates that the Swiss felt no commitment to uncover victim assets on their own.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at D819.S9H46 1997.

42. Hevesi, Alan G. Holocaust assets, Nazi gold and Swiss banking practices. New York City, NY: Office of the Comptroller, July 17, 1997. 3-pp. (Memorandum to Public Finance Officers).
Note: This memorandum focuses on three issues related to Swiss banking officials and the steps taken to resolve matters raised about Swiss treatment of WWII victim assets. Hevesi notes that NYC pension funds own 322,000 shares of three major Swiss banks, and suggests a meeting of public finance officials to discuss the progress of the situation in Switzerland.
Filed in Library at H21.

43. Hirsh, Michael. "Nazi Gold: the untold story". Newsweek(November 4, 1996): 47-48.
Note: Newsweek's probe discloses that after 50 years of financial sifting, there is no huge stash of Nazi gold in Switzerland - it has been scattered worldwide. The probe also indicates that many other parties, besides the Swiss, and including the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), were involved in laundering Nazi money during the war or hoarding stolen assets after the war. What little remains of the estimated $7.8 billion U.S. dollars in gold confiscated by the Nazis may only come to $65 million, the amount held by the Tripartite Gold Commission, set up after the war to return stolen gold to national treasuries.
Filed in the Library at H2.

44. Holocaust victims' assets in Swiss banks. Washington: Ace-Federal Reporters, 1996. (Transcript of Hearings, United States Senate, Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, New York City, October 16, 1996).
Note: This hearing reviewed the role that Swiss banks and government played in WWII with regard to European Jews and others who used the Swiss banks, as well as the relationship of Switzerland and its banks with Nazi Germany. Senator Alfonse D'Amato chaired the hearing and among the witnesses were Estelle Sapir, who testified that the Swiss demanded a death certificate for her father although she had a bank deposit slip and ledger books as part of her claim.
Filed in the Library at H20.

45. Hug, Peter. Analyse der Quellenlage für m"gliche Nachforschungen im Zusammenghang mit dem Bundesbeschluss betreffend die historische und rechtliche Untersuchung des Schicksals der infolge der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft in die Schweiz gelangten Verm"nswerte (Analysis of the source location for possible inquiries, in conjunction with the federal resolution regarding the historical and legal investigation of the fate of the assets that came into Switzerland's possession as a result of the National Socialism's rule. Bern: Swiss Government Archives, September 1996. 152 pp. (Preliminary report).
Filed in the Library at H9.

46. Jones, Michael Arthur. Swiss bank accounts: a personal guide to ownership, benefits and use. New York: Liberty Hall Press, 1990. ix, 211 pp.
Note: One section of this introduction to the world of Swiss banking and the type of accounts available to Americans reports on the German attempts to halt transfer of German money to bank accounts abroad. Charged with finding out who had funds secreted away, the Gestapo were able to locate some of the fugitive capital. Their efforts led Switzerland to promulgate the Swiss Bank Act of 1934 which provided a legal basis for Swiss banking secrecy.

47. Kahn, Susan H. "Seeking justice before time runs out: analyst Douglas Bloomfield speaks at campaign gathering". Jewish News (Cleveland)(February 13, 1998).
Note: Douglas Bloomfield, World Jewish Congress representative in Washington, describes how Swiss bank secrecy laws which first benefited Jews who sought to transfer funds out of Germany now make it difficult to trace ownership of the accounts. Bloomfield commends the U.S. Natioanl Archives for providing information.
Filed in Library under K2.

48. Kinsman, Robert. Your Swiss bank book: when, why, and how to profit with a secret Swiss bank account. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1975. viii, 283 pp.
Note: In chapters three and eight, author Kinsman summarizes the early history of German-Swiss banking during the Nazi era. In the early 1930s, because Nazis were aggravated by transfer of German capital to Switzerland, a law, carrying the penalty of capital punishment, was passed in Germany requiring all citizens to declare their foreign holdings. Many Germans did not reveal the information about Swiss accounts and Gestapo agents, sent to Switzerland, used "diabolical and clever" methods, including bribes and deposits to suspected accounts names, to catch offending Germans. The Swiss government reacted by passing a 1934 law which put banking secrecy under the official protection of the penal code as an expansion of Swiss neutrality; this law, and the practice of numbering accounts protected many Germans banking there, are key to the belief that banking can be kept private in Switzerland.

49. Koch, Peter-Ferdinand. Geheim-Deport Schweiz: wie banken am Holocaust verdienen (Secret Swiss depository: how banks profit from the Holocaust). Munich: List, 1997. 320 pp.

50. Koller, Frédéric. "Research bodies multiply. Inventory". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: A review of the various investigations into the question of orphaned Jewish funds involving Swiss banking that were under way in November 1996.
Filed in Library at K4.

51. Komisar, Lucy. "Image of the Swiss is tarnished by stolen gold". American Reporter 4, no.770(March 20, 1998).
Note: The author tracks the background of Switzerland's tarnished banking industry, noting that Swiss banks are asking to be judged as financial, not political institutions. She suggests that the US consider the integrity of Swiss banks in weighing the merger of Swiss banks and US banks.
Filed in Library at K30.
Online: http://www.american-reporter.com/770/st1.html.

52. Kramer, Jane. "Manna from hell: Nazi gold, Holocaust accounts, and what the Swiss must finally confront". New Yorker(April 28 & May, 1997): 75-89.
Note: Kramer looks at the moral issues related to Switzerland's financial dealings with the Nazis during WWII and their attempts to avoid paying Holocaust heirs since the war.
Filed in Library at K20.

53. LeBor, Adam. Hitler's secret bankers: the myth of Swiss neutrality during the Holocaust. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1997. xi, 261 pp.
Note: An account based on declassified documents of how the Swiss bankers collaborated with the Nazi war machine. Swiss banks, inspite of their stated neutrality, accepted stolen gold from the Nazis who seized national gold reserves belonging to occupied countries and then charged them occupation payments and stole their art. More valuables were stolen directly from the homes and luggage of Jews enroute to labor camps; finally, gold dental work was removed from the mouths of the dead. Nazi assets were sent to Switzerland in the International Red Cross diplomatic pouch. The role of the Bank for International Settlements is also described as being helpful to the Nazis.

54. Lema, Luis. "Alfonse D'Amato, or how the United States wields "western-style diplomacy"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Filed at L3.

55. Lema, Luis. "Portugal, too, must examine its past". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: According to the author, fabulous quantities of gold circulated around Europe, especially the neutral countries. The gold reserves at the Bank of Portugal quadrupled between the early 1930s and the end of the war; the question is how much stolen gold was accounted for at the end of the war and returned.
Filed at L4.
Online: www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Portugal.E.html.

56. List of unclaimed bank accounts at Swedish banks. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, 1997. 12 pp.
Note: This list of unclaimed bank accounts at Swedish banks contains the names of depositors with foreign address who held bank accounts in 1945 and who have not been heard from since.
Filed in Library at S16.
Online: www.ud.se/english/nazigold/pressrel.htm.

57. Maissen, Thomas. "Dormant accounts, Nazi gold, and loot". JML Swiss Investment Marketplace: Holocaust Assets.4-page website
Note: Maissen, a historian at the University of Potsdam, Germany, notes six problem areas in the public debate criticizing Swiss WWII policy: dormant bank accounts; Nazi gold; loot; trade with Nazi Germany; policy toward Jewish refugees; and, issues of neutrality. Although, the author feels that Switzerland is being judged unfairly and without consideration of their situation as a small democratic country surrounded by fascist regimes during WWII, he details mistakes made, problem areas during and after the Nazi period, and important things to consider in the debate over Switzerland's activities.
Filed in Library at M31.
Online: www.jml.ch/news/maissen.html.

58. Mamarbachi, Esther. "Switzerland stung by lack of political sensitivity". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: After a period of political fumbling, Switzerland created a crisis headquarters to handle all matters related to the orphaned funds, assuring the world that Switzerland would bring the issue to the full light of day.
Filed at M7.
Online: www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Piege.E.html.

59. Mamarbachi, Esther. "The amateurishness of Swiss authorities". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The author asks how Switzerland's lack of political perceptiveness on the matter of Jewish funds can be explained. She concludes that the Swiss model of government favors the nomination of friends rather than comptetent experts, the safety of the known rather than the debate of ideas.
Filed in Library at M12.
Online: www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Amateur.E.html.

60. Mascaro, Maria-Pia. "Washington quietly makes its own investigation". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The U.S. State Department began its own investigation into Nazi gold and other orphaned Jewish assets this year under the pressure of new archival documents becoming public. The investigation, headed by Under Secretary of State for International Commerce, Stuart Eizenstat, is headed by an interdepartmental commission with the first intermediary report due by February.
Filed at M1.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Washington.E.htm.

61. Maurice, Antoine. "Jewish funds, ongoing matter of urgency". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: The Journal de Genève began to publish on the issue of "orphaned Jewish funds" in 1995. In this editorial, Maurice calls for looking carefully at the past in terms of today's risks and difficulties.
Filed at M6.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Edito.E.html.

62. McDowall, Duncan. Due diligence: a report on the Bank of Canada's handling of foreign gold during World War II. Ottawa: Bank of Canada. Gold History Project, November 1997. 66 pp.
Note: Report prepared for the Bank of Canada in response to a July 1997 allegation based on an anonymous late-war intelligence report that the bank of Canada had been party, by means of paper transfer, to a complex gold transfer involving six tons of gold shuffled first between Switzerland and Portugal in 1942 and later between Portugal and Sweden with Canada's central bank playing the role of intermediary. The Bank of Canada called for a thorough investigation, with an independent analysis, by an outside historian, of the Bank's role in the transfer of gold during WWII. The Bank tried to track the movement of every gold bar shipped in and out of the Bank over a twenty-year period, succeeding in tracing 90% of the bars. In his analysis, Historian McDowall determined that there is no possibility that gold looted by Germany ever found its way into the Canadian gold stream and that officials at the Bank of Canada exhibited due diligence in handling transfer requests from Europe.
Online: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca.

63. Meier, Barry. "War's plunder and the Swiss: the new old news of Nazi loot". New York Times(November 3, 1996 (Late edition)): 1.
Note: The tales of looted gold and stolen art treasures have been around for some time but in the last few years, everything came together: the 50th anniversary of WWII and the end of the Cold War.
Filed in the Library at M20.

64. Meier, Barry. "U.S. Archives describes contents of Nazi hoard". New York Times(October 24, 1996 (Late edition)): A10.
Note: A recently declassied document indicates that a large cache of art and gold were hidden in German salt mines. This may have been part of a money laundering scheme.
Filed in the Library at M8.

65. "Memorandum of Understanding between the World Jewish Restitution Organization and The World Jewish Congress representing also the Jewish Agency and allied organizations and the Swiss Bankers Association". In Report to the Treasurer of New York State and the Comptroller of New York City, 2-page Section 2A. n.p.: Credit Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.
Note: Memorandum about the establishment of an Independent Committee of Eminent Persons to be appointed by the World Jewish Restitution Organzation and the Swiss Bankers Association with an additional member as Chairperson named by the original Committee of six. The Committee, funded by the Swiss Bankers Association to deal with the question of looted assets in Swiss banks related to WWII, will appoint an international auditing group to examine banking in Switzerland.

66. Mueller, Carl. "The Swiss banking secret". International and Comparative Law Quarterly 18(1969).

67. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: summary. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, July 1998. 5 pp.
Note: This interim reports deals with the handling by the Riksbank of Nazigold which came in the form of bars and coins from the German Reichsbank during WWII. After the war, gold known to have been taken from the treasury reserves of occupied countries was returned, but the problem of gold consfiscated from individuals has never been solved. The Commission offers a relatively detailed account of the present state of international research on victim gold and concludes that there is cause to critize the WWII governing board of the Riksbank.

68. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: interim report. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, August 1998. 105 pp.
Note: This interim reports deals with the handling by the Riksbank of Nazigold which came in the form of bars and coins from the German Reichsbank during WWII. After the war, gold known to have been taken from the treasury reserves of occupied countries was returned, but the problem of gold consfiscated from individuals has never been solved. The Commission offers a relatively detailed account of the present state of international research on victim gold and concludes that there is cause to critize the WWII governing board of the Riksbank.
Shelved in Library at HG3176.N3 1998.
Online: http://www.regeringen.se/galactica/service=irnews/action=obj_show?c_obj_id=34922.

69. New, Mitya. Switzerland unwrapped: exposing the myths. London: I.B. Tauris, 1997. xii, 210 pp.
Note: Account includes information on Swiss banking and labor camps durng WWII.

70. New perspectives on Swiss "neutrality" and banking secrecy: declassified archival docuemnts yield information on the wartime role of Swiss financial institutions. Policy Dispatch No. 16. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, September 1996. 4-page report
Note: This is an update to Policy Dispatch No. 10, Unfreezing the Swiss Bank Accounts of Holocaust Victims.
Filed in Library at W16.

71. Nordmann. Switzerland, the war and the victims of Nazism: financial relations in historical perspective. London: Embassy of Switzerland, December 11, 1996. 2 pp.
Note: Ambassador's remarks about the Swiss Parliament adoption of a decree calling for an indepth inquiry beginning in January 1977 on foreign assets deposited in Switzerland between 1933 and 1945. There will be a series of interim reports before 2001, the target date. At the same time, a Joint Commission chaired by Paul Volker, former President of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, is auditing dormant accounts in Swiss banks.

Ambassador Nordmann's speech is filed in the library at N5.
Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/nordmann.htm#Switzerland.

72. Poncet, Charles. "Switzerland: Decree on the legal investigation of the assets deposited in Switzerland after the advent of the National-Socialist regime and Decree on the Special Fund for Needy Victims of the Holocaust, December 13, 1996 and February 26, 1997". International Legal Materials 36, no.5(September 1997): 1272-1278.

73. Poncet, Nicolas. "Swiss banks' handling of dormant accounts since the end of World War II". International Business Lawyer 25, no.2(February 1997): 68-72.

74. Preston, David Lee. "Hitler's Swiss connection". Philadelphia Inquirer(January 5, 1997).
Note: One month after Swiss banking officials and Jewish leaders announced an agreement to set up an independent commission, chaired by former US Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volker, to search for the whereabouts of funds deposited in Switzerland by Holocaust victims, a Swiss citizen named Francois Genoud committed suicide. Author David Lee Preston suggests that Genoud's suicide may be linked to the new commission as well as to Senator D'Amato's investigations for the U.S. Senate Banking Committee and class action lawsuits against Swiss banks filed by Holocaust survivors and victims' heirs. Genoud, a Nazi enthusiast and friend of Hitler's, worked with Swiss and German intelligence during WWII; he was then active in setting up the ODESSA network for the transfer of money from Germany and the evacuation of key Nazi leaders at the end of the war. Postwar, Genoud used his wartime contacts to become an advisor to Arab causes and anti-Israel activities.
Filed in the Library at P3.
Online: http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/swiss-and-hitler.html.

75. Rathkolb, Oliver. Verm"gen jüdischer Kunden im "Postsparkassenamt in Wien": Naziraub 1938-1945 (Assets of Jewish clients in the 'Postsparkassenamt', Vienna: Nazi loot 1938-1945). Austria: Institute for Contemporary History, University of Vienna, 1998. 3-page, plus appendices.
Note: The Postsparkassenamt or P.S.K (translated as Postal Savings Bank Office) asked Dr. Oliver Kathkolb to conduct specific research in relation to Nazi victims and the fate of their assets held with P.S.K. from 1938 and 1945. The P.S.K., a state-guaranteed bank trusted by many small savers and businesses, was dissolved by decree of Hitler in 1938, incorporated into the Postsparkassenamt (Postal Savings Bank Office), with most of its assets transferred to the German Reich. After the War, the P.S.K. finally became a separate public agency in 1969, again with State guarantees. The present Board wants to face up to its responsibilites by doing everything possible to document the whereabouts of P.S.K. deposits of Jewish citizens. This first interim report identifies more than 7000 personal and business accounts held by Jews who had to leave the country after March 1938 or were deported to the Nazi concentration camps. These accounts were looted by the Nazis. The P.S.K. is prepared to make a symbolic gesture of making revalued balances of these accounts up to US $200,000. Further work will be concerned mainly with savings accounts and security deposits.
Filed in the National Archives Library at R40.

76. Report to the Treasurer of New York State and the Comptroller of New York City. n.p.: Credit Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.
Note: A progress report on the progress made by Swiss banks in their ongoing program to return Holocaust-era dormant assets to their rightful owners submitted to the State Treasurer and the City Comptroller from Switzerland's three largest banks in advance of the Public Finance Officers Conference in New York City on December 8th. The group's goals are to achieve: 1)an open and honest search for the truth through an independent, internationally verified audit of Swiss banks, conducted under the Volcker Committee, for any remaining WWII-era dormant assets; 2) a simple claims process using relaxed standards of proof to resolve valid claims; 3) a means to address, on a humanitarian basis, the needs of Holcaust survivors and heirs.

77. Rings, Werner. Raubgold aus Deutschland: die "Golddrehscheibe": Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Stolen gold from Germany: the "Golden Turn Table": Switzerland during WWII). Zurich: Artemis Verlag, 1985. 232 pp.
Note: This was an early disclosure of Nazi gold transactions involving both Sweden and Switzerland. The author was able for the first time to examine the Swiss National Bank documents as wll as relevant German and U.S. records. Rings concludes that the SNB's cooperation hinged upon its profit-making interests and its anti-Communist stance rather than Nazi sympathies.

78. "Roundtable: "The ongoing debate is forcing Switzerland to rethink its relations with the rest of the world"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: Rolf Bloch, Mauro Cerutti, Nicolas Pictet, and Verena Grendelmeier debate the issue of Jewish funds.
Filed in Library at R5.
Online: www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/TableRonde.E.html.

79. Ruth, Arne. "The Holocaust as a business project". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).
Note: During WWII, Switzerland served as a curtain for other countries by creating multinational gold depository for neutral and non-aligned national states - Sweden, Portugal, Spain and Turkey - to use in trading money with the Axis. After the war, at a time when the Swiss were claiming that they had not received stolen Nazi gold, Swedish officials collaborated the Swiss statements by indicating that they, too, had trust in Emil Puhl, who led the day-to-day operations for the German Reichsbank, and who had assured the Swedes that no stolen gold had been transferred to the Swedish accounts. According to the author, Puhl planned with the SS how victim gold and other valuables could be used for the war effort.
Filed in the Library at R15.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eaffair.html.

80. Ruth, Arne. "Why we are probing into World War II". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: DN's editor Arne Ruth argues that Swedes must face up to their pro-Nazi activities in WWII.
Filed in library at R11.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eintro.html.

81. Ruth, Arne. "Saved by the Cold War: "The Wallenbergs helped the Germans"". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(November 28, 1996).
Note: Newly-declassified documents trace the economic links between German and Swedish financial circles during WWII. Only the fact that the Cold War made finding allies more important than exposing collaboration with Germany, kept the U.S. from investigating Wallenberg activities.
Filed in library at R3.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/ewallenberg.html.

82. Ruth, Arne. "Paul Erdman's thriller opens the Swiss bank vaults". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).
Note: The Swiss Account, by Paul Erdman, put the World Jewish Congress on the track of the Nazi gold and what happened to Jewish assets during WWII. The book describes the Swiss relationship as Nazi Germany's agent in the world market.
Filed in the Library at R9.

83. Ruth, Arne. "The document saver". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: Christoph Meili, a Swiss bankguard, saved Hitler-era documents and had them published. Ostracized in Switzerland, Meili and his family are the first Swiss citizens to be given asylum abroad.
Filed in the Library at R12.
Online: www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/emeili.html.

84. Sandler, Neal, John Parry and Gary Weiss. "Switzerland's moral dilemma: how should banks disburse Holocaust victims' funds". Business Week no. 3426(May 29, 1995): 80+.
Note: This essay reveals the difficulties met by claimants against Swiss banks due to the tight secrecy of Swiss banking laws and the inflexible legalistic approach to the problem taken by Swiss banks.

85. Scally, William. "U.S. report details close Swiss-German war ties". Reuters(December 17, 1996).
Note: According to an official 1945-1946 report, gold deposits in Swiss banks doubled between 1939-1945 due to Nazi gold deposits. The report also states that Swiss industry was geared to the German war effort and Swiss banks used for German financial transactions.
Filed in Library at S17.

86. Schloss, Henry H. The Bank for International Settlements reconsidered. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing, 1958. vii, 257 pp. (Based on a Columbia University master's thesis available through UMI as Microfilm Publication 8826; original work published in New York University Institute of Finance Bulletin nos. 65-66).

87. Schom, Alan Morris. A survey of Nazi and pro-Nazi groups in Switzerland. Los Angeles, CA: Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1998. [various pagination}.
Note: The author focuses on examples of Nazi influence and values in Swiss society during WWII. He provides evidence of anitsemitism and discrimination against Jews.
Filed in Library at S20.
Online: http://www.wiesenthal.com/swiss/survey.

88. Steinberg, Jonathan. The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during the Second World War. Munich: Oscar Beck, 1998.
Note: The Historical Commission to Examine the History of Deutsche Bank in the Period of National Socialism was appointed by the Deutsche Bank in December 1997 because the Bank decided that it had to take up the issues which the debate on gold had aroused. The bank had already established both an historical archive and an institute for study of the history of the bank. A history of the bank had been published, but the availability of new Soviet archival sources made another closer study of the gold dealings of the largest German commerical bank under conditions of total war advisable. Historians appointed included Avraham Barkai, Gerald D. Feldman, Lothar Gail, Harold James, and Jonathan Steinberg, the principal author of the report. Their investigation showed that the Bank did trade in victim gold during WWII. In his conclusion, Steinberg concluding that their guilt began in 1933 when they tolerated the outrages which ruined their colleagues noted that the Deutsche Bank directors "profited from the disappearance of Jewish colleagues and rivals and went on pretending that business could go as usual".
Filed in Library at S6.

89. Steinberg, Jonathan. Why Switzerland? 2d ed. Munich: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xvi, 300 pp.
Note: Steinberg, European historian at the University of Cambridge, attempts to answer three related questions about Switzerland in this book: why has such an exception to European norms survived? What can the non-Swiss learn from its idiosyncracies? Can so unusual a society continue when many of the conditions behind its development no longer exist? The author describes the uniqueness of Switzerland: its direct democracy, universal military service, its four national languages, its wealth, its lack of centralization of state and economy, and its lack of integration into the European Union. After the publication of this edition, Jonathan Steinberg, appointed by the Deutsche Bank of Switzerland to The Historical Commission to Examine the History of Deutsche Bank in the Period of National Socialism, served as principal author of the report The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during the Second World War.

90. "Study: Swiss banks stashed gold taken from Nazi camp victims". CNN World News(May 25, 1998).
Note: A study by a panel of international historians discloses that the Swiss National Bank (SNB) stored victim gold in its vaults.
Filed in the library at C7.
Online: http://cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9805/25/nazi.gold.

91. Stuttaford, Genevieve. "The Swiss, the gold, and the dead: how Swiss bankers helped finance the Nazi war machine". Publishers Weekly 245, no.5(February 2, 1998): 73.
Note: The review claims that Ziegler's book is the fullest picture to date of Swiss complicity in Nazi German war crimes of WWII.
Review is filed in Library at S15.

92. Swardson, Anne. "New British study adds impetus to the hunt for Nazi Gold in Swiss vaults". Washington Post(September 12, 1996): A28.
Note: A British Foreign office report's claim that Swiss banks may be holding more than $6 billion worth of Nazi gold stolen from nations and individuals and transferred to Swiss banks added to the pressure faced by the Swiss banking industry.
Filed in Library at S9.

93. "Swiss banks, Nazi plunder". Atlantic Unbound(June 26, 1997).
Note: Noting the recent govenment report, "U.S. and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II," the Atlantic Monthly explores Nazi past through its articles beginning in September 1946.
Filed in Library at S21.

94. Transcript of the minutes of the Committee on Government Operations, City of New York. New York: Legal-Ease Court Reporting Services, 1997. 151 pp. (Meeting, February 10, 1997).
Note: New York City introduced 1997 legislation restricting City deposits and investments in Swiss banks doing business in New York. Soon after the introduction, three Swiss banks announced they were setting up a "humanitarian fund" for the victims of the Holocaust with a start of $70 million. This committee met to determine what further steps should be taken toward an acceptable resolution of the issue. Among the witnesses were the Ambassador from Switzerland, Senator D'Amato, and a number of Holocaust survivors.

95. Trippe, Gian. Bankgeschäfte mit dem Fein: Die Bank für Internationalen Zahlungsausgleich im Zewiten Weltkrieg: von Hitlers Europabank zum instrumenten des Marshallplans (Banking with the enemy: the Bank for International Settlementsin World War II: from Hitler's European bank to an instrument of the Marshall Plan). Zurich: Rotpunktverlag, 1993. 267 pp.

96. Unfreezing the Swiss bank accounts of Holocaust victims: Swiss banks finally agree to investigate Jewish claims. Policy Dispatch No. 10. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, September 1995. 4-page report
Note: The Swiss Bankers' association has agreed to establish a commission to investigate the question of pre-war Jewish assets in Swiss banks.
Filed in Library at W10.

97. Vincent, Isabel. Hitler's silent partners: Swiss banks, Nazi gold, and the pursuit of justice. New York: William Morrow, 1997. xii, 351 pp.
Note: The author tells how European Jews tried to secure their families' futures by opening Swiss bank accounts; how the Nazis laundered gold looted from the treasuries of occupied countries and from Jewish victims through the Swiss banks; how the demands of international business and Swiss bank secrecy have helped to keep the truth from being disclosed. Vincent contends that the Swiss acted out of fear and greed in appeasing the Nazis.

98. Vogler, Robert. The Swiss National Bank's gold transactions with the German Reichsbank from 1939 to 1945. Zurich: Swiss National Bank, 1984.

99. Volcker, Paul A. "Letter to The Honorable Edward Korman, dated October 29, 1997". In Report to the Treasurer of New York State and the Comptroller of New York City, 11-page Section 2B. n.p.: Credit Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.
Note: Letter to Judge Korman from Paul A. Volcker, Chairman of the Independent Committee of Eminent Persons (ICEP), concerning the proceedings in the Holocaust Victims Assets Case discussed on July 31, 1997. In the letter, Volcker gives a report on the work of ICEP relating the role of the ICEP in resolving the issue of dormant accounts in Swiss banks as part of a wider effort to resolve facts about the Holocaust and to seek justice for its victims.

100. "What Swiss bankers owe the world". Business week no. 3495(September 30, 1996): 160 Editorial.
Note: International pressure may force Swiss banks holding dormant accounts holding money and treasures looted by the Nazis in WWII to identify the secret accounts.

101. The whereabouts of the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank. Bundesarchiv R4-2850/18. Berlin: Bundesarchive (Federal Archives) and the Deutsche Bundesbank (F2 Historical Archives), 1998.
Note: This research report focuses on the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank, in particular the records of the Precious Metals Department, the Foreign Exchange Department and the Securities Department after the collapse of the Reich in 1945 and after the liquidation of the Reichsbank in 1976. The need for such a research report became evident in 1997 when U.S. OMGUS records were found to show that more documentation of the Precious Metals Department of the German Reichsbank had survived the end of the war than was previously known and that these records contained information on victim gold transactions. This research did not turn up this documentation; among the missing records were the 26 "Melmer" folders of acceptance/delivery receipts for victim gold that accompanied 76 shipments delivered to the Deutsche Reichsbank, records which had been evaluated by American authorities after the war.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at HG3055.W4 1998.

102. Ziegler, Jean. The Swiss, the gold, and the dead: how Swiss bankers helped finance the Nazi war machine. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998. xii, 336 pp
Note: The author, a member of the Swiss parliament, expands on Swiss involvement in Nazi German war crimes by showing how top bankers laundered gold stolen from conquered nations' banks, as well as from Jewish homes, businesses, and even victims' teeth. Ziegler argues that by exchanging this loot for foreign currency and giving Hitler loans and arms, Swiss citizens prolonged the war. He documents the transfers of funds to South America to aid fleeing Nazis after the war, notes the turning away at the Swiss border of Jewish refugees, the imposition of unconstitutional taxes on Swiss Jews by their own government, and the misappropriation of bank funds from Jewish heirs unable to produce proof of death of family members who died in death camps.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at D810.D6Z5413.