History of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO)
President Jimmy Carter established ISOO with the signing of Executive Order 12065, "National Security Information," on December 1, 1978. ISOO replaced the Interagency Classification Review Committee (ICRC) which was created by Executive Order 11652, "Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material," issued by President Richard Nixon in 1972. The ICRC was composed of representatives from the Departments of Defense, Justice and State, the predecessor to the Department of Energy, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Central Intelligence Agency. John Eisenhower chaired the ICRC, which met monthly at the White House.
When Mr. Eisenhower resigned in 1975, the administrative function of the ICRC was moved to the then National Archives and Records Service, a component of the General Services Administration, with the Archivist of the United States, James Rhodes, named as acting chairman.
June 28, 1978, President Jimmy Carter signed Executive Order 12065, ”National Security Information.”
December 1, 1978, the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) is established as part of the General Services Administration (GSA) and former Iowa Congressman Michael Blouin is appointed as the first Director of ISOO in 1979.
May 1980, with the approval of the President, the GSA Administrator appointed Steven Garfinkel as ISOO’s second Director, who served in the position until his retirement in January 3, 2002.
April 2, 1982, President Ronald W. Reagan signed Executive Order 12356, “National Security Information.”
April 1, 1985, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) became an independent agency.
January 6, 1993, President George H. W. Bush signed Executive Order 12829, “National Industrial Security Program.” The Order established a program to safeguard Federal Government classified information that is provided to contractors, licensees, and grantees of the United States Government. The Order also created the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) and directed that the Director of ISOO serve as Executive Secretary.
October 1, 1994, ISOO became a part of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
April 17, 1995, President William J. Clinton signed Executive Order 12958, “Classified National Security Information.” The Order created the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) and named the Director of ISOO as the Executive Secretary. November 17, 1995, ISOO became a part of the National Archives and Records Administration.
December 27, 2000, Congress passed the Public Interest Declassification Act of 2000, as amended, creating the Public Interest Declassification Board (PIDB) and the Director of ISOO as the Executive Secretary.
May 2, 2002, with the approval of the President, the Archivist of the United States appointed J. William Leonard as ISOO’s third Director, who served in the position until his retirement in January 2008.
March 25, 2003, President George W. Bush signed Executive Order 13292, “Classified National Security Information.” The Order amended Executive Order 12958.
December 16, 2005, President Bush instructed Federal agencies to standardize procedures to designate, mark, and handle Sensitive but Unclassified (SBU) information, and to forward recommendations for government-wide standards to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).
April 10, 2006, President Bush amended Executive Order 12829, “National Industrial Security Program.”
April 14, 2008, with approval of the President, the Archivist of the United States appointed William J. Bosanko as ISOO’s fourth Director, who served in the position until March 26, 2011.
May 7, 2008, President Bush issued a memorandum to departments and agencies, “Designation and Sharing of Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI),” that established the CUI Office and assigned NARA as the Executive agent.
May 21, 2008, The Archivist of the United States appointed William J. Bosanko as Director of the CUI Office.
December 29, 2009, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13526, “Classified National Security Information.” The Order directed agencies to establish a classification guidance review program and established the National Declassification Center within NARA. On the same date, the President issued an implementing memorandum to the heads of Federal agencies emphasizing his commitment to reforming the classification system and directing agencies to complete declassification reviews of 400 million pages awaiting review at NARA.
June 28, 2010, NARA issued the Final Rule implementing Executive Order 13526.
August 18, 2010, President Obama signed Executive Order 13549, “Classified National Security Information Programs for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities (SLTPS).” The Order established policies to ensure the proper sharing and safeguarding of classified information with those entities. It also established a Policy Advisory Committee to ensure uniform implementation of security standards and chaired by the Director of ISOO.
November 4, 2010, President Obama signed Executive Order 13556, “Controlled Unclassified Information.” The Order established a uniform program for managing information that requires safeguarding
or dissemination controls in accordance with law, regulations, or Government-wide policies.
August 1, 2011, with the approval of the President, the Archivist of the United States appointed John P. Fitzpatrick as ISOO’s fifth Director, who served in the position until January 8, 2016.
October 7, 2011, President Obama signed Executive Order 13587, “Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible Sharing and Safeguarding of Classified Information.” The Director of ISOO serves as a member of the Senior Information Sharing and Safeguarding Steering Committee, developing policies and standards to implement the Order.
July 9, 2012, NARA issued the Final Rule amending the ISCAP Bylaws, Rules, and Appeal Procedures.
February 13, 2015, President Obama signed Executive Order 13691, “Promoting Private Sector Cybersecurity Information Sharing.” The Order required the Department of Homeland Security as Executive Agent to consult with ISOO as it develops standards for implementing the Order.
January 8, 2016, the Archivist of the United States appointed William Cira, Associate Director for Classification Management, as acting Director until his retirement in December 2016.
September 14, 2016, NARA issued the Final Rule implementing a standard Government-wide CUI policy.
December 25, 2016, with the approval of the President, the Archivist of the United States appointed Mark Bradley as the 6th Director of ISOO, who served in the position until his retirement in June 30, 2023.
June 28, 2023, the Archivist of the United States appointed William Fischer, Director of the National Declassification Center, as Acting Director of ISOO.