Holocaust-Era Assets

Neutrality Bibliography

1. Aalders, Gerard and Cees Wiebes. The art of cloaking ownership: the secret collaboration and protection of the German war industry by the neutrals: the case of Sweden. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press and the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation, 1996. v, 210 pp.
Note: The authors deal with the activities of Swedish businessmen, representing "neutral" banks and corporations, who cooperated with their counterparts in Nazi-Germany; specifically, there is a focus on the Wallenberg family and their Stockholm Enskilda Bank. Cloaking, or hiding the true Nazi business ownership from Allies is noted, as is the way neutral banks, including Enskilda, helped to dispose of assets looted from occupied territory or Jews.

2. Ahnborg, Bertil. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World War: progress report. n.p.: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, May 1998.
Note: The Commission's assignment is to clarify what happened to the property of Jewish origin brought to Sweden in connection with the persecution of the Jews before and during WWII. This progress report tells of the tasks and methods determined by the Commission. The final report is due late in 1998.
Filed in the Library at S14.

3. Alvarez, David. "No immunity: signals intelligence and the European neutrals, 1939-1945". Intelligence and National Security 12, no.2(April 1977): 22-43.
Note: U.S. surveillance of neutrals during World War II was minimal until 1942 when the Signal Intelligence Service significantly expanded its codebreaking capabilities. In this article, the author discusses the surveillance of neutral countries including Switzerland; however, American intelligence concluded that Swiss communications were disappointing other than giving evidence that goods were transhipped to the Axis countries.

4. Angst, Kenneth, ed. Der Zweite Weltkrieg und die Schweiz (The Second World War and the Swiss). Zurich: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1997.

5. Berggren, Henrik. "Suppressing the memory of recent events". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: Sweden was a rich post-war country partly due to its wartime actions. In this interview, author-journalist, Maria-Pia Bothius, tells of transit shipments of German troops through Sweden to Norway and Finland, iron ore exports to Germany, Swedish censorship, and other examples showing that Swedish neutrality amounted to support for the Germans/.
Filed in Library at B8.

6. Bugnion, Franois. "ICRC action during the Second World War". International Review of the Red Cross no. 317(March 1, 1997): 156-177.
Note: Following the 1996 allegations, calling into question the actions of Red Cross delegates during WWII, the ICRC is determined to shed full light on that period in its history. Of the 49 people noted in wartime OSS docuemnts, only 18 worked for the organization, and only three committed reprehensible acts: one in illicit currency dealings, two with espionage, apparently for personal gain. This is an updated version of a report on the current state of investigations by the ICRC.
Filed in Library at R32.
Online: http://www.icrc.org.

7. Bütler, Hugo. "Schwizer Vergangenheit auf dem Prüfstand (The Swiss past on trial)_". In Der Zweite Weltkrieg und die Schweiz (The Second World War and the Swiss), 7-14. Zurich: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1997.
Note: The ongoing debate about Switzerland's regarding its relations with the Third Reich during WWII and its treatment of Nazi victims after WWII reached a new level of intensity with the Eizenstat report.

8. Bütler, Hugo. "Schwizer Vergangenheit auf dem Prüfstand (Swiss on trial)". In Der Zweite Weltkrieg und die Schweiz: Redun and Analysen (World War II and Switzerland: speeches and analysis), 7-14. Verlag: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1997.
Note: The author highlights the bright and dark sides of Switzerland's complex survival strategy during WWII - a strategy that displayed resistance as well as adaptation.

9. Carlgren, W. M. "Neutrality and the fortunes of war: Sweden's relations with Germany and the Western Powers". In Swedish foreign policy during the Second World War, 114-168. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977.
Note: To survive as an independent nation surrounded by Nazi military power, Sweden had to make concessions first to the Axis and then to the Allies that strained her neutral status.

10. Castelmur, Linus von. The Washington Agreement of 1946 and relations between Switzerland and the Allies after the Second World War. n.p.: 7 pp.
Note: Only with the Washington Agreement was Switzerland able to normalize its relations with the Allies. The Agreement called Swiss funds to be used for the reconstruction of Europe.
Filed in Library at C12.

11. Castelmur, Linus von. Financial relations between Switzerland and the Allies, 1945-1952: the Washington Agreement (WA) of 25 May 1946 historical setting, content, partial implementation and final settlement. n.p.: 8 pp.
Note: The purpose of this note is to recall some important historical facts concerning the historical setting, content, partial implementation, and final settlement of the Washington Agreement of 25 May 1946.
Filed in Library at C13.
Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/washagr.htm.

12. Der Zweite Weltkrieg und die Schweiz: Redun and Analysen (World War II and Switzerland: speeches and analysis). Verlag: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1997. 143 pp.
Note: In the debate about Switzerland's role during WWII, two speeches from presidents of the federal council are of historical and official state significance. Kaspar Villiger spoke to the United Federal Assembly on May 7, 1995, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the end of the war in Europe and Arnold Koller presented his position on the charges facing Switzerland in his inaugural speech on March 5, 1997. This publication supplements the two speeches with analyses.

13. Favez, Jean-Claude. Une mission impossible? Le ICRC, les déportations et les camps de concentration nazis (An impossible mission? The International Red Cross, the deportations and the Nazi concentration camps). Lausanne: n.p., 1988.
Note: According to Favez, the International Red Cross in Geneva knew in 1942 about the systematic murder of European Jews. A Red Cross committee met to consider an appeal against this genocide; under the influence of the Swiss government, the committee did not follow through.

14. Gabriel, Jürg M. The American conception of neutrality after 1941. London: MacMillan, 1988. 306 pp.

15. Garlinski, Josef. The Swiss corridor: espionage networks in Switzerland during World War II. London: J.M. Dent & Sons,.
Note: During WWI, Switzerland managed to retain its neutrality, although there was a great deal of money spent on defence. During WWII, Switzerland was able to maintain its neutrality through a number of techniques including secret intelligence. Rudolf Roessler, a German émigré journalist, began to write about the Third Reich shortly after his arrival in Switzerland in 1934. Roessler was asked to help the Swiss intelligence service; throughout the war, he never met his Swiss contact in person but he provided the Swiss with accurate information about German activities.

16. Gast, Uriel. Von der Kontrolle zur Abwehr: die Eidgenossische Fremdenpolizei im Spannungsfeld von Politik und Wirtschaft 1915-1933 (From control to defense: Swiss immigration police and tension between politic and economy, 1915-1933). Zurich: Schulthess, 1997. 438 pp.

17. Goi, Uki. Peron y los alemanes: la verdad sobre el espionaje nazi y los fugitivos del reich (Peron and the Germans: the truth about Nazi espionage and fugitives of the Reich). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1998. 317 pp.
Note: This book emphasizes the role of the German secret service intelligence in Argentina during WWII and their efforts to determine South American neutrality, as well as the role of Nazi escapees at the end of the war.
Shelved in Library at F3021.G3G6 1998.

18. Halbrook, Stephen P. Target Switzerland: Swiss armed neutrality in World War II. Rockville Centre, NY: Sarpedon, 1998. xii, 320 pp.
Note: Author argues a conservative view that Switzerland's federal system without a central authority and with a militia-based defense enabled Swiss neutrality during WWII. He also asserts that the question of complicity of Switzerland with Nazi Germany should remain open.

19. Hartmann, Frederick H. Swiss press and foreign affairs in World War II. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1960. 96 pp.

20. Hedin, Sven Fredrik and G"ran Elgemyr. "When Stockholm glittered with stolen diamonds". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: Twice a month, a young German official came to Stockholm with stolen diamonds in his diplomatic pouch. In this article, the authors describe how Swedish companies traded illegally with the Nazis. Newly opened U.S. documents indicate that American intellignece suspected the Swedish of dealing in stolen diamonds during WWII.
Filed in the Library at H13.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/ediamant.html.

21. Hier, Martin and Abraham Cooper. "Perspectives on the Swiss role in WWII: at best selective neutrality". Los Angeles Times(June 17, 1998).
Note: An overview of the Schom report on Nazi and pro-Nazi groups in Switzerland, 1930-1945, which, according to the authors, breaks new ground on the question of Swiss neutrality during WWII.
Filed in the library at H22.
Online: http://www.wiesenthal.com/itn/opedlatimes61798a.html.

22. "ICRC activities during the Second World War". International Review of the Red Cross no. 314(September 1, 1996): 562-567.
Note: Researchers in the U.S. have found WWII OSS documents containing allegations about the Red Cross during that war. The allegations were of two types: illicit dealings in victim funds or valuables and espionage and infiltration by agents of Nazi Grmany. This is a preliminary ICRC note on the subject: research has shown that a former ICRC delegate Giuseppe Beretta was implicated by the Turkish police in a case of illicit dealings, although there is no proof that he misused the ICRC mail to transfer funds or valuables; there have also been charges of espionage against ICRC delegates, especially Jean-Robert Pagan who left the Red Cross in early 1942, was charged with espionage late in late 1943, and executed in December 1944.
Filed in Library at R31.

23. Inter arma caritas: the work of the International Committee of the Red Cross during the Second World War. 2d ed. Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1973. 135 pp.

24. The International Committee of the Red Cross infiltrated by the Nazis? The ICRC and the allegations of the OSS. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1997. 19 pp.

25. Kaplan, Alissa. "Hot on the paper trail: the profits of plunder". ABCNEWS.com(November 6, 1998).
Filed in Library at K8.

26. Kaplan, Alissa. "Details emerge on assets' fate: 'all of Europe' benefited from war booty". ABCNEWS.com(December 19, 1997).
Filed in Library at K10.

27. Koller, Frédéric. "The inevitable compromises of Swiss neutrality to survive the war... and preserve solidarity". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: In this interview, historian Antoine Fleury claims that it is mythology to believe that a neutral country can avoid making concessions. Yet because few countries in the world were not assisted during the war by Switzerland's humanitarian services or its diplomatic service, its neutral status was respected by both sides. Even after the war, it was necessary for Switzerland to compromise with the Allies or risk being shut out of the reconstruction of Europe and the world.
Filed in Library at K6.

28. LeBor, Adam. Hitler's secret bankers: the myth of Swiss neutrality during the Holocaust. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1997. xi, 261 pp.
Note: An account based on declassified documents of how the Swiss bankers collaborated with the Nazi war machine. Swiss banks, inspite of their stated neutrality, accepted stolen gold from the Nazis who seized national gold reserves belonging to occupied countries and then charged them occupation payments and stole their art. More valuables were stolen directly from the homes and luggage of Jews enroute to labor camps; finally, gold dental work was removed from the mouths of the dead. Nazi assets were sent to Switzerland in the International Red Cross diplomatic pouch. The role of the Bank for International Settlements is also described as being helpful to the Nazis.

29. Lema, Luis. "Portugal, too, must examine its past". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).
Note: According to the author, fabulous quantities of gold circulated around Europe, especially the neutral countries. The gold reserves at the Bank of Portugal quadrupled between the early 1930s and the end of the war; the question is how much stolen gold was accounted for at the end of the war and returned.
Filed at L4.
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Portugal.E.html.

30. Maissen, Thomas. "Dormant accounts, Nazi gold, and loot". JML Swiss Investment Marketplace: Holocaust Assets.4-page website
Note: Maissen, a historian at the University of Potsdam, Germany, notes six problem areas in the public debate criticizing Swiss WWII policy: dormant bank accounts; Nazi gold; loot; trade with Nazi Germany; policy toward Jewish refugees; and, issues of neutrality. Although, the author feels that Switzerland is being judged unfairly and without consideration of their situation as a small democratic country surrounded by fascist regimes during WWII, he details mistakes made, problem areas during and after the Nazi period, and important things to consider in the debate over Switzerland's activities.
Filed in Library at M31.

31. Marks, John. "Swiss cupidity, but German evil". U.S. News & World Report 123, no.23(December 15, 1997): 9.
Note: In recounting the tales of Swiss banks hoarding the assets of Jewish victims and the implication of other nationals in criminal activities during the Holocaust, the author reminds his readers that the Holocaust was a German undertaking.
Filed in Library at M3.

32. Meier, Heinz K. Friendship under stress: U.S.- Swiss relations, 1900-1950. Bern: Herbert Lang, 1970. 423 pp.

33. New perspectives on Swiss "neutrality" and banking secrecy: declassified archival docuemnts yield information on the wartime role of Swiss financial institutions. Policy Dispatch No. 16. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, September 1996. 4-page report
Note: This is an update to Policy Dispatch No. 10, Unfreezing the Swiss Bank Accounts of Holocaust Victims.
Filed in Library at W16.

34. Newton, Ronald C. The "Nazi menace" in Argentina, 1931-1947. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992. xx, 520 pp.
Note: US Safehaven teams sought assets sequestered by Nazis in Argentina.
Shelved in library at F2848.N4.

35. Perrenoud, Marc. "Banks and Swiss diplomacy at the end of the Second World War: the policy of neutrality and international financial relations". Etudes et Sources: revue des Archives Féderales Suisses (Studies and Sources: Swiss Federal Archives Review) no. 13-14(1988).

36. Ruth, Arne. "The Holocaust as a business project". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).
Note: During WWII, Switzerland served as a curtain for other countries by creating multinational gold depository for neutral and non-aligned national states - Sweden, Portugal, Spain and Turkey - to use in trading money with the Axis. After the war, at a time when the Swiss were claiming that they had not received stolen Nazi gold, Swedish officials collaborated the Swiss statements by indicating that they, too, had trust in Emil Puhl, who led the day-to-day operations for the German Reichsbank, and who had assured the Swedes that no stolen gold had been transferred to the Swedish accounts. According to the author, Puhl planned with the SS how victim gold and other valuables could be used for the war effort.
Filed in the Library at R15.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eaffair.html.

37. Ruth, Arne. "Why we are probing into World War II". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).
Note: DN's editor Arne Ruth argues that Swedes must face up to their pro-Nazi activities in WWII.
Filed in library at R11.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eintro.html.

38. Ruth, Arne. "Saved by the Cold War: "The Wallenbergs helped the Germans"". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(November 28, 1996).
Note: Newly-declassified documents trace the economic links between German and Swedish financial circles during WWII. Only the fact that the Cold War made finding allies more important than exposing collaboration with Germany, kept the U.S. from investigating Wallenberg activities.
Filed in library at R3.
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/ewallenberg.html.

39. Schueler, Kaj. "Switzerland's gold trading overshadows Sweden's". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(1998).
Note: The author asks whether Sweden could have stayed out of the war without making concessions to Germany.
Filed in the Library at S3.

40. Steinberg, Jonathan. Why Switzerland? 2d ed. Munich: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xvi, 300 pp.
Note: Steinberg, European historian at the University of Cambridge, attempts to answer three related questions about Switzerland in this book: why has such an exception to European norms survived? What can the non-Swiss learn from its idiosyncrasies? Can so unusual a society continue when many of the conditions behind its development no longer exist? The author describes the uniqueness of Switzerland: its direct democracy, universal military service, its four national languages, its wealth, its lack of centralization of state and economy, and its lack of integration into the European Union. After the publication of this edition, Jonathan Steinberg, appointed by the Deutsche Bank of Switzerland to The Historical Commission to Examine the History of Deutsche Bank in the Period of National Socialism, served as principal author of the report The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during the Second World War.

41. Stuttaford, Genevieve. "The Swiss, the gold, and the dead: how Swiss bankers helped finance the Nazi war machine". Publishers Weekly 245, no.5(February 2, 1998): 73.
Note: The review claims that Ziegler's book is the fullest picture to date of Swiss complicity in Nazi German war crimes of WWII.
Review is filed in Library at S15.

42. Sweden and the Nazi Gold. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, December 2-4, 1997. 19 pp. (Conference paper presented at the London Conference on Nazi Gold, December 2-4, 1997).
Note: A report on Swedish progress toward ascertaining whether Sweden knowingly received gold from Nazi Germany during WWII that had been seized from the central banks of occupied countries or had been stolen from Jewish victims. The conference report describes Swedish negotiations with the Allies after the war, describes investigations into dormant bank accounts and other private property that took place in the 1960s and notes the progress on work of the Riksbank and the Commission itself.
Filed in Library at S12.

43. Vagt, Detlev F. "Switzerland, international law and World War II: editorial comment". American Journal of International Law 91, no.3(July 1997): 466.
Note: On the whole, Switzerland's behavior during WWII was in compliance with the rules of international law regarding neutrality.
Filed in Library at V5.

44. Villiger, Kaspar. "Auch die Schweiz hat Schuld auf sich geladen (Guilt unto itself)". In Der Zweite Weltkrieg und die Schweiz: Redun and Analysen (World War II and Switzerland: speeches and analysis), 15-22. Verlag: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 1997.

45. Waters, Donald Arthur. Hitler's secret ally, Switzerland. Le Mesa, CA: Pertinent Publications, 1994.
Note: In addition to the availability of the Swiss banking system to the Nazi war effort, the author reports that Switzerland's production of machine tools and precision parts, including jeweled bearings, was devoted to Germany's needs during the war. The Swiss also furnished electric power to the Third Reich, as well as the use of its key north-south railway system to support German troops in the Mediterranean area.