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17th Amendment: Direct Election of U.S. Senators

Untitled [Senatorial Deadlocks] Cartoon by Clifford Berryman


A Clifford Berryman cartoon illustrates the recurring problem of state legislatures that could not agree on who to elect to the Senate. Party differences and machine politics often prevented a state from deciding on a senator for months or even years. Berryman shows four states which left an empty Senate seat because they could not agree on a candidate.

Untitled [Senatorial Deadlocks] cartoon by Clifford Berryman, February 4, 1911; Records of the U.S. Senate Collection, Record Group 46, 46, National Archives Building, Washington, DC. NAID 6010878

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