American Indians in Bureau of the Census Records
Microfilmed Records and Additional Resources
The 1857 Shawnee Census
This was taken as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859. At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854. The census is in two parts. Each part has a rough alphabetical index preceding it. In the index to part one, personal information such as relationships to other enumerated Shawnees has been added beside some of the names. In the 1858 census of Johnson County, Shawnee Indians in Shawnee County are listed. There is no name index for this census.
1880 Special Census of Indians
A complete list of the tribes included in this census is found at the beginning of roll 1. There is no name index for this census. Section 8 of the census act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. 475) authorized the Bureau of the Census to enumerate all Indians not taxed; that is, those on reservations or in unsettled areas. With the budget provided, the Bureau undertook enumerations in Washington Territory, Dakota Territory, and California. The Bureau used a special Indian population schedule containing 48 questions. The descriptive pamphlet (DP) for M1791 contains a list of the questions.
- Enumerations were completed for the following reservations in Washington Territory:
Roll 1—Tulalip and Port Madison
Roll 2—Swinomish, Muckleshoot, and Lummi
- An enumeration was completed for the following reservation in Dakota Territory:
Roll 4—Standing Rock
- An enumeration was completed for the following reservation in California:
Roll 5—Round Valley
1890 Census Report
The Report on Indians Taxed and Indians Not Taxed in the United States (Except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census, 1890 (1894) consists of statistical summaries followed by descriptions of each tribe. These descriptions are arranged by state and usually include the number of people on the reservation, the location of the reservation as well as a description of the schools, sources of income, health problems, and religion. Photographs of buildings and people are interspersed throughout. Information on individuals is very rare. The report is available in the Congressional Serial Set, serial volume 3016, as well as on microfilm.
1907 Census of Seminole County, Oklahoma
This census was taken pursuant to a Presidential directive ordering a census of the population of Indian Territory and the Territory of Oklahoma prior to their admittance to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. Only the schedules for Seminole County, in what was then Indian Territory, survive. Enumerators were to identify Indians by "In" in the color or race column. There is no name index for this census.
Additional resources on the National Archives web site: