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1910 Federal Population Censuses

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General Information

This catalog lists the Soundex/Miracode indexes for 21 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. These were the only states for which indexes were created for the 1910 census.

The catalog also includes the 1910 census schedules for all states, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and for military ships, stations, hospitals, and personnel assigned to the Philippines.

The microfilm cataloged here has been reproduced by the National Archives and Records Administration from the highest quality master negatives available from the Bureau of the Census. The original film includes defects that affect the legibility of some frames; the original schedules no longer exist.

This catalog supplements the "Federal Population Censuses, 1790-1890," the "1900 Federal Population Census," and the "1920 Federal Population Census" catalogs, which contain details for ordering copies of the population schedules for 1790-1920 and of the 1880-1920 Soundexes.

Printed versions of these catalogs can be ordered. For information about fees and the ordering of these catalogs, please contact Publications Distribution (NECD), National Archives, Room G9, Seventh and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408; telephone 1-866-272-6272.


Census Schedules

The 1910 census schedules record the following information for each person:

  • name
  • relationship to head of household
  • sex
  • color or race
  • age at last birthday
  • marital status
  • length of present marriage
  • if a mother, number of children and number of living children
  • place of birth
  • place of birth of parents
  • if foreign born, year of immigration and citizenship status
  • language spoken
  • occupation
  • type of industry employed in
  • if employer, employee, or self-employed
  • if unemployed
  • number of weeks unemployed in 1909
  • ability to read and write
  • if attended daytime school since September 1, 1909
  • if home is rented or owned
  • if home is owned, free, or mortgaged
  • if home is a house or a farm
  • if a survivor of Union or Confederate Army or Navy
  • if blind in both eyes
  • if deaf and dumb
  • .

The forms used to survey Indians also recorded the tribe and/or band.


Enumeration Districts (EDs)

Census schedules are arranged by state or territory, thereunder by county, and beginning in 1880 by enumeration district (ED). EDs were the areas that an enumerator covered in taking the census. To consult the schedules for a particular town, a minor civil division or geographical area, or a ward of a large city, you must know the enumeration district. National Archives Microfilm Publication T1224 describes ED boundaries as they were in 1910; present-day boundaries may not be the same.

Rolls 28-40 of "Descriptions of Census Enumeration Districts, 1830-1890 and 1910-1950" (Microfilm Publication T1224) identify the enumeration district number assigned within the state, county, and city for the 1910 census. The descriptions are arranged alphabetically by state and thereunder by supervisor's district, which is a large geographic area that covers several counties. The descriptions are then arranged by county and thereunder by township or city.

Researchers may also wish to refer to "Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts, 1910 Census" (Microfilm Publication M1283). These 50 microfiche cards contain an index to 39 large American cities in the 1910 census. A researcher who knows the subject's address will be able to use the "Cross Index" to find the ED number.



For the 1910 census, the Bureau of the Census created and filmed Soundex or Miracode index cards for the states listed above in General Information. With the exception of Louisiana, which used both, each state is indexed with either Soundex or Miracode as noted at the beginning of the state listing. The information on Soundex cards is handwritten; that on Miracode cards is printed.

Both indexes use the Soundex coding system, which is a coded surname (last name) index based on the way a surname sounds rather than how it is spelled. Surnames that sound the same but are spelled differently, like SMITH and SMYTH, have the same code and are filed together. The Soundex coding system was developed to find a surname even though it may have been recorded under various spellings. The National Archives has assigned a separate microfilm publication for each state and territory.

The Bureau of the Census used two separate Soundex cards, the "family card" and the "individual card." Both types of cards are arranged numerically by the Soundex code and then alphabetically by the first name of the head of the household on the family cards and the first name of the individual on the individual cards.

On the family card, below the coded surname at the top left, the surname and then first name of the head of the family ordinarily appear as recorded on the schedule. Other members of the family (wife, son, daughter) are then listed.

The individual card contains data on a person who (1) was not an immediate member of the family, or who (2) had a surname different from the head of family, or who (3) resided in an institution without a family.

The information on both Soundex and Miracode cards includes the surname, first name, state and county of residence, city (if appropriate), age, and place of birth. A Miracode card lists the family number or sometimes the visitation number assigned by the enumerator. The Soundex card lists the sheet or page number on the appropriate census schedule.

The Soundex Coding System

As stated above, both Soundex and Miracode use the Soundex coding system. Every code consists of a letter and three numbers, such as S-650. The letter is always the first letter of the surname, whether it is a vowel or a consonant. Disregard the remaining vowels and W, Y, and H, and assign numbers to the next three consonants of the surname according to the Soundex coding guide found below. If there are not three consonants following the initial letter, use zeros to fill out the three-digit code. For example, Lee would be coded as L-000.

Most surnames can be coded using the Soundex coding guide.

Code     Key Letters and Equivalents

 1       b, p, f, v

 2       c, s, k, g, j, q, x, z

 3       d, t

 4       l

 5       m, n

 6       r


Names with prefixes, double letters, or letters side by side that have the same number of the Soundex coding system as well as Native American, Asian, and female religious figure names are described below.

Names with Prefixes

If the surname has a prefix, such as van, Von, De, Di, or Le, code it both with and without the prefix because it might be listed under either code. The surname vanDevanter, for example, could be V-531 or D-153.

Mc and Mac are not considered prefixes.

Names with Double Letters

If the surname has any double letters, they should be treated as one letter. Thus, in the surname Lloyd, the second L should be crossed out; in the surname Gutierrez, the second R should be crossed out.

Names with Letters Side by Side That Have the Same Number on the Soundex Coding Guide

A surname may have different letters that are side by side and have the same number on the Soundex coding guide; for example, PF in Pfister (1 is the number for both P and F); CKS in Jackson (2 is the number for C, K, and S). These letters should be treated as one letter. Thus in the name Pfister, F should be crossed out; in the name Jackson, K and S should be crossed out.

Native American and Asian Names
A phonetically spelled Native American or Asian name was sometimes coded as if it were one continuous name. If a distinguishable surname was given, the name may have been coded in the normal manner. For example, Dances with Wolves might have been coded as Dances (D-522) or as Wolves (W-412), or the name Shinka-Wa-Sa may have been coded as Shinka (S-520) or Sa (S-000). If Soundex cards do not yield expected results, researchers should consider other surname spellings or variations on coding names.

Female Religious Figures
Nuns or other female religious figures with names such as Sister Veronica may have been members of households or heads of households or institutions where a child or children age 10 or under resided. Because many of these religious figures do not use a surname, the Soundexes frequently use the code S-236, for Sister, whether or not a surname exists.

Abbreviations and Terms Used in Soundex Cards

A ........ Aunt

Ad ....... Adopted

AdCl ..... Adopted child

AdD ...... Adopted daughter

AdGcl .... Adopted grandchild

AdM ...... Adopted mother

AdS ...... Adopted son

Al ....... Aunt-in-law

Ap ....... Apprentice

Asst ..... Assistant

At ....... Attendant

B ........ Brother

Bar ...... Bartender

BBoy ..... Bound boy

BGirl .... Bound girl

Bl ....... Brother-in-law

Bo ....... Boarder

Boy ...... Boy

Bu ....... Butler

C ........ Cousin

Cap ...... Captain

Cha ...... Chamber Maid

Cil ...... Cousin-in-law

Cl ....... Child

Coa ...... Coachman

Com ...... Companion

Cook ..... Cook

D ........ Daughter

Dl ....... Daughter-in-law

Dla ...... Day laborer

Dom ...... Domestic

Dw ....... Dish washer

Emp ...... Employee

En ....... Engineer

F ........ Father

FaH ...... Farm hand

FaL ...... Farm laborer

FaW ...... Farm worker

FB ....... Foster brother

FF ....... Foster father

Fi ....... Fireman

First C .. First cousin

FL ....... Father-in-law

FM ....... Foster mother

FoB ...... Foster brother

FoS ...... Foster son

FoSi ..... Foster sister

GA ....... Great aunt

Gcl ...... Grandchild

GD ....... Granddaughter

GF ....... Grandfather

GGF ...... Great-grandfather

GGGF ..... Great-great-grandfather

GGGM ..... Great-great-grandmother

GGM ...... Great-grandmother

GM ....... Grandmother

Gml ...... Grandmother-in-law   

GN ....... Grand or great nephew

GNi ...... Grand or great niece

Go ....... Governess

God Cl ... God child

GS ....... Grandson

Gsl ...... Grand son-in-law

GU ....... Great uncle

Gua ...... Guardian

Guest .... Guest

Hb ....... Half brother

Hbl ...... Half brother-in-law

He ....... Herder

Help ..... Help

H.Gi ..... Hired girl

Hh ....... Hired hand

Hk ....... Housekeeper

Hlg ...... Hireling

Hm ....... Hired man

HMaid .... Housemaid

HSi ...... Half sister

HSil ..... Half sister-in-law

Husband .. Husband

Hw ....... Houseworker

I ........ Inmate

L ........ Lodger

La ....... Laborer

Lau ...... Launderer

M ........ Mother

Maid ..... Maid

Man ...... Manager

Mat ...... Matron

ML ....... Mother-in-law

N ........ Nephew

Ni ....... Niece

Nil ...... Niece-in-law

Nl ....... Nephew-in-law

Nu ....... Nurse

O ........ Officer

P ........ Patient

Pa ....... Partner

Ph ....... Physician

Por ...... Porter

Pr ....... Prisoner

Pri ...... Principal

Prv ...... Private

Pu ....... Pupil

R ........ Roomer

S ........ Son

Sa ....... Sailor

Sal ...... Saleslady

Sb ....... Stepbrother

Sbl ...... Step brother-in-law

Scl ...... Step child

Sd ....... Stepdaugther

Sdl ...... Step daughter-in-law

Se ....... Servant

Se.Cl .... Servant's child

Sf ....... Stepfather

Sfl ...... Step father-in-law

Sgd ...... Step granddaughter

Sgs ...... Step grandson

Si ....... Sister

Sl ....... Son-in-law

Sm ....... Stepmother

Sml ...... Step mother-in-law

Ss ....... Stepson

Ssi ...... Stepsister

Ssil ..... Step sister-in-law

Ssl ...... Step son-in-law

Su ....... Superintendent

Ten ...... Tenant

U ........ Uncle

Ul ....... Uncle-in-law

Vi ....... Visitor

W ........ Wife

Wa ....... Warden

Wai ...... Waitress

Ward ..... Ward

Wkm ...... Workman

Wt ....... Waiter


Research Hints

— On the schedules, the enumerators sometimes transposed the number of the supervisor's district and the enumeration district (ED). The EDs and visitation numbers, however, remain in the correct numerical order.

— The Soundex/Miracode card is not always accurate. If you initially cannot find a person listed, the card may be out of order. If the person is not where he or she is listed to be, it may be necessary to read the entire page of the schedule, the entire enumeration district, or the entire county.

— Not everyone enumerated on the schedule is on the Soundex or Miracode indexes, as some names were missed by the indexer. In that case, it may be necessary to read the entire county.

— Many institutions, even if enumerated at their street addresses, are found at the end of the enumeration district.



Microfilm Availability and Access

Microfilmed copies of census records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, at NARA's regional archives, and at many large libraries and genealogical societies that have purchased all or some of the microfilm, and through purchase.

Ordering Paper Copies by Mail

The National Archives in Washington, DC, can provide paper copies of specifically identified pages of federal population census schedules through the mail. You can order online or use the NATF Form 82 (rev. 1990) and provide the following information: the name of the individual, the page number, census year, state, and county. For the 1880 through 1920 censuses, the enumeration district is also necessary.

Frequently it is possible to use a census index to locate this information. Many private firms have produced statewide indexes to census records for specific years. These generally are available throughout the country in National Archives regional archives and in libraries that have genealogical collections.

Buying the Microfilm

All microfilm publications of National Archives records are for sale. You can buy either individual rolls or a complete set. The prices as of May 15, 1996, are $34 a roll for domestic orders ($39 a roll for foreign orders) for positive film copies. The 1910 census schedules and indexes are only available on microfilm. Microfilm Publication M1283 is available on microfiche, which costs $4.25 per fiche for domestic orders and $4.65 a fiche for foreign orders. These prices are subject to change without advance notice. Shipping is included in these prices.

A check or money order made payable to the National Archives Trust Fund must accompany each order. Orders may also be charged to VISA or MasterCard accounts. Government agencies, educational institutions, and businesses may purchase microfilm on an accounts-receivable basis but must submit purchase orders.

FREE Publication FREE publications:
National Archives and Records Administration
Archives I Research Support Branch
700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20408-0001

866-272-6272 (toll-free)
or 202-357-5332

When ordering microfilm, please state the microfilm publication number; if you are not buying a complete set, also state the specific roll number(s) you wish to purchase.

If you need more information on how to order, details of specific shipping charges, or help identifying which rolls of a publication you wish to purchase, please contact Publications Distribution (NEDC), National Archives, Room G9, Seventh and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408; telephone 1-866-272-6272.

Microfilm Specifications

All microfilm sold through the National Archives microfilm publications program is silver-halide positive microfilm. Rolls are 35mm or 16mm reel microfilm on plastic reels. Reduction ratios range from 12.1 to 20.1; the number of frames on each reel varies. Microfiche are cards measuring 105mm by 148.75mm (approximately 4 by 6 inches). Reduction ratios range from 24:1 to 32:1; the number of images on each fiche varies.


Research Rooms

Positive microfilm copies of the 1910 census schedules can be found in the Microfilm Research Room in the National Archives Building, Seventh and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408, and in the research rooms of the National Archives regional archives:

Regional Archives System

For current information about hours of operation, please call the appropriate regional records services facility.

National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC

The National Archives at Boston
Areas Served: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont

The National Archives at New York City
Area Served: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands

The National Archives at Philadelphia
Area Served: Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

The National Archives at Atlanta
Area Served: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee

National Archives at Chicago
Area Served: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin

National Archives at Kansas City
Area Served: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska

The National Archives at Fort Worth
Area Served: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas

National Archives at Denver
Area Served: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming

The National Archives at Riverside
Area Served: Arizona; southern California counties of Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura; and Clark County, Nevada

The National Archives at San Francisco
Area Served: North California, Hawaii, Nevada (except Clark County), American Samoa, and the Pacific Ocean area

The National Archives at Seattle
Area Served: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington


National Archives Trust Fund Board
Washington, DC
Revised 1996