Preservation

Linked Open Data for Software and Code Formats

Software comprises a set of instructions that instruct a computer to perform one or more tasks. There are three general categories:

  • System software includes device drivers, operating systems (OSs), scripts, compilers, disk formatters, text editors and utilities helping the computer to operate.
  • Programming software is a set of tools to aid developers in writing programs.
  • Application software is intended to perform certain tasks. Examples of application software include office suites, gaming applications, database systems and educational software. Application software can be a single piece of code or a collection of programs.

Software used to create government records are not considered permanent records. Software or code that is an integral part of a record, such as something required for the functionality of a dataset that is a permanent record, or that was created as part of the work of government, have the potential to be permanent records.

The significant properties of software and code records are documented in a Software and Code Preservation Plan, which can be used as test criteria for tools and processes used in format transformations.

NARA makes its Linked Open Data available in the Resource Description Framework Terse RDF Triple Language, or RDF Turtle (.ttl files). These files can be opened in any text editor. The Digital Preservation Framework as Linked Open Data includes the same elements as are available in the version of the Preservation Plans on GitHub.

These Plans are not exhaustive nor universally applicable proposed actions and recommended or endorsed tools: these represent file formats and variant versions in NARA holdings, the current NARA risk assessment, processing capabilities, and tools in use at NARA.

 

Format NameFile Extension(s)Digital Preservation Framework Category/CategoriesNARA Format IDNARA Linked Open Data TTL
32-bit Portable Executable filepe|exe|apl|efi|ocx|sysSoftware and CodeNF00380https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00380.ttl.ttl
64-bit Portable Executable filepe|exe|apl|efi|ocx|sysSoftware and CodeNF00536https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00536.ttl.ttl
A86 assembler source code filea86Software and CodeNF00769https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00769.ttl.ttl
Adobe Localization FilezdctSoftware and CodeNF00537https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00537.ttl.ttl
Adobe Photoshop Duotone OptionsadoSoftware and CodeNF00697https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00697.ttl.ttl
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Adobe Font Metrics or Print Font Metrics Filepfm|afmSoftware and CodeNF00538https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00538.ttl.ttl
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Printer Font BinarypfbSoftware and CodeNF00386https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00386.ttl.ttl
Apple Macintosh Desktop Services StoreDS_STORESoftware and CodeNF00110https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00110.ttl.ttl
ASP.NET HTTP Handler FileaxdSoftware and CodeNF00735https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00735.ttl.ttl
Atari ST Self-extracting file archivetpSoftware and CodeNF00773https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00773.ttl.ttl
Backup Filebak|old|sb|bckSoftware and CodeNF00734https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00734.ttl.ttl
Batch Scriptbat|cmd|btmSoftware and CodeNF00134https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00134.ttl.ttl
Binary filebinSoftware and CodeNF00135https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00135.ttl.ttl
BlackBerry Binary ExecutablecodSoftware and CodeNF00702https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00702.ttl.ttl
C/C++/Objective-C Header Fileh|hpp|hxxSoftware and CodeNF00732https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00732.ttl.ttl
C# CodecsSoftware and CodeNF00138https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00138.ttl.ttl
Cascading Style Sheets 1.0cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00141https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00141.ttl.ttl
Cascading Style Sheets 2.0cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00543https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00543.ttl.ttl
Cascading Style Sheets 2.1cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00544https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00544.ttl.ttl
Cascading Style Sheets unspecified versioncssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00651https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00651.ttl.ttl
Checksum FilesumSoftware and CodeNF00411https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00411.ttl.ttl
Cold Fusion Component FilecfcSoftware and CodeNF00545https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00545.ttl.ttl
Cold Fusion Markup LanguagecfmSoftware and CodeNF00142https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00142.ttl.ttl
Command manualmanSoftware and CodeNF00725https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00725.ttl.ttl
Common Data Format ToolkitcdfSoftware and CodeNF00144https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00144.ttl.ttl
Compressed Archive FilearcSoftware and CodeNF00111https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00111.ttl.ttl
Compressed ARX file archivearxSoftware and CodeNF00774https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00774.ttl.ttl
Compressed Dynamic Link Library (DLL)dl_Software and CodeNF00691https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00691.ttl.ttl
Configuration Fileini|conf|cnf|cfg|cf|configSoftware and CodeNF00146https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00146.ttl.ttl
Custom Dictionary Filedct|dicSoftware and CodeNF00159https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00159.ttl.ttl
Data FiledatSoftware and CodeNF00151https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00151.ttl.ttl
Data List FilelstSoftware and CodeNF00710https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00710.ttl.ttl
Dictionary Lexicon FilelexSoftware and CodeNF00158https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00158.ttl.ttl
DVD Data Backup FilebupSoftware and CodeNF00166https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00166.ttl.ttl
DVD Data FiledvdSoftware and CodeNF00167https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00167.ttl.ttl
DVD Info FileifoSoftware and CodeNF00168https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00168.ttl.ttl
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Big Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00758https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00758.ttl.ttl
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Little Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00759https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00759.ttl.ttl
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Big Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00760https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00760.ttl.ttl
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Little Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00761https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00761.ttl.ttl
Executable fileexeSoftware and CodeNF00182https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00182.ttl.ttl
Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL)xfdlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00686https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00686.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.0xhtm|xhtmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00185https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00185.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.1xhtm|xhtmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00186https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00186.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Markup Language 1.0xmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00187https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00187.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Markup Language 1.1xmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00561https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00561.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Markup Language Document Type DefinitiondtdWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00162https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00162.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Markup Language SchemaxsdWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00188https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00188.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Markup Language unspecified versionxmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00654https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00654.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Style Language 1.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00190https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00190.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Style Language 2.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00562https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00562.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Style Language 3.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00563https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00563.ttl.ttl
eXtensible Style Language unspecified versionxsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00850https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00850.ttl.ttl
Flash Local Shared Object (LSO)solSoftware and CodeNF00690https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00690.ttl.ttl
GZIPgz|tgzSoftware and CodeNF00204https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00204.ttl.ttl
HTML ComponentshtcWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00775https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00775.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 1.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00567https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00567.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 1.1htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00568https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00568.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 2.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00569https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00569.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 3.2htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00570https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00570.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 4.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00571https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00571.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 4.01htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00572https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00572.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 5htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00573https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00573.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 5.1htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00574https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00574.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language 5.2htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00575https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00575.ttl.ttl
Hypertext Markup Language unspecified versionhtm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00208https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00208.ttl.ttl
IBM Voice Type/ViaVoice Scripts Data2|10Software and CodeNF00717https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00717.ttl.ttl
Include Header FileincSoftware and CodeNF00708https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00708.ttl.ttl
Information or Setup FileinfoSoftware and CodeNF00211https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00211.ttl.ttl
InstallShield installer archiveex_Software and CodeNF00712https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00712.ttl.ttl
Java Archive FilejarSoftware and CodeNF00215https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00215.ttl.ttl
Java Class (Compiled Object Code)classSoftware and CodeNF00576https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00576.ttl.ttl
Java Servlet ComponentdoSoftware and CodeNF00703https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00703.ttl.ttl
Java Source CodejavaSoftware and CodeNF00216https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00216.ttl.ttl
JavaScriptjsSoftware and CodeNF00217https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00217.ttl.ttl
Lock Filelck|lockSoftware and CodeNF00226https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00226.ttl.ttl
Log FilelogSoftware and CodeNF00227https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00227.ttl.ttl
Lotus 1-2-3 Spreadsheet Formatting file 3.0fm3Software and CodeNF00776https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00776.ttl.ttl
Macromedia Flash 5swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00580https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00580.ttl.ttl
Macromedia Flash 6swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00242https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00242.ttl.ttl
Macromedia Flash 7swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00243https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00243.ttl.ttl
Macromedia Flash projectflaDigital Video|Software and CodeNF00727https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00727.ttl.ttl
Macromedia Flash unspecified versionswfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00655https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00655.ttl.ttl
Memory Dump FiledmpSoftware and CodeNF00754https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00754.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Active Server PageaspSoftware and CodeNF00257https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00257.ttl.ttl
Microsoft ASP.NETaspxSoftware and CodeNF00583https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00583.ttl.ttl
Microsoft ASP.NET User Control FileascxSoftware and CodeNF00731https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00731.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Compiled HTML HelpchmSoftware and CodeNF00700https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00700.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Dynamic Link Librarydll|ocx|drvSoftware and CodeNF00169https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00169.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Font FilefonSoftware and CodeNF00719https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00719.ttl.ttl
Microsoft FrontPage Binary Tree IndexbtrSoftware and CodeNF00276https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00276.ttl.ttl
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Configuration Filefrontpg.ini|frontpg.cnfSoftware and CodeNF00277https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00277.ttl.ttl
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Lock Filefrontpg.lck|service.lckSoftware and CodeNF00584https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00584.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Office Personalized Settings FilepipSoftware and CodeNF00718https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00718.ttl.ttl
Microsoft OLE Compound FormatoleSoftware and CodeNF00343https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00343.ttl.ttl
Microsoft OLE2 Compound Formatole|ole2Software and CodeNF00585https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00585.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Type LibrarytlbSoftware and CodeNF00737https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00737.ttl.ttl
Microsoft Windows PowerShell Data Filepsd1Software and CodeNF00387https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00387.ttl.ttl
Microsoft WinHelphlpSoftware and CodeNF00698https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00698.ttl.ttl
OpenDocument Formulaodf|otfSoftware and CodeNF00346https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00346.ttl.ttl
OpenType Fontotf|ttfSoftware and CodeNF00601https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00601.ttl.ttl
OS/2 Change Control FilecinSoftware and CodeNF00351https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00351.ttl.ttl
Perl Source Code ScriptplSoftware and CodeNF00685https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00685.ttl.ttl
PGP Encrypted FilepgpSoftware and CodeNF00357https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00357.ttl.ttl
PHP ScriptphpSoftware and CodeNF00358https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00358.ttl.ttl
Portable Executable unspecified versionpe|efi|ocx|sys|aplSoftware and CodeNF00847https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00847.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.0pycSoftware and CodeNF00739https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00739.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.1pycSoftware and CodeNF00740https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00740.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.2pycSoftware and CodeNF00741https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00741.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.3pycSoftware and CodeNF00742https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00742.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.4pycSoftware and CodeNF00743https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00743.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.5pycSoftware and CodeNF00744https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00744.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.6pycSoftware and CodeNF00745https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00745.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.7pycSoftware and CodeNF00746https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00746.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.0pycSoftware and CodeNF00747https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00747.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.1pycSoftware and CodeNF00748https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00748.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.2pycSoftware and CodeNF00749https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00749.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.3pycSoftware and CodeNF00750https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00750.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.4pycSoftware and CodeNF00751https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00751.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.5pycSoftware and CodeNF00752https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00752.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.6pycSoftware and CodeNF00753https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00753.ttl.ttl
Python Compiled Bytecode unspecified versionpycSoftware and CodeNF00849https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00849.ttl.ttl
Python Source Code ScriptpySoftware and CodeNF00389https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00389.ttl.ttl
Qt Linguist Compiled Translation Source FileqmSoftware and CodeNF00730https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00730.ttl.ttl
ROM ImageromSoftware and CodeNF00736https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00736.ttl.ttl
Shared Object LibrarysoSoftware and CodeNF00724https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00724.ttl.ttl
Static Librarya|libSoftware and CodeNF00199https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00199.ttl.ttl
Structured Query LanguagesqlSoftware and Code|DatabasesNF00416https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00416.ttl.ttl
Tape Archive Format (TAR)tarSoftware and CodeNF00423https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00423.ttl.ttl
Temp filetmp|tempSoftware and CodeNF00424https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00424.ttl.ttl
TrueType FontttfSoftware and CodeNF00427https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00427.ttl.ttl
Uniform Resource Locator Shortcut FileurlSoftware and CodeNF00430https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00430.ttl.ttl
Unspecified encrypted or encoded (.enc) fileencSoftware and CodeNF00779https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00779.ttl.ttl
Verity Collection Index Descriptor Filepdd|ddd|did|wldSoftware and CodeNF00640https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00640.ttl.ttl
Visual FoxPro Class LibraryvcxSoftware and CodeNF00621https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00621.ttl.ttl
Windows Autorun Configuration Fileautorun.infSoftware and CodeNF00440https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00440.ttl.ttl
Windows Cabinet FilecabSoftware and CodeNF00445https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00445.ttl.ttl
Windows Catalog FilecatSoftware and CodeNF00676https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00676.ttl.ttl
Windows Installer PackagemsiSoftware and CodeNF00757https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00757.ttl.ttl
Windows New Executable fileexe|cpl|drv|scrSoftware and CodeNF00449https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00449.ttl.ttl
Windows Precompiled Setup InformationpnfSoftware and CodeNF00711https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00711.ttl.ttl
Windows Program Databasepdb|mksSoftware and CodeNF00677https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00677.ttl.ttl
Windows Registry Filesreg|datSoftware and CodeNF00630https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00630.ttl.ttl
Windows Setup Information FileinfSoftware and CodeNF00450https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00450.ttl.ttl
Windows ShortcutlnkSoftware and CodeNF00451https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00451.ttl.ttl
WinHelp File Table of ContentscntSoftware and CodeNF00756https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00756.ttl.ttl
ZIP archivezipSoftware and CodeNF00458https://www.archives.gov/files/lod/dpframework/id/NF00458.ttl.ttl
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