Linked Open Data for Software and Code Formats

Software comprises a set of instructions that instruct a computer to perform one or more tasks. There are three general categories:

  • System software includes device drivers, operating systems (OSs), scripts, compilers, disk formatters, text editors and utilities helping the computer to operate.
  • Programming software is a set of tools to aid developers in writing programs.
  • Application software is intended to perform certain tasks. Examples of application software include office suites, gaming applications, database systems and educational software. Application software can be a single piece of code or a collection of programs.

Software used to create government records are not considered permanent records. Software or code that is an integral part of a record, such as something required for the functionality of a dataset that is a permanent record, or that was created as part of the work of government, have the potential to be permanent records.

The significant properties of software and code records are documented in a Software and Code Preservation Plan, which can be used as test criteria for tools and processes used in format transformations.

NARA makes its Linked Open Data available in the Resource Description Framework Terse RDF Triple Language, or RDF Turtle (.ttl files). These files can be opened in any text editor. The Digital Preservation Framework as Linked Open Data includes the same elements as are available in the version of the Preservation Plans on GitHub.

These Plans are not exhaustive nor universally applicable proposed actions and recommended or endorsed tools: these represent file formats and variant versions in NARA holdings, the current NARA risk assessment, processing capabilities, and tools in use at NARA.


Format NameFile Extension(s)Digital Preservation Framework Category/CategoriesNARA Format IDNARA Linked Open Data TTL
32-bit Portable Executable filepe|exe|apl|efi|ocx|sysSoftware and CodeNF00380
64-bit Portable Executable filepe|exe|apl|efi|ocx|sysSoftware and CodeNF00536
A86 assembler source code filea86Software and CodeNF00769
Adobe Localization FilezdctSoftware and CodeNF00537
Adobe Photoshop Duotone OptionsadoSoftware and CodeNF00697
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Adobe Font Metrics or Print Font Metrics Filepfm|afmSoftware and CodeNF00538
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Printer Font BinarypfbSoftware and CodeNF00386
Apple Macintosh Desktop Services StoreDS_STORESoftware and CodeNF00110
ASP.NET HTTP Handler FileaxdSoftware and CodeNF00735
Atari ST Self-extracting file archivetpSoftware and CodeNF00773
Backup Filebak|old|sb|bckSoftware and CodeNF00734
Batch Scriptbat|cmd|btmSoftware and CodeNF00134
Binary filebinSoftware and CodeNF00135
BlackBerry Binary ExecutablecodSoftware and CodeNF00702
C/C++/Objective-C Header Fileh|hpp|hxxSoftware and CodeNF00732
C# CodecsSoftware and CodeNF00138
Cascading Style Sheets 1.0cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00141
Cascading Style Sheets 2.0cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00543
Cascading Style Sheets 2.1cssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00544
Cascading Style Sheets unspecified versioncssWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00651
Checksum FilesumSoftware and CodeNF00411
Cold Fusion Component FilecfcSoftware and CodeNF00545
Cold Fusion Markup LanguagecfmSoftware and CodeNF00142
Command manualmanSoftware and CodeNF00725
Common Data Format ToolkitcdfSoftware and CodeNF00144
Compressed Archive FilearcSoftware and CodeNF00111
Compressed ARX file archivearxSoftware and CodeNF00774
Compressed Dynamic Link Library (DLL)dl_Software and CodeNF00691
Configuration Fileini|conf|cnf|cfg|cf|configSoftware and CodeNF00146
Custom Dictionary Filedct|dicSoftware and CodeNF00159
Data FiledatSoftware and CodeNF00151
Data List FilelstSoftware and CodeNF00710
Dictionary Lexicon FilelexSoftware and CodeNF00158
DVD Data Backup FilebupSoftware and CodeNF00166
DVD Data FiledvdSoftware and CodeNF00167
DVD Info FileifoSoftware and CodeNF00168
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Big Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00758
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Little Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00759
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Big Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00760
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Little Endiano|elfSoftware and CodeNF00761
Executable fileexeSoftware and CodeNF00182
Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL)xfdlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00686
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.0xhtm|xhtmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00185
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.1xhtm|xhtmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00186
eXtensible Markup Language 1.0xmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00187
eXtensible Markup Language 1.1xmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00561
eXtensible Markup Language Document Type DefinitiondtdWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00162
eXtensible Markup Language SchemaxsdWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00188
eXtensible Markup Language unspecified versionxmlWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00654
eXtensible Style Language 1.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00190
eXtensible Style Language 2.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00562
eXtensible Style Language 3.0xsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00563
eXtensible Style Language unspecified versionxsl|xsltWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00850
Flash Local Shared Object (LSO)solSoftware and CodeNF00690
GZIPgz|tgzSoftware and CodeNF00204
HTML ComponentshtcWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00775
Hypertext Markup Language 1.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00567
Hypertext Markup Language 1.1htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00568
Hypertext Markup Language 2.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00569
Hypertext Markup Language 3.2htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00570
Hypertext Markup Language 4.0htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00571
Hypertext Markup Language 4.01htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00572
Hypertext Markup Language 5htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00573
Hypertext Markup Language 5.1htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00574
Hypertext Markup Language 5.2htm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00575
Hypertext Markup Language unspecified versionhtm|htmlWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00208
IBM Voice Type/ViaVoice Scripts Data2|10Software and CodeNF00717
Include Header FileincSoftware and CodeNF00708
Information or Setup FileinfoSoftware and CodeNF00211
InstallShield installer archiveex_Software and CodeNF00712
Java Archive FilejarSoftware and CodeNF00215
Java Class (Compiled Object Code)classSoftware and CodeNF00576
Java Servlet ComponentdoSoftware and CodeNF00703
Java Source CodejavaSoftware and CodeNF00216
JavaScriptjsSoftware and CodeNF00217
Lock Filelck|lockSoftware and CodeNF00226
Log FilelogSoftware and CodeNF00227
Lotus 1-2-3 Spreadsheet Formatting file 3.0fm3Software and CodeNF00776
Macromedia Flash 5swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00580
Macromedia Flash 6swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00242
Macromedia Flash 7swfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00243
Macromedia Flash projectflaDigital Video|Software and CodeNF00727
Macromedia Flash unspecified versionswfDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00655
Memory Dump FiledmpSoftware and CodeNF00754
Microsoft Active Server PageaspSoftware and CodeNF00257
Microsoft ASP.NETaspxSoftware and CodeNF00583
Microsoft ASP.NET User Control FileascxSoftware and CodeNF00731
Microsoft Compiled HTML HelpchmSoftware and CodeNF00700
Microsoft Dynamic Link Librarydll|ocx|drvSoftware and CodeNF00169
Microsoft Font FilefonSoftware and CodeNF00719
Microsoft FrontPage Binary Tree IndexbtrSoftware and CodeNF00276
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Configuration Filefrontpg.ini|frontpg.cnfSoftware and CodeNF00277
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Lock Filefrontpg.lck|service.lckSoftware and CodeNF00584
Microsoft Office Personalized Settings FilepipSoftware and CodeNF00718
Microsoft OLE Compound FormatoleSoftware and CodeNF00343
Microsoft OLE2 Compound Formatole|ole2Software and CodeNF00585
Microsoft Type LibrarytlbSoftware and CodeNF00737
Microsoft Windows PowerShell Data Filepsd1Software and CodeNF00387
Microsoft WinHelphlpSoftware and CodeNF00698
OpenDocument Formulaodf|otfSoftware and CodeNF00346
OpenType Fontotf|ttfSoftware and CodeNF00601
OS/2 Change Control FilecinSoftware and CodeNF00351
Perl Source Code ScriptplSoftware and CodeNF00685
PGP Encrypted FilepgpSoftware and CodeNF00357
PHP ScriptphpSoftware and CodeNF00358
Portable Executable unspecified versionpe|efi|ocx|sys|aplSoftware and CodeNF00847
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.0pycSoftware and CodeNF00739
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.1pycSoftware and CodeNF00740
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.2pycSoftware and CodeNF00741
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.3pycSoftware and CodeNF00742
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.4pycSoftware and CodeNF00743
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.5pycSoftware and CodeNF00744
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.6pycSoftware and CodeNF00745
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.7pycSoftware and CodeNF00746
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.0pycSoftware and CodeNF00747
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.1pycSoftware and CodeNF00748
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.2pycSoftware and CodeNF00749
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.3pycSoftware and CodeNF00750
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.4pycSoftware and CodeNF00751
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.5pycSoftware and CodeNF00752
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.6pycSoftware and CodeNF00753
Python Compiled Bytecode unspecified versionpycSoftware and CodeNF00849
Python Source Code ScriptpySoftware and CodeNF00389
Qt Linguist Compiled Translation Source FileqmSoftware and CodeNF00730
ROM ImageromSoftware and CodeNF00736
Shared Object LibrarysoSoftware and CodeNF00724
Static Librarya|libSoftware and CodeNF00199
Structured Query LanguagesqlSoftware and Code|DatabasesNF00416
Tape Archive Format (TAR)tarSoftware and CodeNF00423
Temp filetmp|tempSoftware and CodeNF00424
TrueType FontttfSoftware and CodeNF00427
Uniform Resource Locator Shortcut FileurlSoftware and CodeNF00430
Unspecified encrypted or encoded (.enc) fileencSoftware and CodeNF00779
Verity Collection Index Descriptor Filepdd|ddd|did|wldSoftware and CodeNF00640
Visual FoxPro Class LibraryvcxSoftware and CodeNF00621
Windows Autorun Configuration Fileautorun.infSoftware and CodeNF00440
Windows Cabinet FilecabSoftware and CodeNF00445
Windows Catalog FilecatSoftware and CodeNF00676
Windows Installer PackagemsiSoftware and CodeNF00757
Windows New Executable fileexe|cpl|drv|scrSoftware and CodeNF00449
Windows Precompiled Setup InformationpnfSoftware and CodeNF00711
Windows Program Databasepdb|mksSoftware and CodeNF00677
Windows Registry Filesreg|datSoftware and CodeNF00630
Windows Setup Information FileinfSoftware and CodeNF00450
Windows ShortcutlnkSoftware and CodeNF00451
WinHelp File Table of ContentscntSoftware and CodeNF00756
ZIP archivezipSoftware and CodeNF00458