Linked Open Data for Software and Code Formats

Software comprises a set of instructions that instruct a computer to perform one or more tasks. There are three general categories:

  • System software includes device drivers, operating systems (OSs), scripts, compilers, disk formatters, text editors and utilities helping the computer to operate.
  • Programming software is a set of tools to aid developers in writing programs.
  • Application software is intended to perform certain tasks. Examples of application software include office suites, gaming applications, database systems and educational software. Application software can be a single piece of code or a collection of programs.

Software used to create government records are not considered permanent records. Software or code that is an integral part of a record, such as something required for the functionality of a dataset that is a permanent record, or that was created as part of the work of government, have the potential to be permanent records.

The significant properties of software and code records are documented in a Software and Code Preservation Plan, which can be used as test criteria for tools and processes used in format transformations.

NARA makes its Linked Open Data available in the Resource Description Framework Terse RDF Triple Language, or RDF Turtle (.ttl files). These files can be opened in any text editor. The Digital Preservation Framework as Linked Open Data includes the same elements as are available in the version of the Preservation Plans on GitHub.

These Plans are not exhaustive nor universally applicable proposed actions and recommended or endorsed tools: these represent file formats and variant versions in NARA holdings, the current NARA risk assessment, processing capabilities, and tools in use at NARA.


Format NameDigital Preservation Framework Category/CategoriesNARA Format IDNARA Linked Open Data TTL
32-bit Portable Executable fileSoftware and CodeNF00380
64-bit Portable Executable fileSoftware and CodeNF00536
A86 assembler source code fileSoftware and CodeNF00769
Adobe Localization FileSoftware and CodeNF00537
Adobe Photoshop Duotone OptionsSoftware and CodeNF00697
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Adobe Font Metrics or Print Font Metrics FileSoftware and CodeNF00538
Adobe Type 1 PostScript Printer Font BinarySoftware and CodeNF00386
Apple Macintosh Desktop Services StoreSoftware and CodeNF00110
ASP.NET HTTP Handler FileSoftware and CodeNF00735
Atari ST Self-extracting file archiveSoftware and CodeNF00773
Backup FileSoftware and CodeNF00734
Batch ScriptSoftware and CodeNF00134
Binary fileSoftware and CodeNF00135
BlackBerry Binary ExecutableSoftware and CodeNF00702
C/C++/Objective-C Header FileSoftware and CodeNF00732
C# CodeSoftware and CodeNF00138
Cascading Style Sheets 1.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00141
Cascading Style Sheets 2.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00543
Cascading Style Sheets 2.1Web Records|Software and CodeNF00544
Cascading Style Sheets unspecified versionWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00651
Checksum FileSoftware and CodeNF00411
Cold Fusion Component FileSoftware and CodeNF00545
Cold Fusion Markup LanguageSoftware and CodeNF00142
Command manualSoftware and CodeNF00725
Common Data Format ToolkitSoftware and CodeNF00144
Compressed Archive FileSoftware and CodeNF00111
Compressed ARX file archiveSoftware and CodeNF00774
Compressed Dynamic Link Library (DLL)Software and CodeNF00691
Configuration FileSoftware and CodeNF00146
Custom Dictionary FileSoftware and CodeNF00159
Data FileSoftware and CodeNF00151
Data List FileSoftware and CodeNF00710
Dictionary Lexicon FileSoftware and CodeNF00158
DVD Data Backup FileSoftware and CodeNF00166
DVD Data FileSoftware and CodeNF00167
DVD Info FileSoftware and CodeNF00168
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Big EndianSoftware and CodeNF00758
Executable and Linkable Format 32-bit Little EndianSoftware and CodeNF00759
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Big EndianSoftware and CodeNF00760
Executable and Linkable Format 64-bit Little EndianSoftware and CodeNF00761
Executable fileSoftware and CodeNF00182
Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL)Web Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00686
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00185
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language 1.1Web Records|Software and CodeNF00186
eXtensible Markup Language 1.0Web Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00187
eXtensible Markup Language 1.1Web Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00561
eXtensible Markup Language Document Type DefinitionWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00162
eXtensible Markup Language SchemaWeb Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00188
eXtensible Markup Language unspecified versionWeb Records|Software and Code|Structured Data|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00654
eXtensible Style Language 1.0Web Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00190
eXtensible Style Language 2.0Web Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00562
eXtensible Style Language 3.0Web Records|Software and Code|Textual and Word ProcessingNF00563
Flash Local Shared Object (LSO)Software and CodeNF00690
GZIPSoftware and CodeNF00204
HTML ComponentsWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00775
Hypertext Markup Language 1.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00567
Hypertext Markup Language 1.1Web Records|Software and CodeNF00568
Hypertext Markup Language 2.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00569
Hypertext Markup Language 3.2Web Records|Software and CodeNF00570
Hypertext Markup Language 4.0Web Records|Software and CodeNF00571
Hypertext Markup Language 4.01Web Records|Software and CodeNF00572
Hypertext Markup Language 5Web Records|Software and CodeNF00573
Hypertext Markup Language 5.1Web Records|Software and CodeNF00574
Hypertext Markup Language 5.2Web Records|Software and CodeNF00575
Hypertext Markup Language unspecified versionWeb Records|Software and CodeNF00208
IBM Voice Type/ViaVoice Scripts DataSoftware and CodeNF00717
Include Header FileSoftware and CodeNF00708
Information or Setup FileSoftware and CodeNF00211
InstallShield installer archiveSoftware and CodeNF00712
Java Archive FileSoftware and CodeNF00215
Java Class (Compiled Object Code)Software and CodeNF00576
Java Servlet ComponentSoftware and CodeNF00703
Java Source CodeSoftware and CodeNF00216
JavaScriptSoftware and CodeNF00217
Lock FileSoftware and CodeNF00226
Log FileSoftware and CodeNF00227
Lotus 1-2-3 Spreadsheet Formatting file 3.0Software and CodeNF00776
Macromedia Flash 5Digital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00580
Macromedia Flash 6Digital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00242
Macromedia Flash 7Digital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00243
Macromedia Flash projectDigital Video|Software and CodeNF00727
Macromedia Flash unspecified versionDigital Video|Software and Code|Web RecordsNF00655
Memory Dump FileSoftware and CodeNF00754
Microsoft Active Server PageSoftware and CodeNF00257
Microsoft ASP.NETSoftware and CodeNF00583
Microsoft ASP.NET User Control FileSoftware and CodeNF00731
Microsoft Compiled HTML HelpSoftware and CodeNF00700
Microsoft Dynamic Link LibrarySoftware and CodeNF00169
Microsoft Font FileSoftware and CodeNF00719
Microsoft FrontPage Binary Tree IndexSoftware and CodeNF00276
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Configuration FileSoftware and CodeNF00277
Microsoft FrontPage Server Extension Lock FileSoftware and CodeNF00584
Microsoft Office Personalized Settings FileSoftware and CodeNF00718
Microsoft OLE Compound FormatSoftware and CodeNF00343
Microsoft OLE2 Compound FormatSoftware and CodeNF00585
Microsoft Type LibrarySoftware and CodeNF00737
Microsoft Windows PowerShell Data FileSoftware and CodeNF00387
Microsoft WinHelpSoftware and CodeNF00698
OpenDocument FormulaSoftware and CodeNF00346
OpenType FontSoftware and CodeNF00601
OS/2 Change Control FileSoftware and CodeNF00351
Perl Source Code ScriptSoftware and CodeNF00685
PGP Encrypted FileSoftware and CodeNF00357
PHP ScriptSoftware and CodeNF00358
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.0Software and CodeNF00739
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.1Software and CodeNF00740
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.2Software and CodeNF00741
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.3Software and CodeNF00742
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.4Software and CodeNF00743
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.5Software and CodeNF00744
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.6Software and CodeNF00745
Python Compiled Bytecode 2.7Software and CodeNF00746
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.0Software and CodeNF00747
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.1Software and CodeNF00748
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.2Software and CodeNF00749
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.3Software and CodeNF00750
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.4Software and CodeNF00751
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.5Software and CodeNF00752
Python Compiled Bytecode 3.6Software and CodeNF00753
Python Source Code ScriptSoftware and CodeNF00389
Qt Linguist Compiled Translation Source FileSoftware and CodeNF00730
ROM ImageSoftware and CodeNF00736
Shared Object LibrarySoftware and CodeNF00724
Static LibrarySoftware and CodeNF00199
Structured Query LanguageSoftware and Code|DatabasesNF00416
Tape Archive Format (TAR)Software and CodeNF00423
Temp fileSoftware and CodeNF00424
TrueType FontSoftware and CodeNF00427
Uniform Resource Locator Shortcut FileSoftware and CodeNF00430
Unspecified encrypted or encoded (.enc) fileSoftware and CodeNF00779
Verity Collection Index Descriptor FileSoftware and CodeNF00640
Visual FoxPro Class LibrarySoftware and CodeNF00621
Windows Autorun Configuration FileSoftware and CodeNF00440
Windows Cabinet FileSoftware and CodeNF00445
Windows Catalog FileSoftware and CodeNF00676
Windows Installer PackageSoftware and CodeNF00757
Windows New Executable fileSoftware and CodeNF00449
Windows Precompiled Setup InformationSoftware and CodeNF00711
Windows Program DatabaseSoftware and CodeNF00677
Windows Registry FilesSoftware and CodeNF00630
Windows Setup Information FileSoftware and CodeNF00450
Windows ShortcutSoftware and CodeNF00451
WinHelp File Table of ContentsSoftware and CodeNF00756
ZIP archiveSoftware and CodeNF00458